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Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24503, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125447


ABSTRACT: Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has greatly threatened global public health. The responsibility of healthcare-associated infection control professionals (ICPs) is to prevent and control the nosocomial infections. The mental health status of ICPs deserves more attention, however, the correlational research is still lacking. This study aims to investigate the incidence and risk factors of mental health status among ICPs in China during the outbreak of COVID-19.A national cross-sectional survey was performed. The online questionnaire was completed by 9228 ICPs from 3776 hospitals throughout China. Data collection tools were used, including demographics data questionnaire, the Chinese version of the 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Chinese version of the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ) for medical staff. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted.The total score of mental health of Chinese ICPs was 3.45 ±â€Š2.57. 5608 (60.77%) ICPs might have mental health problems. The psychological capital was in the upper-middle level with an average score of 3.72 ±â€Š0.38. An increased mental health problem risk was associated with the greater self-efficacy and working in the public hospital; a significantly lower risk was obtained by working in the second-class hospital rather than in the third-class hospitals. Besides, mental health problem risk of ICPs working in hospitals of the western economic region or northeast economic region was more significant than that in hospitals of the central economic region. However, a lower risk was caused by the unmarried than married, and working years in department ≤1 year contributed to the lower risk than that >20 years. Moreover, fewer working hours per week, higher values of hope, and optimism each were contributed to a lower risk.Chinese healthcare-associated ICPs were under different levels of mental health problems in fighting against COVID-19. More importantly, we should actively deal with the mental health problem of ICPs and help them get rid of psychological disorders.

COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Infection Control Practitioners , Infection Control , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Stress , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control Practitioners/psychology , Infection Control Practitioners/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/etiology , Occupational Stress/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
J Pathol ; 253(1): 17-30, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-802067


Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as the functional receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and a target for disease prevention. However, the relationship between ACE2 expression and its clinical implications in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we explored the location and expression of ACE2, and its correlation with gender, age, and cigarette smoke (CS), in a CS-exposed mouse model and 224 non-malignant lung tissues (125 non-smokers, 81 current smokers, and 18 ex-smokers) by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the correlations of ACE2 with CS-induced oxidative stress-related markers, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) were investigated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays identified the cause of ACE2 overexpression in human primary lung epithelial cells. We demonstrated that ACE2 was predominantly overexpressed on the apical surface of bronchial epithelium, while reduced in alveolar epithelium, owing to the dramatically decreased abundance of alveolar type II pneumocytes in CS-exposed mouse lungs. Consistent with this, ACE2 was primarily significantly overexpressed in human bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells in smokers regardless of age or gender. Decreased ACE2 expression was observed in bronchial epithelial cells from ex-smokers compared with current smokers, especially in those who had ceased smoking for more than 10 years. Moreover, ACE2 expression was positively correlated with the levels of HIF-1α, iNOS, and 4-HNE in both mouse and human bronchioles. The results were further validated using a publicly available dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and our previous integrated data from Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarray (AE-meta). Finally, our results showed that HIF-1α transcriptionally upregulates ACE2 expression. Our results indicate that smoking-induced ACE2 overexpression in the apical surface of bronchial epithelial cells provides a route by which SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells, which supports clinical relevance in attenuating the potential transmission risk of COVID-19 in smoking populations by smoking cessation. © 2020 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Alveolar Epithelial Cells/enzymology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bronchi/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Smoking/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Humans , Infant , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult