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1.
Natural Products Journal ; 13(1):1, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2197767
2.
Microbiology Spectrum ; : e0454222, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193585

ABSTRACT

Rapid and reliable diagnosis is important for the management of individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The rapid antigen detection test (RADT) is a rapid, inexpensive, and easy method. Several studies have reported that RADTs performed well in many countries;however, very few studies have been reported in China. In this study, we assessed the performance of the RADT (Ediagnosis COVID-19 antigen test kit). This study was conducted in a centralized isolation site in Shanghai and enrolled 716 patients with COVID-19 and 203 noninfected participants. Nasopharyngeal swabs from all participants were collected on the same day and tested using the RADT and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The performance of the RADT was evaluated in different scenarios, such as threshold cycle (CT) values, symptomatic phase, and symptoms on the day of testing. The results demonstrated that the sensitivity for patients with CT values lower than 20 was 96.55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.05 to 99.4). The sensitivities were 78.4% (95% CI, 69.96 to 85.05) for participants within 5 days after the first RT-PCR-positive result and 90.77% (95% CI, 80.34 to 96.19) within 5 days after symptom onset. Moreover, the sensitivity of the RADT was more than 80% for patients with symptoms on the day of testing, including fever (89.29%), cough (86.84%), stuffy nose (92.59%), runny nose (92%), sore throat (81.25%), and muscle pain (80.77%), especially for those with upper respiratory tract symptoms. The specificity of the RADT was good in all scenarios. During the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, Ediagnosis performed excellently in individuals with a higher viral load (evidenced by lower CT values), individuals in the early symptomatic phase, and especially those with upper respiratory tract symptoms. IMPORTANCE RADTs have demonstrated excellent performance in many counties for screening SARS-CoV-2 infection, but very few studies have been conducted in China. The performance of RADTs is largely related to different real-life scenarios. In our study, the performance of the RADT was evaluated in different scenarios, such as CT values, symptomatic phase, and symptoms on the day of testing. The results demonstrated that Ediagnosis (an RADT made in China) performed excellently for individuals with a higher viral load (evidenced by lower CT values), individuals in the early symptomatic phase, and especially those with upper respiratory tract symptoms.

3.
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2192095

ABSTRACT

Blood pressure (BP) is generally regarded as the vital sign most strongly correlated with human health. However, for decades, BP measurement has involved a cuff, which causes discomfort and even carries a risk of infection, given the current prevalence of COVID-19. Some studies address these problems using remote photoplethysmography (rPPG), which has shown great success in heart rate detection. Nevertheless, these approaches are not robust, and few have been evaluated with a sufficiently large dataset. We propose an rPPG-based BP estimation algorithm that predicts BP by leveraging the Windkessel model and hand-crafted waveform characteristics. A waveform processing procedure is presented for the rPPG signals to obtain a robust waveform template and thus extract BP-related features. Redundant and unstable features are eliminated via Monte Carlo simulation and according to their relationship with latent parameters in the Windkessel model. For a comprehensive evaluation, the Chiao Tung Blood Pressure (CTBP) dataset was constructed. The experiment was conducted over a four week period of time to evaluate the validity period of the personalization in our system. On all the data, the proposed method outperforms the benchmark algorithms and yields mean absolute errors of 6.48 mmHg and 5.06 mmHg for SBP and DBP, respectively. The performance achieves a “B”grade according to the validation protocol from the British Hypertension Society for both SBP and DBP. IEEE

4.
20th IEEE International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 20th IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 7th IEEE International Conference on Cloud and Big Data Computing, 2022 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Science and Technology Congress, DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191711

ABSTRACT

In recent years, with the increasing demand for public safety and the impact of pneumonia (Corona Virus Disease 2019, COVID-19), long-distance, contactless authentication has become a hot topic. Gait recognition technology has broad application prospect in computer vision field because of its ability of long-distance gait recognition and identification verification. On the other hand, with the development of big data, cloud computing, 5G, IoT and other technologies, which makes the Continuous authentication based on cameras is already possible. Therefore, we propose a continuous authentication system based on human pose estimation framework by analyzing and extracting gait characteristics. This system not only has the advantages of easy acquisition, long distance, contactless, and hard to disguise gait recognition, but also has the functions of dynamic authorization and continuous authentication, This method will bring a new development direction for the research of human pose estimation and gait recognition and other related fields. © 2022 IEEE.

