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2.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(4): 490-500, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218641

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status has been defined as an individual's health condition. The relationship between the progression of COVID-19 and Nutritional status is still unclear. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of 342 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, and analyzed the relationship between the progression of COVID-19 and Nutritional status. METHODOLOGY: 342 COVID-19 were enrolled from ten different hospitals in China. The clinical characteristics were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: The body mass index (BMI) of the mild patients (Group A) was higher than those in severe patients (Group B) and critical patients (Group C); The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level of Group A was lower than those of the other two groups; Sex, age, and BMI, was strongly correlated with Clinical classification (CT); Among the laboratory test results, Neutrophil (NEU%), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), LDH, and blood glucose (BG) were positively correlated with CT; Lymphocyte ( LYM%), Platelet (PLT), Albumin (ALB), and Creatinine (Cr) were negatively correlated with CT. BMI, NEU%, LYM%, ALB, Cr, and PLT are all protective factors that affect CT. CONCLUSION: People with poor nutritional status (lower BMI and ALB) have a higher risk of developing severe disease after infection with SARS-CoV-2. In the clinical treatment of COVID-19, individualized nutritional support is very important for the rehabilitation of patients.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 778-785, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major healthcare threat. The current method of detection involves a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based technique, which identifies the viral nucleic acids when present in sufficient quantity. False-negative results can be achieved and failure to quarantine the infected patient would be a major setback in containing the viral transmission. We aim to describe the time kinetics of various antibodies produced against the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and evaluate the potential of antibody testing to diagnose COVID-19. METHODS: The host humoral response against SARS-CoV-2, including IgA, IgM, and IgG response, was examined by using an ELISA-based assay on the recombinant viral nucleocapsid protein. 208 plasma samples were collected from 82 confirmed and 58 probable cases (qPCR negative but with typical manifestation). The diagnostic value of IgM was evaluated in this cohort. RESULTS: The median duration of IgM and IgA antibody detection was 5 (IQR, 3-6) days, while IgG was detected 14 (IQR, 10-18) days after symptom onset, with a positive rate of 85.4%, 92.7%, and 77.9%, respectively. In confirmed and probable cases, the positive rates of IgM antibodies were 75.6% and 93.1%, respectively. The detection efficiency by IgM ELISA is higher than that of qPCR after 5.5 days of symptom onset. The positive detection rate is significantly increased (98.6%) when combining IgM ELISA assay with PCR for each patient compared with a single qPCR test (51.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 can aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19, including subclinical cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
4.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1075-1084, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wuhan was the epicentre of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence and kinetics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at population level in Wuhan to inform the development of vaccination strategies. METHODS: In this longitudinal cross-sectional study, we used a multistage, population-stratified, cluster random sampling method to systematically select 100 communities from the 13 districts of Wuhan. Households were systematically selected from each community and all family members were invited to community health-care centres to participate. Eligible individuals were those who had lived in Wuhan for at least 14 days since Dec 1, 2019. All eligible participants who consented to participate completed a standardised electronic questionnaire of demographic and clinical questions and self-reported any symptoms associated with COVID-19 or previous diagnosis of COVID-19. A venous blood sample was taken for immunological testing on April 14-15, 2020. Blood samples were tested for the presence of pan-immunoglobulins, IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and neutralising antibodies were assessed. We did two successive follow-ups between June 11 and June 13, and between Oct 9 and Dec 5, 2020, at which blood samples were taken. FINDINGS: Of 4600 households randomly selected, 3599 families (78·2%) with 9702 individuals attended the baseline visit. 9542 individuals from 3556 families had sufficient samples for analyses. 532 (5·6%) of 9542 participants were positive for pan-immunoglobulins against SARS-CoV-2, with a baseline adjusted seroprevalence of 6·92% (95% CI 6·41-7·43) in the population. 437 (82·1%) of 532 participants who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins were asymptomatic. 69 (13·0%) of 532 individuals were positive for IgM antibodies, 84 (15·8%) were positive for IgA antibodies, 532 (100%) were positive for IgG antibodies, and 212 (39·8%) were positive for neutralising antibodies at baseline. The proportion of individuals who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins who had neutralising antibodies in April remained stable for the two follow-up visits (162 [44·6%] of 363 in June, 2020, and 187 [41·2%] of 454 in October-December, 2020). On the basis of data from 335 individuals who attended all three follow-up visits and who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins, neutralising antibody levels did not significantly decrease over the study period (median 1/5·6 [IQR 1/2·0 to 1/14·0] at baseline vs 1/5·6 [1/4·0 to 1/11·2] at first follow-up [p=1·0] and 1/6·3 [1/2·0 to 1/12·6] at second follow-up [p=0·29]). However, neutralising antibody titres were lower in asymptomatic individuals than in confirmed cases and symptomatic individuals. Although titres of IgG decreased over time, the proportion of individuals who had IgG antibodies did not decrease substantially (from 30 [100%] of 30 at baseline to 26 [89·7%] of 29 at second follow-up among confirmed cases, 65 [100%] of 65 at baseline to 58 [92·1%] of 63 at second follow-up among symptomatic individuals, and 437 [100%] of 437 at baseline to 329 [90·9%] of 362 at second follow-up among asymptomatic individuals). INTERPRETATION: 6·92% of a cross-sectional sample of the population of Wuhan developed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, with 39·8% of this population seroconverting to have neutralising antibodies. Our durability data on humoral responses indicate that mass vaccination is needed to effect herd protection to prevent the resurgence of the epidemic. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, National Natural Science Foundation, and Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , /immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , /epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunity, Herd/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 664-676, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139855

