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1.
Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry ; 93(9), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005419
2.
Radiotherapy and Oncology ; 163:S50-S51, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1747457

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To report the degree to which post-graduate trainees in radiation oncology perceive their education has been impacted by COVID-19. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was administered in June 2020 to trainee members of Canadian Association of Radiation Oncology (CARO). The 82-item survey was adapted from a similar survey administered during SARS and included the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction and Ways of Coping Questionnaires. The survey was developed using best practices including expert review and cognitive pre-testing. Frequency statistics are reported. Results: Thirty-four trainees (10 fellows, 24 residents) responded. Nearly half of participants indicated that the overall impact of COVID-19 on training was negative/very negative (n=15;46%) or neutral (n=15;46%) with a small number indicating a positive/very positive (n=3;9%). Majority of trainees agreed/ strongly agreed with the following statements: “I had difficulty concentrating on tasks because of concerns about COVID-19” (n=17;52%), “I had fears about contracting COVID-19” (n=17;52%), “I had fears of family/loved ones contracting COVID-19” (n= 29;88%), “I felt socially isolated from friends and family because of COVID-19” (n=23;70%), “I felt safe from COVID-19 in the hospital during my clinical duties“ (n=15;46%), and “I was concerned that my personal safety was at risk if/when I was redeployed from my planned clinical duties” (n=20;61%). The changes that had a negative/very negative impact on learning included “the impact of limited patient contact” (n=19;58%), “the impact of virtual patient contact” (n=11;33%), and “limitations to travel and networking” (n=31;91%). Most reported reduced teaching from staff (n=22;66%). Two-thirds of trainees (n=22, 67%) reported severe (>50%) reduction in ambulatory clinical activities, 16 (49%) reported a moderate (<50%) reduction in new patient consultations, while virtual follow-ups (n=25: 76%) and in-patient clinical care activities (n=12;36%) increased. Nearly half of respondents reported no impact on contouring (n=16;49%), on-treatment management (n=17;52%) and tumour boards (n=14;42%) with the majority of other respondents reporting a decrease in these activities. Electives were cancelled in province (n=10/20;50%), out-of-province (n=16/20;80%) and internationally (n=15/18;83%). Conclusions: Significant changes to radiation oncology training were wrought by the COVID-19 pandemic and roughly half of trainees perceive that these changes had a negative impact on their training. Safety concerns for self and family were significant and strategies to mitigate these concerns should be a priority.

3.
Science ; 372(6544):815-821, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1735994

ABSTRACT

Cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Manaus, Brazil, resurged in late 2020 despite previously high levels of infection. Genome sequencing of viruses sampled in Manaus between November 2020 and January 2021 revealed the emergence and circulation of a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern. Lineage P.1 acquired 17 mutations, including a trio in the spike protein (K417T, E484K, and N501Y) associated with increased binding to the human ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor. Molecular clock analysis shows that P.1 emergence occurred around mid-November 2020 and was preceded by a period of faster molecular evolution. Using a two-category dynamical model that integrates genomic and mortality data, we estimate that P.1 may be 1.7- to 2.4-fold more transmissible and that previous (non-P.1) infection provides 54 to 79% of the protection against infection with P.1 that it provides against non-P.1 lineages. Enhanced global genomic surveillance of variants of concern, which may exhibit increased transmissibility and/or immune evasion, is critical to accelerate pandemic responsiveness.

4.
MEDLINE;
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-326624

ABSTRACT

Cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Manaus, Brazil, resurged in late 2020, despite high levels of previous infection there. Through genome sequencing of viruses sampled in Manaus between November 2020 and January 2021, we identified the emergence and circulation of a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, lineage P.1, that acquired 17 mutations, including a trio in the spike protein (K417T, E484K and N501Y) associated with increased binding to the human ACE2 receptor. Molecular clock analysis shows that P.1 emergence occurred around early November 2020 and was preceded by a period of faster molecular evolution. Using a two-category dynamical model that integrates genomic and mortality data, we estimate that P.1 may be 1.4-2.2 times more transmissible and 25-61% more likely to evade protective immunity elicited by previous infection with non-P.1 lineages. Enhanced global genomic surveillance of variants of concern, which may exhibit increased transmissibility and/or immune evasion, is critical to accelerate pandemic responsiveness. One-Sentence Summary: We report the evolution and emergence of a SARS-CoV-2 lineage of concern associated with rapid transmission in Manaus.