5.
20th IEEE International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 20th IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 7th IEEE International Conference on Cloud and Big Data Computing, 2022 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Science and Technology Congress, DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191708

ABSTRACT

IoT devices that connect people without physical contact become more and more important after the COVID-19 impact. However, strange appearances and movements performed by IoT devices (interactive humanoid robots) cause human discomfort, so-called the uncanny valley, preventing widespread use of humanoid IoT devices. On the contrary, a Japanese traditional performing art named Ningyo Joruri (puppet theater) is recognized as a UNESCO intangible cultural heritage, and the sophisticated puppet motions and its unique music style somehow can avoid causing human discomfort even if the appearance of puppets is close enough to humans. One of the most important factors in empathizing humans with the puppet without uncomfortable is the modulation technique of both music tempo and motion speed known as Jo-Ha-Kyu. In this study, we analyzed Ningyo Joruri based on the Jo-Ha-Kyu mechanism, which is an art concept adopted in the puppet theater to interact with audiences according to modulation of the tempo. First, we obtained puppet movements using motion capture systems with the music. Second, we detected the changing tempo in Ningyo Joruri using the deep learning method to demonstrate the Jo-Ha-Kyu mechanism quantitatively. Finally, we showed the correlation of Jo-Ha-Kyu between Ningyo Joruri music and puppet manipulation techniques in the frequency domain using the Hilbert Huang transform. Our results revealed that low-frequency movements play an important role in synchronizing motion to the tempo of corresponding music, presenting novel knowledge to motion designers for humanoid robots IoT devices. © 2022 IEEE.

6.
Innov Aging ; 6(Suppl 1):319, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2188900

ABSTRACT

Background: The lockdown due to COVID-19 has influenced individuals' lives in many aspects. Yet, the impact of reopening under an ongoing pandemic is understudied. This study aims to investigate the impact of reopening policy on older Asian Americans' depressive symptoms and whether the impact varies by their sociodemographic characteristics.Method: We used interview data collected from 519 Chinese and Korean aged 60 and older in New York City between 5/23/2021 to 7/30/2021. Interrupted time series model was used to test whether there are significant level and slope changes in depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scale) before and after the reopening on 7/1/2021 in NYC. We then ran the models in stratified sample by gender, education, income, self-reported health, and social connectedness through living arrangements, use of technology, and social interactions. Results: Older Asians' depression increased immediately following the reopening (ß=1.52, p< 0.05), and then slowly decreased then after (ß=-0.12, p< 0.001). A decrease in depression following reopening was significantly associated with the male gender, good health, higher income, living alone, having received or provided social support, daily texting, and no engagement in the discussions related to COVID-19 in social media. Discussions: While reopening may have long-term benefits on mental health, older Asians were anxious about their safety at the beginning of reopening under an ongoing pandemic. Older adults with worse health, lower SES, and limited social connectedness struggled to adjust to "back-to-normal” life. We discussed research, policy, and practice implications to support these disadvantaged older adults after reopening.

7.
Chung-Hua Yu Fang i Hsueh Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine] ; 56(12):1795-1802, 2022.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201072

ABSTRACT

Objective: To trace and characterize the whole genome of SARS-CoV-2 of confirmed cases in the outbreak of COVID-19 on July 31, 2021 in Henan Province. Method: Genome-wide sequencing and comparative analysis were performed on positive nucleic acid samples of SARS-CoV-2 from 167 local cases related to the epidemic on July 31, 2021, to analyze the consistency and evolution of the whole genome sequence of virus.

