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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338469

ABSTRACT

Background: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a common interstitial pneumonia disease, also occurred in post-COVID-19 survivors. The mechanism underlying the anti-PF effect of Qing Fei Hua Xian Decotion (QFHXD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula applied for treating PF in COVID-19 survivors, is unclear. This study aimed to uncover the mechanisms related to the anti-PF effect of QFHXD through analysis of network pharmacology and experimental verification. Methods The candidate chemical compounds of QFHXD and its putative targets for treating PF were achieved from public databases, thereby we established the corresponding “herb- compound -target” network of QFHXD. Moreover, The protein–protein interaction (PPI) network of potential targets was also constructed to screen the core targets. Furthermore, Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were used to predict targets, and pathways, then validated by in vivo experiments. Results A total of 188 active compounds in QFHXD and 50 target genes were identified from databases. The key therapeutic targets of QFHXD, such as PI3K/Akt, IL-6, TNF, IL-1β, STAT3, MMP-9, and TGF-β1 were identified by KEGG and GO analysis. Anti-PF effects of QFHXD (in a dose-dependent manner) and prednisone were confirmed by HE, Masson staining, and Sirius red staining as well as in vivo Micro-CT and immunohistochemical analysis in a rat model of bleomycin-induced PF. Besides, QFXHD remarkably inhibits the activity of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB and TGF‑β1/Smad2/3. Conclusion QFXHD significantly attenuated bleomycin-induced PF via inhibiting inflammation and EMT. PI3K/Akt/NF-κB and TGF‑β1/Smad2/3 pathways might be the potential therapeutic effects of QFHXD for treating PF.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873926

ABSTRACT

Isolated reports of new-onset diabetes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have led researchers to hypothesize that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects human exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells ex vivo and in vivo. However, existing research lacks experimental evidence indicating that SARS-CoV-2 can infect pancreatic tissue. Here, we found that cats infected with a high dose of SARS-CoV-2 exhibited hyperglycemia. We also detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in pancreatic tissues of these cats, and immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) in islet cells. SARS-CoV-2 NP and spike proteins were primarily detected in glucagon-positive cells, and most glucagon-positive cells expressed ACE2. Additionally, immune protection experiments conducted on cats showed that blood glucose levels of immunized cats did not increase postchallenge. Our data indicate cat pancreas as a SARS-CoV-2 target and suggest that the infection of glucagon-positive cells could contribute to the metabolic dysregulation observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cats.

3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1524-1536, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860763

ABSTRACT

The waning humoral immunity and emerging contagious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants resulted in the necessity of the booster vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The inactivated vaccine, CoronaVac, is the most widely supplied COVID-19 vaccine globally. Whether the CoronaVac booster elicited adaptive responses that cross-recognize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) among 77 healthy subjects receiving the third dose of CoronaVac were explored. After the boost, remarkable elevated spike-specific IgG and IgA responses, as well as boosted neutralization activities, were observed, despite 3.0-fold and 5.9-fold reduced neutralization activities against Delta and Omicron strains compared to that of the ancestral strain. Furthermore, the booster dose induced potent B cells and memory B cells that cross-bound receptor-binding domain (RBD) proteins derived from VoCs, while Delta and Omicron RBD-specific memory B cell recognitions were reduced by 2.7-fold and 4.2-fold compared to that of ancestral strain, respectively. Consistently, spike-specific circulating follicular helper T cells (cTfh) significantly increased and remained stable after the boost, with a predominant expansion towards cTfh17 subpopulations. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells peaked and sustained after the booster. Notably, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell recognition of VoC spike was largely preserved compared to the ancestral strain. Individuals without generating Delta or Omicron neutralization activities had comparable levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells responses as those with detectable neutralizing activities. Our study demonstrated that the CoronaVac booster induced broad and potent adaptive immune responses that could be effective in controlling SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Vaccination
4.
The Journal of infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824578

ABSTRACT

Isolated reports of new-onset diabetes in patients with COVID-19 have led researchers to hypothesise that SARS-CoV-2 infects the human exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells ex vivo and in vivo. However, existing research lacks experimental evidence indicating that SARS-CoV-2 can infect pancreatic tissue. Here, we found that cats infected with a high dose of SARS-CoV-2 exhibited hyperglycaemia. We also detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the pancreatic tissues of these cats, and immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) in the islet cells. SARS-CoV-2 NP and Spike proteins were primarily detected in Glu+ cells, and most Glu+ cells expressed ACE2. Additionally, immune protection experiments conducted on cats showed that the blood glucose levels of immunised cats did not increase post-challenge. Our data indicate the cat pancreas as a SARS-CoV-2 target and suggest that the infection of Glu+ cells could contribute to the metabolic dysregulation observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cats.