ABSTRACT

Seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) including HCoV-229E, -OC43, -NL63, and -HKU1 widely spread in global human populations. However, the relevance of humoral response against seasonal HCoVs to COVID-19 pathogenesis is elusive. In this study, we profiled the temporal changes of IgG antibody against spike proteins (S-IgG) of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoVs in 838 plasma samples collected from 344 COVID-19 patients. We tested the antigenic cross-reactivities of S protein between SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoVs and evaluated the correlations between the levels of HCoV-OC43 S-IgG and the disease severity in COVID-19 patients. We found that SARS-CoV-2 S-IgG titres mounted until days 22-28, whereas HCoV-OC43 antibody titres increased until days 15-21 and then plateaued until day 46. However, IgG titres against HCoV-NL63, -229E, and -HKU1 showed no significant increase. A two-way cross-reactivity was identified between SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43. Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were not detectable in healthy controls who were positive for HCoV-OC43 S-IgG. HCoV-OC43 S-IgG titres were significantly higher in patients with severe disease than those in mild patients at days 1-21 post symptom onset (PSO). Higher levels of HCoV-OC43 S-IgG were also observed in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. At days 1-10 PSO, HCoV-OC43 S-IgG titres correlated to disease severity in the age group over 60. Our data indicate that there is a correlation between cross-reactive antibody against HCoV-OC43 spike protein and disease severity in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
6.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(2): 2167-2174, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a public health emergency of international concern. A small proportion of patients infected with COVID-19 go on to develop pneumonia. We speculated that COVID-19 may be likely to result in psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression. In this study, we conducted an investigation of anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Sixty-five COVID-19 patients were randomly enrolled into this study. Anxiety and depression among participants were measured through the completion of anonymous Chinese-language Zung self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale questionnaires. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests, Mann-Whitney U-tests, and χ2 tests. RESULTS: The questionnaire results showed that 26.15% and 41.54% of participants suffered from anxiety and depression, respectively, although there was no significantly statistical difference between the proportions of COVID-19 patients with anxiety and depression. Statistically significant differences in employment status, partial pressure of oxygen, and corticosteroid application existed between moderate- and severe COVID-19 patients (P<0.05). In particular, the partial pressure of oxygen was significantly lower in severe COVID-19 patients than in their moderate counter parts (71.31±23.54 vs. 101.06±34.43, U=156, P=0.006). Total lymphocytes was lower in severe group than in moderate group [1.659±0.643 vs. 0.745 (0.645, 0.928), U=109, P=0.000]. Also, a higher proportion of female than male patients had anxiety (χ2=5.388, P=0.02). COVID-19 patients who received antiviral medications also displayed a higher rate of anxiety (χ2=4.481, P=0.034). Total lymphocytes between the non-anxiety and anxiety had statistical difference (U=321, P=0.019). Meanwhile, total lymphocytes between the non-depression and depression also had statistical difference (U=389.5, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with COVID-19, females and those treated with antiviral medications were more likely to experience anxiety. In addition, our findings reflected the effect of anxiety and depression on immune system.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124710

ABSTRACT

An effective vaccine is considered the best method to achieve herd immunity. As of February 2021, 12 vaccines were in late-stage clinical trials worldwide, with many more in development. Of those, 8 have received emergency use authorization from at least one country's governing body. These vaccines use various platforms to deliver the vaccines, each with pros and cons. Published data show these vaccines are effective in preventing the severe symptoms associated with COVID-19 in adults with few side effects, but challenges remain with storage and delivery and treating virus variants.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244128, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004460