8.
Science China Life sciences ; 29:29, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148933
9.
J Med Virol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2148396

ABSTRACT

Children are the high-risk group for COVID-19, and in need of vaccination. However, humoral and cellular immune responses of COVID-19 vaccine remain unclear in vaccinated children. To establish the rational immunization strategy of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine for children, the immunogenicity of either one dose or two doses of the vaccine in children was evaluated. A prospective cohort study of 322 children receiving inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was established in China. The baseline was conducted after 28 days of the first dose, and the follow-up was conducted after 28 days of the second dose. The median titers of RBD-IgG, and neutralizing antibody (NAb) against prototype strain and Omicron variant after the second dose increased significantly compared to those after the first dose (first dose: 70.0, [IQR, 30.0-151.0] vs second dose: 1261.0 [636.0-2060.0] for RBD-IgG;2.5 [2.5-18.6] vs 252.0 [138.6-462.1] for NAb against prototype strain;2.5 [2.5-2.5] vs 15.0 [7.8-26.5] for NAb against Omicron variant, all P <0.05). The flow cytometry results showed that the first dose elicited SARS-CoV-2 specific cellular immunity, while the second dose strengthened SARS-CoV-2 specific IL-2(+) or TNF-α(+) monofunctional, IFN-γ(+) TNF-α(+) bifunctional, and IFN-γ(-) IL-2(+) TNF-α(+) multifunctional CD4(+) T cell responses (P <0.05). Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 specific memory T cells were generated after the first vaccination, including the central memory T cells and effector memory T cells. The present findings provide scientific evidence for the vaccination strategy of inactive vaccine among children against COVID-19 pandemic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
2022 International Conference on System Science and Engineering, ICSSE 2022 ; : 121-126, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2161406

ABSTRACT

SpO2, also known as blood oxygen saturation, is a vital physiological indicator in clinical care. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, silent hypoxia has been one of the most serious symptoms. This symptom makes the patient's SpO2 drop to an extremely low level without discomfort and causes medical care delay for many patients. Therefore, regularly checking our SpO2 has become a very important matter. Recent work has been looking for convenient and contact-free ways to measure SpO2 with cameras. However, most previous studies were not robust enough and didn't evaluate their algorithms on the data with a wide SpO2 range. In this paper, we proposed a novel non-contact method to measure SpO2 by using the weighted K-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm. Five features extracted from the RGB traces, POS, and CHROM signals were used in the KNN model. Two datasets using different ways to lower the SpO2 were constructed for evaluating the performance. The first one was collected through the breath-holding experiment, which induces more motion noise and confuses the actual blood oxygen features. The second dataset was collected at Song Syue Lodge, which locates at an elevation of 3150 meters and has lower oxygen concentration in the atmosphere making the SpO2 drop between the range of 80% to 90% without the need of holding breath. The proposed method outperforms the benchmark algorithms on the leave-one-subject-out and cross-dataset validation. © 2022 IEEE.

11.
Qjm ; 09:09, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161159

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused several pandemic peaks worldwide due to its high variability and infectiousness, and COVID-19 has become a long-standing global public health problem. There is growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 frequently causes multi-organ injuries and more severe neurological manifestations. Therefore, increased awareness of possible neurological complications is beneficial in preventing and mitigating the impact of long-term sequelae and improving the prognostic outcome of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Here, we review the main pathways of SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion and the potential mechanisms causing neurological damage. We also discuss in detail neurological complications, aiming to provide cutting-edge basis for subsequent related basic research and clinical studies of diagnosis and treatment.

12.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons ; 235(5 Supplement 2):S70, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2113853

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ischemic necrosis of dermal flaps is a devastating complication of reconstructive surgery. The increasing prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and an aging population adds to this concern. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a master regulator of the adaptive response to hypoxia, controls the expression of angiogenic growth factors. The development of biologically active, gene-specific mRNAs, especially in COVID-19 vaccines, has shown the ability for intracellular protein expression. We sought to express HIF-1alpha through mRNA transfection and determined its biological activity by measuring the upregulation of selected downstream targets. Method(s): 5'-methyl-capped poly-A tailed mRNA was generated using T7 RNA polymerase and verified by gel electrophoresis. Predominant and variant HIF-1alpha mRNA were transfected into primary human dermal fibroblasts via Lipofectamine in triplicate, and RNA levels were assessed using RT-qPCR. All gene expression levels were normalized to beta-actin expression levels Results: At one day after transfection, the levels of HIF-1alpha transcript were significantly higher in the cells transfected with predominant (p = 0.0104) and variant (p = 0.0007) HIF-1alpha transcripts relative to the control. Additionally, the expression of HIF-1alpha transcription product genes VEGF (p = 0.0274) and ANG-1 (p = 0.05) were significantly higher in the cells transfected with the HIF-1alpha transcripts than the control. Conclusion(s): Our approach led to the successful transfection of HIF-1alpha mRNA into human fibroblasts, resulting in upregulation of HIF-1alpha downstream angiogenic targets. Thus, the use of biologically active HIF-1alpha mRNA transfection offers a promising approach to inhibit ischemic necrosis.

