Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 26
Filter
1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 290: 824-828, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879423

ABSTRACT

As the fight against COVID-19 continues, it is critical to discover and accumulate knowledge in scientific literature to combat the pandemic. In this work, we shared the experience in developing an intelligent query system on COVID-19 literature. We conducted a user-centered evaluation with 12 researchers in our institution and identified usability issues in four categories: distinct user needs, functionality errors, suboptimal information display, and implementation errors. Furthermore, we shared two lessons for building such a COVID-19 literature search engine. We will deploy the system and continue refining it through multiple phases of evaluation to aid in redesigning the system to accommodate different user roles as well as enhancing repository features to support collaborative information seeking. The successful implementation of the COVID-IQS can support knowledge discovery and hypothesis generation in our institution and can be shared with other institutions to make a broader impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Display , Humans , Search Engine
2.
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ; 189:201-217, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1851362

ABSTRACT

Observing traffic flow is of great significance to contemporary urban management. Overhead images, as represented by remote sensing images, provide a major source of information about traffic flow. However, the spatial resolutions of most common high-resolution remote sensing images are often limited to 0.5 m and even below, which makes it unrealistic to count vehicles by means of widely used object detection methods. Therefore, to explore the potential of remote sensing data for studying global urban development and management, this paper introduces a density map-based vehicle counting method for remote sensing imagery with limited resolution. Density map-based models regard the vehicle counting task as estimating the density of vehicle targets in terms of pixel values. We propose an improved CNN-based network, called Congested Scene Recognition Network Minus (CSRNet—), that generates a density map of vehicles from the input remote sensing imagery. A new dataset, RSVC2021, which was generated from the public DOTA and ITCVD datasets, is also introduced for network training and testing. A benchmark on the RSVC2021 dataset is accordingly established and CSRNet— is selected as the baseline model for subsequent experiments. A set of GF-2 time series images with a resolution of 1 m taken before, during and after the COVID-19 epidemic lockdown covering Wuhan city are applied for real-world application testing. The testing results on both the RSVC2021 dataset and real satellite images confirm that, in terms of both the counting values and the visualized density maps, the proposed method achieves good performance and exhibits considerable application potential in this task. The generating codes of RSVC2021 dataset will be publicly available at https://github.com/YinongGuo/RSVC2021-Dataset.

3.
Ultrasonics ; 124: 106749, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778477

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus Covid-19 mutates quickly in the pandemic, leaves people struggling to verify and improve the effectiveness of the vaccine based on biochemistry. Is there any physical invariant in the variants of such kind of pathogen that could be taken advantage to ease the tensions? To this point, extensive numerical experiments based on continuity mechanics have been accomplished to discover the consistent vibration modes and the range of natural frequency of coronavirus Covid-19. Such invariant could help us in developing some flexible technique to deactivate the coronavirus, like as resonantly breaking the viral spike by ultrasound wave. The fundamental mechanisms governing such process are demonstrated via solving the coupled acoustic wave and elastic dynamic equations, after which the practical strategies are proposed to efficiently realize the technique concept.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sound , Vibration
4.
Energies ; 15(6):2066, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1760462

ABSTRACT

This study discusses how to facilitate the barrier-free circulation of energy big data among multiple entities and how to balance the energy big data ecosystem under government supervision using dynamic game theory. First, we define the related concepts and summarize the recent studies and developments of energy big data. Second, evolutionary game theory is applied to examine the interaction mechanism of complex behaviors between power grid enterprises and third-party enterprises in the energy big data ecosystem, with and without the supervision of government. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the main factors affecting co-opetition, such as the initial participation willingness, distribution of benefits, free-riding behavior, government funding, and punitive liquidated damages. The results show that both government supervision measures and the participants’ own will have an impact on the stable evolution of the energy big data ecosystem in the dynamic evolution process, and the effect of parameter changes on the evolution is more significant under the state of no government supervision. In addition, the effectiveness of the developed model in this work is verified by simulated analysis. The present model can provide an important reference for overall planning and efficient operation of the energy big data ecosystem.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(9): e28976, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730760