5.
IISE Annual Conference and Expo 2021 ; : 73-78, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1589808

ABSTRACT

Epidemic disease outbreaks are among the major threats to the sustenance and health of human societies, as evidenced by the crises caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Many people have lost their lives because of this pandemic, and the impact of it on the global economy has also been severe. Modeling the infectious disease outbreak in search of the set of optimal strategies to control the epidemics can help the public health policy makers to better decide and design relevant policies. In this study, spatial games under public goods policies are used to model the social response of different interacting populations to a new epidemic, where the decision makers are not individuals but societies. This approach is of great importance for policy evaluation, since there are usually not just individuals who decide to change their behavior in response to an epidemic, but societies who affect the change of individuals behaviors by setting relevant health policies, standards and regulations. © 2021 IISE Annual Conference and Expo 2021. All rights reserved.

6.
Radiotherapy and Oncology ; 163:S9-S9, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1548718
7.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics ; 111(3):E187-E187, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1529316
8.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics ; 111(3, Supplement):e187, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1474628

ABSTRACT

Purpose/Objective(s) To report the degree to which post-graduate trainees in radiation oncology perceive their education has been impacted by COVID-19. Materials/Methods A cross-sectional online survey was administered in June 2020 to trainee members of Canadian Association of Radiation Oncology (CARO). The 82-item survey was adapted from a similar survey administered during SARS and included the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction and Ways of Coping Questionnaires. The survey was developed using best practices including expert review and cognitive pre-testing. Frequency statistics are reported. Results Thirty-four trainees (10 fellows, 24 residents) responded. Nearly half of participants indicated that the overall impact of COVID-19 on training was negative/very negative (n = 15;46%) or neutral (n = 15;46%) with a small number indicating a positive/very positive (n = 3;9%). Majority of trainees agreed/strongly agreed with the following statements: “I had difficulty concentrating on tasks because of concerns about COVID-19” (n = 17;52%), “I had fears about contracting COVID-19” (n = 17;52%), “I had fears of family/loved ones contracting COVID-19” (n = 29;88%), “I felt socially isolated from friends and family because of COVID-19” (n = 23;70%), “I felt safe from COVID-19 in the hospital during my clinical duties“ (n = 15;46%), and “I was concerned that my personal safety was at risk if/when I was redeployed from my planned clinical duties” (n = 20;61%). The changes that had a negative/very negative impact on learning included “the impact of limited patient contact” (n = 19;58%), “the impact of virtual patient contact” (n = 11;33%), and “limitations to travel and networking” (n = 31;91%). Most reported reduced teaching from staff (n = 22;66%). Two-thirds of trainees (n = 22, 67%) reported severe (> 50%) reduction in ambulatory clinical activities, 16 (49%) reported a moderate (< 50%) reduction in new patient consultations, while virtual follow-ups (n = 25: 76%) and in-patient clinical care activities (n = 12;36%) increased. Nearly half of respondents reported no impact on contouring (n = 16;49%), on-treatment management (n = 17;52%) and tumor boards (n = 14;42%) with the majority of other respondents reporting a decrease in these activities. Electives were cancelled in province (n = 10/20;50%), out-of-province (n = 16/20;80%) and internationally (n = 15/18;83%). Conclusion Significant changes to radiation oncology training were wrought by the COVID-19 pandemic and roughly half of trainees perceive that these changes had a negative impact on their training. Safety concerns for self and family were significant and strategies to mitigate these concerns should be a priority.

9.
Comput Educ ; 168: 104211, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171166

ABSTRACT

Amid the coronavirus outbreak, many countries are facing a dramatic situation in terms of the global economy and human social activities, including education. The shutdown of schools is affecting many students around the world, with face-to-face classes suspended. Many countries facing the disastrous situation imposed class suspension at an early stage of the coronavirus outbreak, and Asia was one of the earliest regions to implement live online learning. Despite previous research on online teaching and learning, students' readiness to participate in the real-time online learning implemented during the coronavirus outbreak is not yet well understood. This study explored several key factors in the research framework related to learning motivation, learning readiness and student's self-efficacy in participating in live online learning during the coronavirus outbreak, taking into account gender differences and differences among sub-degree (SD), undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) students. Technology readiness was used instead of conventional online/internet self-efficacy to determine students' live online learning readiness. The hypothetical model was validated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results revealed no statistically significant differences between males and females. On the other hand, the mean scores for PG students were higher than for UG and SD students based on the post hoc test. We argue that during the coronavirus outbreak, gender differences were reduced because students are forced to learn more initiatively. We also suggest that students studying at a higher education degree level may have higher expectations of their academic achievement and were significantly different in their online learning readiness. This study has important implications for educators in implementing live online learning, particularly for the design of teaching contexts for students from different educational levels. More virtual activities should be considered to enhance the motivation for students undertaking lower-level degrees, and encouragement of student-to-student interactions can be considered.