13.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083024

ABSTRACT

A series of lockdown measures in response to the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak resulted in a drop in anthropogenic emissions and changes in concentrations of PM2.5 and O-3. Backward trajectories analysis, cluster analysis, potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) technologies were conducted to reveal the characteristics and potential source areas of pollutants in Beijing before the COVID-19 outbreak (BCO period), during the outbreak (COB period) and after the outbreak (ACO period), as well as the contemporaneous period in 2019 (CCO period), which is critical for exploring the efficient control measures and making policy. The results indicated that despite the significant reduction in anthropogenic emissions during the epidemic, the PM2.5 concentrations increased by 1.0% caused by unfavorable meteorological conditions. O-3 concentrations increased by 174.8% compared to that during the BCO period due to the increased temperature and inappropriate precursor reduction ratios. A considerable decrease of NO3- in PM2.5 was observed under the influence of significant reductions in vehicle emissions during the lockdown. The cluster analysis revealed that short-range transport played a significant role in the accumulation of local PM2.5 pollution, while long-range northwest airflows contributed more to O-3 accumulation, and weakened as the season changed. The PSCF and CWT analysis demonstrated that potential source areas of PM2.5 were mostly located in the central and southern Hebei, the southwestern Shandong in the CCO period, and expanded to central Inner Mongolia and northern Shanxi in the COB period. These areas were highly compatible with the high emission areas of the emission inventory statistics. After the outbreak, the source areas of O-3 were centered in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and Shandong province, with a radial dispersion in all directions, while they were distributed in the central Mongolia and Inner Mongolia during the other periods.

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A841, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060704

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 3 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Due to a wide range of clinical presentations, central venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare neurologic condition that can be difficult to diagnose. Since the COVID-19 pandemic, more cases of venous thromboembolic events have emerged and been found associated with COVID-19. We detail a potential case of COVID-19 associated CVT. CASE PRESENTATION: A 28-year-old female with past medical history of obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, recurrent sinusitis, and presumed history of COVID-19 infection with anosmia, ageusia, and sinusitis symptoms three- months prior presented to the hospital with 1-month history of worsening, right-sided pain behind her ear, eye, head, posterior neck and shoulder, nausea, and photophobia, which had worsened in the last 5 days. She initially tried over-the-counter medications with no improvement. Vital signs were unremarkable. Examination was notable for frontal sinus and right postauricular tenderness to palpation. C- reactive protein was elevated at 26.2 mg/L. Non- contrasted brain computed tomography (CT) was concerning for right transverse sinus and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed early signs of cortical edema and venous infarction and findings concerning for right mastoiditis. Intracranial venous MRI showed complete thrombosis of the right transverse and sigmoid sinus, superior sagittal sinus, and most of the superior draining cortical veins. Heparin drip was started. Initial empiric antibiotics for mastoiditis were stopped. Hyper-coagulopathy work-up with beta- 2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies and phospholipid antibodies were negative. As there were no other inciting factors for CVT found and no history of positive COVID-19 test, a COVID-19 antibody immunoassay was obtained and returned positive. The patient did not have a history of COVID vaccination. She was discharged on warfarin and enoxaparin. Anticoagulation was stopped after 6 months with repeat imaging showing resolution of clot burden. DISCUSSION: Usual risk factors associated with CVT are morbid obesity, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use, hereditary thrombophilia, and pregnancy. Literature on CVT related to COVID-19 is limited. In 41 documented cases, the average age of incidence is 50 years old and median onset of neurological symptoms from initial COVID-19 diagnosis is 7 days [0 to 21 days]. Our patient's neurological symptoms began about 3 months after her initial diagnosis, potentially making it the first known case of COVID-19 associated CVT with symptom onset past 21 days. Anticoagulation is the mainstay treatment for CVT, and duration depends on the presence of provoking factor. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with new neurologic symptoms and recent diagnosis of COVID-19, CVT should be considered in the differential diagnosis as it can initially present in a subtle manner. Early recognition could improve patient morbidity and mortality. Reference #1: Abdalkader, M., Shaikh, S. P., Siegler, J. E., Cervantes-Arslanian, A. M., Tiu, C., Radu, R. A., Tiu, V. E., Jillella, D. v., Mansour, O. Y., Vera, V., Chamorro, Á., Blasco, J., López, A., Farooqui, M., Thau, L., Smith, A., Gutierrez, S. O., Nguyen, T. N., Jovin, T. G. (2021). Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in COVID-19 Patients: A Multicenter Study and Review of Literature. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105733 Reference #2: Idiculla, P. S., Gurala, D., Palanisamy, M., Vijayakumar, R., Dhandapani, S., Nagarajan, E. (2020). Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: A Comprehensive Review. European Neurology (Vol. 83, Issue 4). https://doi.org/10.1159/000509802 Reference #3: Ostovan VR, Foroughi R, Rostami M, et al. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with COVID-19: a case series and literature review. Journal of Neurology. 2021 Oct;268(10):3549-3560. DOI: 10.1007/s00415-021-10450-8. PMID: 33616740;PMCID: PMC7897893. DI CLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Shu Xian Lee No relevant relationships by Arif Sarwari No relevant relationships by Benita Wu