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of methylprednisolone in treating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted, and all COVID-19 patients were recruited who were admitted to the Yichang Third People's Hospital from February 1st to March 31st, 2020. One-to-one propensity score matching (PSM) was used for minimizing confounding effects. The primary outcome was hospital mortality, with the secondary outcomes being the time needed for a positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test to turn negative and the length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Totaling 367 patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at the Yichang Third People's Hospital were identified, of whom 276 were mild or stable COVID-19, and 67 were serious or critically ill. Among them, 255 patients were treated using methylprednisolone, and 188 did not receive any corticosteroid-related treatment. After PSM, no statistically significant difference was found in the baseline characteristics between the two groups. Regarding the outcomes, there also were no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Patients without the use of methylprednisolone were more quickly to obtain negative results of their nasopharyngeal swab tests of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid after treatment, compared to those receiving methylprednisolone. CONCLUSION: Methylprednisolone could not improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19, and the efficacy and safety of the use of methylprednisolone in patients with COVID-19 still remain uncertain, thus the use of corticosteroids clinically in patients with COVID-19 should be with cautions.


Subject(s)
Hospital Mortality , Length of Stay , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , /drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies
9.
J Int Med Res ; 48(12): 300060520979151, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978869

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) use with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the impact of ACEI/ARB use on all-cause mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with hypertension. METHODS: We enrolled 650 COVID-19 patients from Changsha and Wuhan city between 17 January 2020 and 8 March 2020. Demographic, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were collected. Multivariable analysis and propensity-score matching were performed to assess the impact of ACEI/ARB therapy on mortality. RESULTS: Among the 650 patients, 126 who had severe COVID-19 concomitant with hypertension were analyzed. The average age was 66 years and 56 (44.4%) were men. There were 37 ACEI/ARB users and 21 in-hospital deaths (mortality rate, 16.7%). Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 5.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75 to 17.8), but not ACEI/ARB use (OR, 1.09; 95%CI, 0.31 to 3.43), was an independent risk factor for mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with hypertension. After propensity-score matching, 60 severe COVID-19 patients were included and no significant correlation between use of ACEI/ARB and mortality was observed. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant association of ACEI/ARB use with mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with hypertension. These findings support the continuation of ACEI/ARB therapy for such patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Aged , /complications , /virology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Pandemics , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , /pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
10.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 780, 2020 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975030

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Here we profiled the humoral response against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by measuring immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, and IgG against nucleocapsid and spike proteins, along with IgM and IgG antibodies against receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein and total neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). We tested 279 plasma samples collected from 176 COVID-19 patients who presented and enrolled at different stages of their disease. Plasma dilutions were optimized and based on the data, a single dilution of plasma was used. The mean absorbance at 450 nm was measured for Ig levels and NAbs were measured using geometric mean titers. We demonstrate that more severe cases have a late-onset in the humoral response compared to mild/moderate infections. All the antibody titers continue to rise in patients with COVID-19 over the disease course. However, these levels are mostly unrelated to disease severity. The appearance time and titers of NAbs showed a significant positive correlation to the antibodies against spike protein. Our results suggest the late onset of antibody response as a risk factor for disease severity, however, there is a limited role of antibody titers in predicting disease severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , /immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , /virology , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Young Adult
11.
Journal of Medical Virology ; 92(11):2785-2791, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-959196

ABSTRACT

Previous studies reported that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was likely to result in liver injury However, few studies reported the impacts of COVID-19 on liver function in patients with chronic liver diseases We aimed to describe a case series of COVID-19 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection Confirmed hospitalized COVID-19 patients from hospitals in 10 cities of Jiangsu province, China, were retrospectively included between 18 January 2020 and 26 February 2020 Demographic information, epidemiologic data, clinical features, and treatment data were extracted from medical records Seven COVID-19 patients with chronic HBV infection were included Six (85 7%) patients were male The patients aged from 33 to 49 years Two patients had HBV-related cirrhosis One patient (14 3%) was positive for serum HBV e-antigen On admission, 1 (14 3%) patient had mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (> 40 U/L) and 1 (14 3%) had elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level (> 40 U/L) The serum albumin level and platelet counts were decreased in two patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis Three (42 9%) patients had elevated ALT level and 2 (28 6%) patients had elevated AST level in hospitalization However, the peak ALT and AST level during hospitalization was 51 U/L and 44 U/L, respectively As of 29 February 2020, all patients were discharged No patient was admitted to the intensive care units or developed liver failure during hospitalization The abnormalities of liver function are not uncommon on COVID-19 patients with chronic HBV infection in our case series However, no patient developed severe liver-related complications during hospitalization