5.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray , Treatment Outcome
6.
Ann Hepatol ; 27(3): 100685, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic imperiled the global health system. We aimed to determine the impact of COVID-19 on the care continuum of HCV-infected patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-six patients who were prescribed a course of DAA therapy at three tertiary medical centers in the US and China between January 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020 were included. We assessed the proportions of patients who completed DAA therapy and had HCV RNA testing during and after the end of therapy. We also assessed the impact of utilization of telemedicine. RESULTS: The proportion of patients undergoing HCV RNA testing during DAA treatment decreased from >81.7% before pandemic to 67.8% during the pandemic (P=0.006), with a more prominent decrease in the US. There were significant decreases in HCV RNA testing >12 (P<0.001) and >20 weeks (P<0.001) post-treatment during COVID-19 era. Compared to pre-COVID period, post-treatment clinic encounters during COVID-19 era decreased significantly in China (Xi'an: 13.6% to 7.4%; Nanjing: 16.7% to 12.5%) but increased in the US (12.5% to 16.7%), mainly due to the use of telemedicine. There was a 4-fold increase in utilization of telemedicine in the US. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic carried profound impact on care for HCV patients in both the US and China. HCV cure rate assessment decreased by half during COVID era but the proportion of patients finishing DAA therapy was not significantly affected. Increased utilization of telemedicine led to increased compliance with DAA therapy but did not encourage patients to have their laboratory assessment for HCV cure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , RNA
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324116

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus (COVID-2019) was first identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, and then spreads to the other Provinces of China. COVID-2019 was reported to share the same receptor, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), with SARS-CoV. But the infection rate of COVID-2019 is much higher than SARS-CoV. The biophysical and structural evidence showed that the COVID-2019 binds ACE2 with 10~20 times affinity than SARS-CoV. TMPRSS2 cleaves ACE2 and facilitates the entry of the virus into host cells. The presence of SLC6A19 may block the access of TMPRSS2 to the cutting site on ACE2 and weaken the entry of COVID-2019 into host cells. Here based on the public single-cell RNA-Seq datasets, we analyzed the ACE2 expression in the nasal, mouth, lung, and colon tissues. We find that the number of ACE2-expressing cells in the nasal and mouth tissues is comparable to the number of ACE2-expressing cells in the lung and colon tissues. We also find that ACE2 tends to be co-expressed with TMPRSS2 and not co-expressed with SLC6A19 in the nasal and mouth tissues. With the results, we infer that nasal and mouth tissues may be the first host cells of COVID-2019 infection. In our previous report in medRxiv and a recurrent report in New England Journal of Medicine, the COVID-2019 load tends to be higher in the nasal-swabs than in throat-swabs. We believe the roles of nasal and mouth tissues in COVID-2019 infection should be investigated, and we need to pay more attention to protect nose and mouth from COVID-2019 infection.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319974

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused global pandemic. Here we profiled the humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 by measuring immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM and IgG against nucleocapsid, spike proteins and IgM, IgG antibodies against receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein along with total neutralizing antibodies. We tested 279 plasma samples collected from 176 COVID-19 patients. We demonstrate more severe cases have a late onset in the humoral response compared to mild/moderate infections. All the antibody titers continue to rise in patients with COVID-19 over the disease course. However, these levels are mostly unrelated to the disease severity. The appearance time and titers of neutralizing antibodies showed significant positive correlation to the antibodies against spike protein. Our results suggest late onset of antibody response as a risk factor for disease severity, however there is a limited role of antibody titers in predicting disease severity of COVID-19.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318622

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is currently widespread in the world. This study aimed to access the characteristics of the publications involving COVID-19 by using a bibliometric analysis. Methods: : COVID-19 publications published between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2020 was searched from the Web of Science database on 1 August 2020.The database retrieval was done on the same day. Analysis parameters mainly include publication month, research institutions, authors, journals, countries and cooperation networks among them. Results: : A total of 14186 COVID-19 associated articles were retrieved from the Web of Science database, and the quantity of articles increased rapidly month by month. The authors of the top ten manuscripts per number of citations and the most productive institution were both from China. The total publication number of China was as high as 3,029,second only to the United States. Moreover, China ranks first in the number of total citations of articles and the average article citations. The United States has the highest number of total publications and ranks second only to China in terms of the influence of individual articles. Authors, institutions and Countries established a network of close cooperation for research on COVID-19. Conclusion: There was a growing number of articles on COVID-19 around the world, China and the United States are the two most influential countries.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311704