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has huge impacts on the world, including human health and economic decline. The COVID-19 has severe infectivity, especially the elderly with chronic diseases will cause various complications after infection and accelerate the disease process. In addition, COVID-19 will also affect their mental health. Therefore, the mental health of elderly patients with chronic diseases cannot be ignored. The aim of this study was to investigate the well-being level of elderly people with chronic disease during COVID-19 postpandemic period in Beijing and analysis related influencing factors, so as to provide a basis for improving the well-being level of elderly chronic patients during the postpandemic period.Elderly patients with chronic diseases who met the inclusion criteria in 5 different administrative regions in Beijing were selected to carry out a questionnaire survey. The contents of the questionnaire included general data, the Memorial University of Newfoundland Happiness scale and the awareness situation of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed by WeChat and 486 valid questionnaires were collected. The t test and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare Memorial University of Newfoundland Happiness scores between 2 or more groups, multiple linear regression analysis was used to conduct multiple factor analysis to explore the related factors about well-being level of elderly chronic patients.A total of 109 cases (22.43%) were evaluated high well-being level, 319 cases (65.64%) were evaluated moderate well-being level and 58 cases (11.93%) were evaluated low well-being according to the Memorial University of Newfoundland Happiness (MUNSH) scores rating. The multiple linear regression indicated that the education level, number of chronic diseases, medical expenses, frequency of children's visits, taking care of grandchildren or not, and group activity frequency significantly affected the well-being of patients with chronic diseases during COVID-19 postpandemic period in Beijing (P < .05).Most elderly patients with chronic diseases had moderate or above sense of well-being during postpandemic period, but we should still pay attention to the mental health of those elderly chronic patients with low education level, much comorbidity, more medical expenses, less visits by children, not take care of grandchildren and never participate in group activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , China/epidemiology , Health Status , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324117

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 epidemic began to worsen in the first months of 2020, stringent lockdown policies were implemented in numerous cities throughout the world to control human transmission and mitigate its spread. Although transportation density reduction inside the city was felt subjectively, there has thus far been no objective and quantitative study of its variation to reflect the intracity population flows and their corresponding relationship with lockdown policy stringency from the view of remote sensing images with the high resolution under 1m. Accordingly, we here provide a quantitative investigation of the transportation density reduction before and after lockdown was implemented in six epicenter cities (Wuhan, Milan, Madrid, Paris, New York, and London) around the world during the COVID-19 epidemic, which is accomplished by extracting vehicles from the multi-temporal high-resolution remote sensing images. A novel vehicle detection model combining unsupervised vehicle candidate extraction and deep learning identification was specifically proposed for the images with the resolution of 0.5m. Our results indicate that transportation densities were reduced by an average of approximately 50% (and as much as 75.96%) in these six cities following lockdown. The influences on transportation density reduction rates are also highly correlated with policy stringency, with an R

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324113

ABSTRACT

In order to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, Wuhan was the first city to implement strict lockdown policy in 2020. Even though numerous researches have discussed the travel restriction between cities and provinces, few studies focus on the effect of transportation control inside the city due to the lack of the measurement and available data in Wuhan. Since the public transports have been shut down in the beginning of city lockdown, the change of traffic density is a good indicator to reflect the intracity population flow. Therefore, in this paper, we collected time-series high-resolution remote sensing images with the resolution of 1m acquired before, during and after Wuhan lockdown by GF-2 satellite. Vehicles on the road were extracted and counted for the statistics of traffic density to reflect the changes of human transmissions in the whole period of Wuhan lockdown. Open Street Map was used to obtain observation road surfaces, and a vehicle detection method combing morphology filter and deep learning was utilized to extract vehicles with the accuracy of 62.56%. According to the experimental results, the traffic density of Wuhan dropped with the percentage higher than 80%, and even higher than 90% on main roads during city lockdown;after lockdown lift, the traffic density recovered to the normal rate. Traffic density distributions also show the obvious reduction and increase throughout the whole study area. The significant reduction and recovery of traffic density indicates that the lockdown policy in Wuhan show effectiveness in controlling human transmission inside the city, and the city returned to normal after lockdown lift.