12.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955697

ABSTRACT

Nucleocapsid protein (N) is the most abundant viral protein encoded by SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. N plays key roles at different steps in the replication cycle and is used as a serological marker of infection. Here we characterize the biochemical properties of SARS-CoV-2 N. We define the N domains important for oligomerization and RNA binding that are associated with spherical droplet formation and suggest that N accessibility and assembly may be regulated by phosphorylation. We also map the RNA binding interface using hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. Finally, we find that the N protein C-terminal domain is the most immunogenic by sensitivity, based upon antibody binding to COVID-19 patient samples from the US and Hong Kong. Together, these findings uncover domain-specific insights into the significance of SARS-CoV-2 N and highlight the diagnostic value of using N domains as highly specific and sensitive markers of COVID-19.

13.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917094

ABSTRACT

We aimed to describe liver injury and identify the risk factors of liver injury in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients without chronic liver diseases (CLD). The clinical data of 228 confirmed COVID-19 patients without CLD were retrospectively collected from ten hospitals in Jiangsu, China. Sixty-seven (29.4%) of 228 patients without CLD showed abnormal liver function on admission, including increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (25 [11.0%]) U/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 30 [13.2%]) U/L, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) 28 [12.4%]) U/L, total bilirubin (Tbil) 16 [7.0%] µmol/L, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 10 [4.5%]) U/L. During hospitalization, 129 (56.3%) of 228 patients showed abnormal liver function, including elevated ALT (84 [36.8%]), AST (58 [25.4%]), GGT (67 [29.5%]), and Tbil (59 [25.9%]). Age over 50 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.086; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.030-4.225; p = .041), male sex (OR, 2.737; 95% CI, 1.418-5.284; p = .003), and lopinavir-ritonavir (OR, 2.504; 95% CI, 1.187-5.283; p = .016) were associated with higher risk of liver function abnormality, while the atomized inhalation of interferon α-2b (OR, 0.256; 95% CI 0.126-0.520; p < .001) was associated with reduced risk of liver function abnormality during hospitalization. Mild to moderate liver injury was common in COVID-19 patients in Jiangsu, China. Age over 50 years, male sex, and lopinavir-ritonavir were the independent risk factors of liver impairment in COVID-19 patients during hospitalization.

14.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 87(11): 659-663, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908366

ABSTRACT

In COVID-19, respiratory infection with SARS-CoV-2 plus another virus (viral co-infection) or with SARS-CoV-2 plus a bacterial pathogen (combined viral and bacterial pneumonia) has been described. Secondary bacterial pneumonia can follow the initial phase of viral respiratory infection or occur during the recovery phase. No obvious pattern or guidelines exist for viral co-infection, combined viral and bacterial pneumonia, or secondary bacterial pneumonia in COVID-19. Based on existing clinical data and experience with similar viruses such as influenza and SARS-CoV, the management approach in COVID-19 should, ideally, take into consideration the overall presentation and the trajectory of illness.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Patient Care Management/methods , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Pneumonia, Viral , Virus Diseases , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/etiology , Coinfection/therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/etiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/therapy
15.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-595

ABSTRACT

Background: The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the cities near to Wuhan remain not very clear

17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(11): 2049-2055, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800018

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to observe the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with overweight and obesity. METHODS: Consecutive patients with COVID-19 from 10 hospitals of Jiangsu province, China, were enrolled. RESULTS: A total of 297 patients with COVID-19 were included, and 39.39% and 13.47% of patients had overweight and obesity, respectively. The proportions of bilateral pneumonia (92.50% vs. 73.57%, P = 0.033) and type 2 diabetes (17.50% vs. 3.57%, P = 0.006) were higher in patients with obesity than lean patients. The proportions of severe illness in patients with overweight (12.82% vs. 2.86%, P = 0.006) and obesity (25.00% vs. 2.86%, P < 0.001) were significantly higher than lean patients. More patients with obesity developed respiratory failure (20.00% vs. 2.86%, P < 0.001) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (5.00% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) than lean patients. The median days of hospitalization were longer in patients with obesity than lean patients (17.00 days vs. 14.00 days, P = 0.029). Overweight (OR, 4.222; 95% CI: 1.322-13.476; P = 0.015) and obesity (OR, 9.216; 95% CI: 2.581-32.903; P = 0.001) were independent risk factors of severe illness. Obesity (HR, 6.607; 95% CI: 1.955-22.329; P = 0.002) was an independent risk factor of respiratory failure. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity were independent risk factors of severe illness in COVID-19 patients. More attention should be paid to these patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Overweight/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Hepatol Commun ; 2020 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-763107