ABSTRACT

Background: Seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) including HCoV-229E, -OC43, -NL63 and -HKU1 are widely spreading in global human populations. However, the relevance of humoral response against seasonal HCoVs to COVID-19 pathogenesis is elusive.Methods: We profiled the temporal changes of IgG antibodies against spike (S;S-IgG) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoVs in 838 plasma samples collected from 344 COVID-19 patients. We tested the antigenic cross-reactivity of S protein between SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoVs and evaluated the correlations between HCoV-OC43 S-IgG antibody and disease severity in COVID-19 patients.Findings: SARS-CoV-2 S-IgG titers mounted until days 22–28, whereas HCoV-OC43 antibody titers increased until days 15–21 and then plateaued until day 46. However, IgG antibody titers against HCoV-NL63, -229E, and -HKU1 showed no significant increasing. A two-way cross-reactivity was identified between SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43. Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were not detected in healthy controls who were positive for HCoV-OC43 S-IgG. HCoV-OC43 S-IgG titers were significantly higher in patients with severe disease than those in mild/moderate patients at days 1–21 post symptom onset (PSO). Higher levels of HCoV-OC43 S-IgG were also observed in patients requiring mechanical ventilation and the elderly. At days 1–10 PSO, HCoV-OC43 S-IgG titers correlated to disease severity in all age groups, and to fatality in over 60-year group.Interpretation: Our data indicate that there exist a humoral cross-reactive response between HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2. The cross-reactive HCoV-OC43 S-IgG antibody is not protective against SARS-CoV-2, but may be a risk factor for the severity and adverse outcome of COVID-19.Funding Statement: This study was funded in part by the National Major Science & Technology Project for Control and Prevention of Major Infectious Diseases in China (2017ZX10204401, 2018ZX10734404), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (2016-I2M-1–014, 2018-I2M-1-003, 2020-I2M-1-001, 2020-I2M-CoV19-005), Natural Science Foundation of China (82041011/H0104), and National Key R&D Program of China (2020YFA0707600). Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the Ethical Review Board of Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Infectious Disease Hospital of Heilongjiang Province (Harbin), and Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Written informed consent was obtained from each healthy volunteer and COVID-19 patients in cohort 4. Written informed consents from the remaining patients were waived in light of the emerging infectious disease of high public health relevance.

11.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(9): 2029-2035, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687156

ABSTRACT

Excessive inflammation post-traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) induces microglial activation, which leads to prolonged neurological dysfunction. However, the mechanism underlying microglial activation-induced neuroinflammation remains poorly understood. Ruxolitinib (RUX), a selective inhibitor of JAK1/2, was recently reported to inhibit inflammatory storms caused by SARS-CoV-2 in the lung. However, its role in disrupting inflammation post-SCI has not been confirmed. In this study, microglia were treated with RUX for 24 hours and then activated with interferon-γ for 6 hours. The results showed that interferon-γ-induced phosphorylation of JAK and STAT in microglia was inhibited, and the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, and cell proliferation marker Ki67 were reduced. In further in vivo experiments, a mouse model of spinal cord injury was treated intragastrically with RUX for 3 successive days, and the findings suggest that RUX can inhibit microglial proliferation by inhibiting the interferon-γ/JAK/STAT pathway. Moreover, microglia treated with RUX centripetally migrated toward injured foci, remaining limited and compacted within the glial scar, which resulted in axon preservation and less demyelination. Moreover, the protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, and interleukin-6 were reduced. The neuromotor function of SCI mice also recovered. These findings suggest that RUX can inhibit neuroinflammation through inhibiting the interferon-γ/JAK/STAT pathway, thereby reducing secondary injury after SCI and producing neuroprotective effects.