8.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21268271

ABSTRACT

BackgroundWe report results of immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of SOBERANA 02 in a two-dose or three-dose heterologous scheme in adults in a phase IIb clinical trial. MethodThis phase IIb trial was designed as parallel, multicentre, adaptive, double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled. Subjects (N=810) aged 19-80 years were randomized to receive two doses of the recombinant SARS CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) conjugated to tetanus toxoid (SOBERANA 02) and a third dose of dimeric RBD (SOBERANA Plus) 28 days apart; two production batches of active ingredient of SOBERANA 02 were evaluated. Primary outcome was the percentage of seroconverted subjects with [≥]4-fold the anti-RBD IgG concentration. Secondary outcomes were safety, reactogenicity and neutralizing antibodies. ResultsSeroconversion rate in vaccinees was respectively 76.3 and 96.8% after two or three doses, compared with 7.3% in placebo group. Anti-RBD IgG increased significantly after first and second dose of SOBERANA 02 respect to placebo group; and the third dose with SOBERANA Plus boosts the response compared to the second dose. Neutralizing IgG antibodies were detected against D614G and VOCs , {beta} and {delta}. Specific and functional antibodies were detected at least until 7-8 months after the third dose. The frequency of serious adverse events (AEs) associated with vaccination was very low (0.1%); with only one serious AE consistent with vaccination. Local pain was the most frequent AE. ConclusionsTwo doses of SOBERANA 02 were well tolerated, safe an immunogenic in adults aged 19-80 years old. The heterologous combination with a third dose of SOBERANA Plus increased neutralizing antibodies, detectable 7-8 months after finishing the vaccination schedule. Trial registryhttps://rpcec.sld.cu/trials/RPCEC00000347

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295322

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus Covid-19 mutates quickly in the pandemic, leaves people struggling to verify and improve the effectiveness of the vaccine based on biochemistry. Is there any physical invariant in the variants of such kind of pathogen that could be taken advantage to ease the tensions? To this point, extensive numerical experiments based on continuity mechanics were carried out to discover the vibration modes and the range of natural frequency of coronavirus Covid-19. Such invariant could help us in developing some flexible technique to deactivate the coronavirus, like as resonantly breaking the viral spike by ultrasound wave. The fundamental mechanisms governing such process are demonstrated via solving the coupled equations of acoustics and dynamics and thereafter the technique strategies proposed to efficiently realize the concept.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293139

ABSTRACT

Background: SOBERANA 02 is a COVID19 conjugate vaccine candidate based on SARS CoV2 recombinant RBD conjugated to tetanus toxoid. SOBERANA Plus antigen is dimericRBD. Here we report safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity from phase I and IIa clinical trials using two doses SOBERANA 02 (homologous protocol) and three doses (homologous) or heterologous (with SOBERANA Plus) protocols. Method We performed an open label, monocentric, sequential and adaptive phase I for evaluating safety, reactogenicity and exploring immunogenicity of SOBERANA 02 in two formulations (15 and 25 microg) in 40 subjects, 19 to 59 years old. Phase IIa was open label including 100 volunteers 19 to 80 years, receiving two doses of SOBERANA 02 25 microg. In both trials, half of volunteers received a third dose of SOBERANA 02, half received a heterologous dose of SOBERANA Plus 50 microg. Primary outcomes were safety and reactogenicity. The secondary outcome was vaccine immunogenicity evaluated by anti RBD IgG ELISA, molecular neutralization test of RBD:hACE2 interaction, live virus neutralization test and specific T cells response. Results The most frequent AE was local pain, other AEs had frequencies lower than 5%. No serious related AEs were reported. Phase IIa confirmed the safety results in 60 to 80 years subjects. In phase I SOBERANA 02 25 microg elicited higher immune response than SOBERANA 02 15 microg;in consequence, the higher dose progressed to phase IIa. Phase IIa results confirmed the immunogenicity of SOBERANA 02 25 microg. even in 60 to 80 age range. Two doses of SOBERANA02 25 microg elicited an immune response similar to that of the Cuban Convalescent Serum Panel;it was higher after both the homologous and heterologous third doses;the heterologous scheme showing a higher immunological response. Conclusions SOBERANA 02 was safe and immunogenic in persons aged 19 to 80 years, eliciting neutralizing antibodies and specific T cell response. Highest immune responses were obtained in the heterologous three doses protocol. Trial registry: https://rpcec.sld.cu/trials/RPCEC00000340 and https://rpcec.sld.cu/trials/RPCEC00000347