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Previous studies reported that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was likely to result in liver injury. However, few studies investigated liver injury in COVID-19 patients with chronic liver diseases. We described the clinical features in COVID-19 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: Confirmed COVID-19 patients from hospitals in 10 cities of Jiangsu province, China were retrospectively included between January 18, 2020, and February 26, 2020. Hepatic Steatosis Index (HSI) was used to defined NAFLD. Results: A total of 280 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Eighty-six (30.7%) of 280 COVID-19 patients were diagnosed as NAFLD by HSI. 100 (35.7%) patients presented abnormal liver function on admission. The median ALT levels (34.5 U/L vs. 23.0 U/L, P<0.001) and the proportion of elevated ALT (>40 U/L) (40.7% vs. 10.8%, P<0.001) were significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in patients without NAFLD on admission. The proportion of elevated ALT in patients with NAFLD was also significantly higher than patients without NAFLD (65.1% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001) during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis showed that age over 50 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.077, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.183-3.648, P=0.011), and concurrent NAFLD (OR 2.956, 95% CI 1.526-5.726, P=0.001) were independent risk factors of ALT elevation in COVID-19 patients, while the atomized inhalation of interferon α-2b (OR 0.402, 95%CI 0.236-0.683, P=0.001) was associated with the reduced risk of ALT elevation during hospitalization. No patient developed liver failure or death during hospitalization. The complications and clinical outcomes were comparable between COVID-19 patients with and without NAFLD. Conclusions: NAFLD patients are more likely to develop liver injury when infected by COVID-19. However, no patient developed severe liver-related complications during hospitalization.

19.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008796, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760712

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for effective treatment and preventive vaccine to contain this devastating global pandemic, which requires a comprehensive understanding of humoral responses specific to SARS-CoV-2 during the disease progression and convalescent phase of COVID-19 patients. We continuously monitored the serum IgM and IgG responses specific to four SARS-CoV-2 related antigens, including the nucleoprotein (NP), receptor binding domain (RBD), S1 protein, and ectodomain (ECD) of the spike protein among non-severe and severe COVID-19 patients for seven weeks since disease onset. Most patients generated humoral responses against NP and spike protein-related antigens but with their distinct kinetics profiles. Combined detection of NP and ECD antigens as detecting antigen synergistically improved the sensitivity of the serological assay, compared to that of using NP or RBD as detection antigen. 80.7% of convalescent sera from COVID-19 patients revealed that the varying extents of neutralization activities against SARS-CoV-2. S1-specific and ECD-specific IgA responses were strongly correlated with the neutralization activities in non-severe patients, but not in severe patients. Moreover, the neutralizing activities of the convalescent sera were shown to significantly decline during the period between 21 days to 28 days after hospital discharge, accompanied by a substantial drop in RBD-specific IgA response. Our data provide evidence that are crucial for serological testing, antibody-based intervention, and vaccine design of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Serologic Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
20.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 889: 173556, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-758781

ABSTRACT

The impact of corticosteroid treatment on virological course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the association between corticosteroid and viral clearance in COVID-19. The clinical data of COVID-19 patients from 10 hospitals of Jiangsu, China, were retrospectively collected. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to analyze the adverse factors of virus clearance. Of the 309 COVID-19 patients, eighty-nine (28.8%) patients received corticosteroid treatment during hospitalization. Corticosteroid group showed higher C-reactive protein (median 11.1 vs. 7.0 mg/l, P = 0.018) and lower lymphocytes (median 0.9 vs. 1.4 × 109/l, P < 0.001) on admission. Fever (93.3% vs. 65.0%, P < 0.001) and cough (69.7% vs. 57.3%, P = 0.043) were more common in corticosteroid group. The proportions of patients with severe illness (34.8% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.001), respiratory failure (25.8% vs. 1.4%, P < 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (4.5% vs. 0%, P = 0.002), and admission to ICU (20.2% vs. 0.9%, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in corticosteroid group than non-corticosteroid group. The duration of virus clearance (median 18.0 vs. 16.0 days, P < 0.001) and hospitalization (median 17.0 vs. 15.0 days, P < 0.001) were also significantly longer in corticosteroid group than non-corticosteroid group. Treated with corticosteroid (Hazard ratio [HR], 0.698; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.512 to 0.951; P = 0.023) was an adverse factor of the clearance of SARS-CoV-2, especially for male patients (HR, 0.620; 95% CI, 0.408 to 0.942; P = 0.025). The cumulative probability of SARS-CoV-2 clearance was lower in corticosteroid group (P < 0.001). Corticosteroid treatment may delay the SARS-CoV-2 clearance of COVID-19 patients and should be used with cautions.

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