12.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0252994, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622325

ABSTRACT

The global impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unprecedented, and many control and prevention measures have been implemented to test for and trace COVID-19. However, invisible-spreaders, who are associated with nucleic acid detection and asymptomatic infections, have received insufficient attention in the current COVID-19 control efforts. In this paper, we analyze the time series infection data for Italy, Germany, Brazil, India and Sweden since the first wave outbreak to address the following issues through a series of experiments. We conclude that: 1) As of June 1, 2020, the proportion of invisible-spreaders is close to 0.4% in Sweden, 0.8% in early Italy and Germany, and 0.4% in the middle and late stages. However, in Brazil and India, the proportion still shows a gradual upward trend; 2) During the spread of this pandemic, even a slight increase in the proportion of invisible-spreaders could have large implications for the health of the community; and 3) On resuming work, the pandemic intervention measures will be relaxed, and invisible-spreaders will cause a new round of outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sweden/epidemiology
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e27112, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The traditional Chinese medicine prescription Suhexiang Pill (SHXP), a classic prescription for the treatment of plague, has been recommended in the 2019 Guideline for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis and treatment of a severe type of COVID-19. However, the bioactive compounds and underlying mechanisms of SHXP for COVID-19 prevention and treatment have not yet been elucidated. This study investigates the mechanisms of SHXP in the treatment of COVID-19 based on network pharmacology and molecular docking. METHODS: First, the bioactive ingredients and corresponding target genes of the SHXP were screened from the traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform database. Then, we compiled COVID-19 disease targets from the GeneCards gene database and literature search. Subsequently, we constructed the core compound-target network, the protein-protein interaction network of the intersection of compound targets and disease targets, the drug-core compound-hub gene-pathway network, module analysis, and hub gene search by the Cytoscape software. The Metascape database and R language software were applied to analyze gene ontology biological processes and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. Finally, AutoDock software was used for molecular docking of hub genes and core compounds. RESULTS: A total of 326 compounds, 2450 target genes of SHXP, and 251 genes related to COVID-19 were collected, among which there were 6 hub genes of SHXP associated with the treatment of COVID-19, namely interleukin 6, interleukin 10, vascular endothelial growth factor A, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and epidermal growth factor. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that the effect of SHXP against COVID-19 is mediated by synergistic regulation of several biological signaling pathways, including Janus kinase/ STAT3, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt), T cell receptor, TNF, Nuclear factor kappa-B, Toll-like receptor, interleukin 17, Chemokine, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 signaling pathways. SHXP may play a vital role in the treatment of COVID-19 by suppressing the inflammatory storm, regulating immune function, and resisting viral invasion. Furthermore, the molecular docking results showed an excellent binding affinity between the core compounds and the hub genes. CONCLUSION: This study preliminarily predicted the potential therapeutic targets, signaling pathways, and molecular mechanisms of SHXP in the treatment of severe COVID-19, which include the moderate immune system, relieves the "cytokine storm," and anti-viral entry into cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation
14.
Ann Hepatol ; 27(1): 100653, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588313

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has increasingly attracted worldwide concern. Liver damage or dysfunction occurred in patients with COVID-19 (mainly characterized by moderately elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase levels). However, it is not yet clear whether the COVID-19-related liver injury is mainly caused by the virus infection, potentially hepatotoxic drugs, or other coexisting conditions. Progression of pre-existing chronic liver disease (CLD) may be the underlying mechanism of liver injury. Although COVID-19 patients with CLD, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, liver cirrhosis, and liver cancer, have been deemed at increased risk for serious illness in many studies, little is known about the impact of CLD on the natural history and outcome of COVID-19 patients. Thereby, based on the latest evidence from case reports and case series, this paper discusses the clinical manifestations, treatment, prognosis, and management of the COVID-19 patients with different CLD. This article also reviews the effect of COVID-19 on liver transplantation patients (LT), hoping to work for future prevention, management, and control measures of COVID-19. However, due to the lack of relevant research, most of them are still limited to the theoretical stage, further study of COVID-19 and CLD needs to be improved in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Humans , Liver Diseases/surgery , Pandemics , Prognosis
15.
Alzheimers Dement ; 17 Suppl 11: e052385, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social isolation is a risk factor for dementia, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. It is possible that lack of social contacts negatively affects emotional well-being, which leads to cognitive decline. To shed light on this potential mediation mechanism, we examined changes in type and frequency of social contacts and their effects on mood using data collected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among socially isolated older adults aged 75 and older. METHOD: The data come from an ongoing randomized controlled trial, the Internet-Based Conversational Engagement Clinical Trial (I-CONECT, ClinicalTirals.gov: NCT02871921). One hundred forty-six participants (age=81.0±4.5, 71.9% women) who were in the trial both before and during the pandemic and whose data were available as of November of 2020 were included in the current analysis. Weekly health questionnaires administered on all participants regardless of treatment assignments were collected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Low mood ("Blueness") was self-reported as feeling downhearted or blue for three or more days in the past week (YES/NO). Social contacts were self-reported by amount of time they had interacted, with whom (family; friends; others), and via which modalities (in-person; phone/video call; text/email). RESULT: A total of 4,774 weeks of survey data were analyzed (3,047 before COVID 19). The weekly average time spent in-person, on phone/video call, and via text/email were 282, 113, and 44 minutes, respectively. During the COVID-19 pandemic, participants on average spent 82 minutes less in total social contact per week (in-person: reduced 123 minutes, video/call: increased 28 minutes, text/email: increased 13 minutes per week). Generalized estimating equation model revealed that in-person family contact was associated with less blueness regardless of the pandemic (OR=0.91, p=0.04). There was a COVID*text/email time with friends interaction (OR=0.68, p=0.03), suggesting that during the COVID-19 pandemic, an increase of 1 hour of texting/emailing with friends per week was associated with 32% decrease in experiencing blueness three or more days per week. CONCLUSION: In-person family time is beneficial for mental health. While in-person contacts become less frequent during the COVID-19 pandemic, increased text/email time with friends becomes an alternative to maintain mental health for socially isolated older adults.