15.
Australian Journal of Primary Health ; 28(4):xliv, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058253

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has created social and medical disruptions to the Australian community. The introduction of telehealth Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) item numbers in early March 2020 has shifted mental health consultations from face-to-face to telehealth. There is a literature gap pertaining to the ongoing trends that extend past the initial 'first wave' of the pandemic in the context of an Australian landscape. Aim/Objective: To describe the pattern of mental health care consultations in a university-based general practice in Sydney, specifically, the distribution of face-to-face, telephone and tele-video consultations, according to the change in socio-political landscape and lockdowns. The secondary aim is to explore the effect of age, ethnicity, birth sex and student status, and the severity of patient symptoms via K10/DASS21 scores. Method(s): Retrospective data will be obtained from records of 456 patients attending a university-based general practice in Sydney, Australia between four different 35-day time periods: baseline pre- COVID-19 (1st February 2019 to 8th March 2019);first COVID-19 lockdown (31st March 2020 to 5th May 2020);second COVID-19 lockdown (20th August 2021 to 24th September 2021);post COVID-19 lockdown (1st February 2022 to 8th March 2022). Attendances will be defined by mental health MBS codes that correspond to mental health consultations, mental health care plans, and mental health care plan reviews, for face-to-face, telephone and tele-video consultations. K10/DASS21 scores will also be obtained. Statistical analysis will be performed using the two-sample t-test on SPSS. Finding(s): Data analysis is currently in progress. Results will be available by July 2022. Implications: Given the recent temporary telehealth extension announced by the Australian Government on 16th January 2022, the findings of our study will illustrate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health consultations in various subgroups and provide additional data for policymakers to facilitate further examination in continuing MBS subsidisation.

16.
7th International Conference on Distance Education and Learning, ICDEL 2022 ; : 20-28, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2020430

ABSTRACT

Object: this research aims to organize, evaluate, improve and supervise college students' comprehensive English ability and learning autonomy through mobile and digital learning activities and management. Method: this research applied Task-based English Teaching and Itest System to improve students' learning autonomy and English ability by launching exercise tasks of 4 different English skills every weekday, such as writing, translation, reading and listening. Various learning data was recorded by Itest System everyday as an accordance for guiding and supervising students learning activity, and a means of the mobilization and digitization of the task, feedback and incentive mechanisms. Result:the pass rate of the exercises launched by Itest system is high at the beginning and ending of a semester and every Monday, while it's pretty low in the mid-term of a semester and every Friday. Moreover, the improvement effect of the 4 different English skills is different, and the progress of the 952 students' listening and translation is more obvious. Conclusion: the educational mechanism in this research is effective in improving the English translation and listening skills of the freshmen in college. Digitized management can clarify blind areas in students' learning activities, and locate students' problems and problematic students. Mobile English teaching can minimize close contact, but its disciplinary constriction to a few students needs the assistance of college counselor. Students' learning autonomy is low at the mid-term of a semester and on every Friday, which requires more management force. © 2022 ACM.