10.
Journal of Manufacturing Systems ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1091761

ABSTRACT

New product development to enhance companies’ competitiveness and reputation is one of the leading activities in manufacturing. At present, achieving successful product design has become more difficult, even for companies with extensive capabilities in the market, because of disorganisation in the fuzzy front end (FFE) of the innovation process. Tremendous amounts of information, such as data on customers, manufacturing capability, and market trend, are considered in the FFE phase to avoid common flaws in product design. Because of the high degree of uncertainties in the FFE, multidimensional and high-volume data are added from time to time at the beginning of the formal product development process. To address the above concerns, deploying big data analytics to establish industrial intelligence is an active but still under-researched area. In this paper, an intelligent product design framework is proposed to incorporate fuzzy association rule mining (FARM) and a genetic algorithm (GA) into a recursive association-rule-based fuzzy inference system to bridge the gap between customer attributes and design parameters. Considering the current incidence of epidemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, communication of information in the FFE stage may be hindered. Through this study, a recursive learning scheme is established, therefore, to strengthen market performance, design performance, and sustainability on product design. It is found that the industrial big data analytics in the FFE process achieve greater flexibility and self-improvement mechanism on the evolution of product design.

11.
26th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, KDD 2020 ; : 3519-3520, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1017145

ABSTRACT

The whole globe has cranked up for coping with the COVID-19 situation. The hands-on tutorial targets at providing a comprehensive and pragmatic end-to-end walk-through for building an academic research paper recommender for the use case of COVID-19 related study, with the help of knowledge graph technology. The code examples that demonstrate the theories are reproducible and can hopefully provide value for researchers to build tools that support conducting research to find a cure to COVID-19. © 2020 Owner/Author.

12.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(8): 659-664, 2020 Aug 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691351

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the causes of death in patients with severe COVID-19. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 64 patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital from January 12, 2020 to February 28, 2020. There were 36 males and 28 females, aging from 44 to 85 years[median 68 (62, 72)]. Fifty-two patients (81%) had underlying comorbidities. The patients were divided into the death group (n=40) and the survival group (n=24) according to the treatment outcomes. In the death group, 24 were male, and 16 were female, aging from 49 to 85 years [median 69 (62, 72)], with 31 cases (78%) complicated with underlying diseases. In the survival group, there were 12 males and 12 females, aging from 44 to 82 years[median 66 (61,73)], with 21 cases (88%) with comorbidities. Clinical data of the two groups were collected and compared, including general information, laboratory examinations, imaging features and treatments. For normally distributed data, independent group t test was used; otherwise, Mann Whitney test was used to compare the variables. χ(2) test and Fisher exact test was used when analyzing categorical variables. Results: The median of creatine kinase isozyme (CK-MB) in the death group was 19.0 (17.0,23.0) U/L, which was higher than that in the survival group 16.5 (13.5,19.6) U/L. The median level of cTnI in the death group was 0.03 (0.03, 0.07) µg/L, which was significantly higher than that in the survival group (0.02, 0.03) µg/L, with a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P=0.007). The concentration of myoglobin in the death group was 79.5 (28.7, 189.0) µg/L, which was higher than 33.1 (25.7, 54.5) µg/L in the survival group. The level of D-dimer in the death group was 2.0 (0.6, 5.2) mg/L, which was higher than 0.7 (0.4, 2.0) mg/L in the survival group. The LDH level of the death group was 465.0 (337.5,606.5) U/L, which was higher than that of the survibal group, 341.0 (284.0,430.0) U/L, the difference being statistically significant (P=0.006). The concentration of alanine aminotransferase in the death group was 40.0 (30.0, 48.0) U/L, which was higher than 32.5 (24.0, 40.8) U/L in the survival group, and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.047).Abnormal ECG was found in 16 cases (62%) in the death group, which was significantly higher than that in the survival group (29%), the difference being statistically significant (P=0.024) .The main causes of death were severe pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, n=20), acute heart failure(n=9), atrial fibrillation(n=3) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, n=3). Conclusions: ARDS caused by severe pneumonia and acute heart failure and atrial fibrillation caused by acute viral myocarditis were the main causes of death in severe COVID-19 patients. Early prevention of myocardial injury and treatment of acute viral myocarditis complicated with disease progression may provide insights into treatment and reduction of mortality in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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