16.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(3): 669-676, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global outbreak allowed a natural experiment to observe how older adults changed social patterns and how it affected their emotional well-being. We studied the frequency and modes of social contact and their effects on older adults' mood before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Phone-based surveys were administered weekly before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: Participants were recruited from Portland, Oregon, and Detroit, Michigan. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults ≥75 years old (n = 155, age = 81.0 ± 4.5, 72.3% women) were included in a randomized controlled trial, the Internet-Based Conversational Engagement Clinical Trial (I-CONECT). MEASUREMENTS: Low mood was self-reported as feeling downhearted or blue for three or more days in the past week. Social contact was self-reported by the amount of time spent in interactions, with whom (family, friends, others), and via which modes (in-person, phone/video call, text/email/letter). RESULTS: A total of 5525 weeks of data were derived from 155 participants. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, average social interaction time spent in-person, on phone/video call, and via text/email/letter was 406, 141, and 68 min/week, respectively. During the COVID-19 pandemic, time spent in-person was reduced by 135 min/week, while time spent via phone/video call and writing increased by 33 and 26 mins/week, respectively. In-person family contact was associated with less low mood regardless of the pandemic (odds ratio = 0.92, p < 0.05). There was a COVID-19 × text/email/letter with friends interaction (odds ratio = 0.77, p = 0.03), suggesting that during the COVID-19 pandemic, an increase of 1 h of writing with friends per week was associated with a 23% decrease in the likelihood of experiencing low mood. CONCLUSION: The lost in-person time relating to COVID-19 restrictions tended to be partially compensated for with increased calls and writing time, although overall social interaction time decreased. During the COVID-19 pandemic, at least two types of social interactions (writing to friends and in-person family time) showed promise for mitigating low mood for older adults with limited social resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mood Disorders/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Oregon/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telephone , Writing
17.
Respirology ; 27(4): 301-310, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Few head-to-head evaluations of immune responses to different vaccines have been reported. METHODS: Surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) antibody levels of adults receiving either two doses of BNT162b2 (n = 366) or CoronaVac (n = 360) vaccines in Hong Kong were determined. An age-matched subgroup (BNT162b2 [n = 49] vs. CoronaVac [n = 49]) was tested for plaque reduction neutralization (PRNT) and spike-binding antibody and T-cell reactivity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: One month after the second dose of vaccine, BNT162b2 elicited significantly higher PRNT50 , PRNT90 , sVNT, spike receptor binding, spike N-terminal domain binding, spike S2 domain binding, spike FcR binding and antibody avidity levels than CoronaVac. The geometric mean PRNT50 titres in those vaccinated with BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccines were 251.6 and 69.45, while PRNT90 titres were 98.91 and 16.57, respectively. All of those vaccinated with BNT162b2 and 45 (91.8%) of 49 vaccinated with CoronaVac achieved the 50% protection threshold for PRNT90. Allowing for an expected seven-fold waning of antibody titres over 6 months for those receiving CoronaVac, only 16.3% would meet the 50% protection threshold versus 79.6% of BNT162b2 vaccinees. Age was negatively correlated with PRNT90 antibody titres. Both vaccines induced SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses at 1 month post-vaccination but CoronaVac elicited significantly higher structural protein-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. CONCLUSION: Vaccination with BNT162b2 induces stronger humoral responses than CoronaVac. CoronaVac induces higher CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to the structural protein than BNT162b2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hong Kong , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Emerg Med Int ; 2021: 7711056, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526555