17.
Behaviour Change ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2004706

ABSTRACT

Research has demonstrated that life transitions lead to heightened experiences of loneliness, in part because they engender isolation. We tested whether the degree of isolation during a transition influences loneliness, and if this is due to their effects on social identity processes. Employing an experimental paradigm, Study 1 (N = 213) found that when the transition involved isolation from new networks, in this case studying at university online as opposed to in person, it led to more loneliness, and this was mediated through reduced social identification and continuity of group memberships. Study 2 (N = 215) replicated these effects using a different experimental paradigm in which the transition involved isolation from old group memberships, namely moving to a new neighbourhood from interstate. Study 3 (N = 2346) employed a quasi-experimental repeated-measures design to assess the impact of a highly isolating life transition on loneliness-COVID lockdown. Australians in prolonged lockdown experienced increases in loneliness and this was mediated through (lack of) continuity of group memberships. Overall, these results suggest that isolation needs to be considered when assessing the impact of life transitions on loneliness. Moreover, the mediation results indicate that isolating transitions may be responsible for loneliness because these make it difficult to maintain crucial group memberships and form a sense of identification with relevant new groups.

18.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (China) ; 42(4):245-250, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928717

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the genome characteristics and variations in nucleotides and amino acids of SARS-CoV-2 causing an outbreak in Henan Province in November 2021 and perform the traceability analysis.Methods In this study, throat swab specimens from cases in the acute phase were collected and tested for the nucleic acids of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time fluorescent RT-PCR.SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-positive samples were subjected to high-throughput genome sequencing and whole-genome alignment analysis.Results The median Ct values of ORF1ab gene and N gene in 70 positive specimens was 26.41 (15.58 to 39.27) and 24.43 (12.04 to 39.74), respectively.Compared with the sequence of Wuhan-Hu(NC_045512) reference strain, 47 to 49 nucleotide mutations sharing 47 nucleotide mutation and 41 amino acid mutations were found in 63 strains of successfully sequenced SARS-CoV-2.Nine nucleotide mutations and 12 amino acid mutations were found in the spike protein.The index case shared 47 mutations with the Russian imported cases in Henan Province on October 14 and the local cases in Jiangxi Province in October.Moreover, their genomes were highly homologous and they all belonged to the Delta variant (AY.122 evolutionary branch).Conclusions Continuous monitoring of imported COVID-19 cases and prolonging the period of quarantine were needed to reduce the risk of local outbreak and epidemic caused by imported COVID-19 cases.Analysis of the genomic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and the variations in nucleotides and amino acids was conducive to trace the origin of COVID-19 outbreak quickly and provide reference for precise control.

19.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S289-S289, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1905457
20.
Isprs International Journal of Geo-Information ; 11(4):15, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820289

ABSTRACT

Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global pandemic, but the prevention and control of the disease in various countries have also entered the normalization stage. To achieve economic recovery and avoid a waste of resources, different regions have developed prevention and control strategies according to their social, economic, and medical conditions and culture. COVID-19 disparities under the interaction of various factors, including interventions, need to be analyzed in advance for effective and precise prevention and control. Considering the United States as the study case, we investigated statistical and spatial disparities based on the impact of the county-level social vulnerability index (SVI) on the COVID-19 infection rate. The county-level COVID-19 infection rate showed very significant heterogeneity between states, where 67% of county-level disparities in COVID-19 infection rates come from differences between states. A hierarchical linear model (HLM) was adopted to examine the moderating effects of state-level social distancing policies on the influence of the county-level SVI on COVID-19 infection rates, considering the variation in data at a unified level and the interaction of various data at different levels. Although previous studies have shown that various social distancing policies inhibit COVID-19 transmission to varying degrees, this study explored the reasons for the disparities in COVID-19 transmission under various policies. For example, we revealed that the state-level restrictions on the internal movement policy significantly attenuate the positive effect of county-level economic vulnerability indicators on COVID-19 infection rates, indirectly inhibiting COVID-19 transmission. We also found that not all regions are suitable for the strictest social distancing policies. We considered the moderating effect of multilevel covariates on the results, allowing us to identify the causes of significant group differences across regions and to tailor measures of varying intensity more easily. This study is also necessary to accomplish targeted preventative measures and to allocate resources.

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