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed the risk factors for patients with COVID-19 developing severe illnesses and explored the value of applying the logistic model combined with ROC curve analysis to predict the risk of severe illnesses at COVID-19 patients' admissions. The clinical data of 1046 COVID-19 patients admitted to a designated hospital in a certain city from July to September 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, the clinical characteristics of the patients were collected, and a multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for severe illnesses in COVID-19 patients during hospitalization. Based on the analysis results, a prediction model for severe conditions and the ROC curve were constructed, and the predictive value of the model was assessed. Logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR = 3.257, 95% CI 10.466-18.584), complications with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 7.337, 95% CI 0.227-87.021), cough (OR = 5517, 95% CI 0.258-65.024), and venous thrombosis (OR = 7322, 95% CI 0.278-95.020) were risk factors for COVID-19 patients developing severe conditions during hospitalization. When complications were not taken into consideration, COVID-19 patients' ages, number of diseases, and underlying diseases were risk factors influencing the development of severe illnesses. The ROC curve analysis results showed that the AUC that predicted the severity of COVID-19 patients at admission was 0.943, the optimal threshold was -3.24, and the specificity was 0.824, while the sensitivity was 0.827. The changes in the condition of severe COVID-19 patients are related to many factors such as age, clinical symptoms, and underlying diseases. This study has a certain value in predicting COVID-19 patients that develop from mild to severe conditions, and this prediction model is a useful tool in the quick prediction of the changes in patients' conditions and providing early intervention for those with risk factors.

19.
Zhongguo Anquan Shengchan Kexue Jishu = Journal of Safety Science and Technology ; - (10):11, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1519232

ABSTRACT

In order to comprehensively and systematically prevent and control the major infectious diseases and break the deadlock of local security, a model of the prevention and control of major infectious diseases was established from the perspective of macro security.By expatiating the transformation from local security to comprehensive security, a new perspective of macro security was put forward to understand the spread of major infectious diseases.Combined with the characteristics of security events, the causative path of major infectious diseases was deeply analyzed, then the four key nodes and three time states in the transmission process were obtained, and the evolution, development and characteristics of major infectious disease security events in the perspective of macro security were defined.The internal and external factors influencing the prevention and control of major infectious diseases were determined from the prevention perspective of accident causes, and two prevention and control strategies of emergency management and response mechanism were proposed, so as to construct the model of the prevention and control of major infectious diseases in the perspective of macro security.The results showed that the model had good practicability in the prevention and control process of COVID-19,and the model has important theoretical and practical significance for discussing the security perspective and logic of epidemic prevention and control.

20.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(24): 11212-11220, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511334

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate the effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on the susceptibility and consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We retrospectively collected data from 218 adult COVID-19 patients who showed no evidence of excessive alcohol consumption and underwent abdominal ultrasound examinations. Of these patients, 39.4% patients had been diagnosed with NAFLD, which indicates a much higher prevalence of NAFLD than that reported in the general population. Significantly elevated white blood cell count (p = 0.008), alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.000), aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.006) and C reactive protein (p = 0.012) were found in the patients with NAFLD. These patients also had significantly higher proportions of hypertension (p = 0.006) and diabetes (p = 0.049) than the non-NAFLD cases. No significant differences existed in the severity, mortality, viral shedding time and length of hospital stay between patients with or without NAFLD in the sample population. However, subgroup analyses found that in patients with normal body mass index (BMI), NAFLD sufferers were more likely to experience a severe event (30.0% vs 11.5%, p = 0.021). Kaplan-Meier curve (log-rank p = 0.017) and Cox regression (HR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.17-9.04, p = 0.023) analyses confirmed that before and after adjusting for gender, age and comorbidities, NAFLD patients with normal BMI had a higher incidence of suffering severe events. People with NAFLD may have a higher proportion of COVID-19. NAFLD may be correlated with the severity of COVID-19 patients in the normal BMI group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Chemical Analysis , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Incidence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
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