11.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266309

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSOBERANA 02 is a COVID-19 conjugate vaccine candidate based on SARS-CoV-2 recombinant RBD conjugated to tetanus toxoid. SOBERANA Plus antigen is dimeric-RBD. Here we report safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity from phase I and IIa clinical trials using two-doses SOBERANA 02 (homologous protocol) and three-doses (homologous) or heterologous (with SOBERANA Plus) protocols. MethodWe performed an open-label, monocentric, sequential and adaptive phase I for evaluating safety, reactogenicity and exploring immunogenicity of SOBERANA 02 in two formulations (15 and 25 g) in 40 subjects, 19-59 years old. Phase IIa was open-label including 100 volunteers 19-80 years, receiving two doses of SOBERANA 02-25 g. In both trials, half of volunteers received a third dose of SOBERANA 02, half received a heterologous dose of SOBERANA Plus-50 g. Primary outcomes were safety and reactogenicity. The secondary outcome was vaccine immunogenicity evaluated by anti-RBD IgG ELISA, molecular neutralization test of RBD:hACE2 interaction, live-virus neutralization test and specific T-cells response. ResultsThe most frequent AE was local pain, other AEs had frequencies [≤] 5%. No serious related AEs were reported. Phase IIa confirmed the safety results in 60-80 years subjects. In phase-I SOBERANA 02-25{micro}g elicited higher immune response than SOBERANA 02-15 {micro}g; in consequence, the higher dose progressed to phase IIa. Phase IIa results confirmed the immunogenicity of SOBERANA 02-25 g even in 60-80 age range. Two doses of SOBERANA02-25 g elicited an immune response similar to that of the Cuban Convalescent Serum Panel; it was higher after both the homologous and heterologous third doses; the heterologous scheme showing a higher immunological response. ConclusionsSOBERANA 02 was safe and immunogenic in persons aged 19-80 years, eliciting neutralizing antibodies and specific T cell response. Highest immune responses were obtained in the heterologous three doses protocol. Trial registry: https://rpcec.sld.cu/trials/RPCEC00000340 and https://rpcec.sld.cu/trials/RPCEC00000347

12.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21264522

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is the target for many COVID-19 vaccines. Here we report results for phase 1 clinical trial of two COVID-19 vaccine candidates based on recombinant dimeric RBD (d-RBD). MethodsWe performed a randomized, double-blind, phase I clinical trial in the National Centre of Toxicology in Havana. Sixty Cuban volunteers aged 19-59 years were randomized into three groups (20 subjects each): 1) FINLAY-FR-1 (50 mcg d-RBD plus outer membrane vesicles from N. meningitidis); 2) FINLAY-FR-1A-50 mcg d-RBD (three doses); 3) FINLAY-FR-1A-25 mcg d-RDB (three doses). The FINLAY-FR-1 group was randomly divided to receive a third dose of the same vaccine candidate (homologous schedule) or of FINLAY-FR-1A-50 (heterologous schedule). The primary outcomes were safety and reactogenicity. The secondary outcome was vaccine immunogenicity. Humoral response at baseline and following each vaccination was evaluated using live-virus neutralization test, anti-RBD IgG ELISA and in-vitro neutralization test of RBD:hACE2 interaction. ResultsMost adverse events were of mild intensity (63.5%), solicited (58.8%), and local (61.8%); 69.4% with causal association with vaccination. Serious adverse events were not found. The FINLAY-FR-1 group reported more adverse events than the other two groups. After the third dose, anti-RBD seroconversion was 100%, 94.4% and 90% for the FINLAY-FR-1, FINLAY-FR-1A-50 and FINLAY-FR-1A-25 respectively. The in-vitro inhibition of RBD:hACE2 interaction increased after the second dose in all formulations. The geometric mean neutralizing titres after the third dose rose significantly in the group vaccinated with FINLAY-FR-1 with respect to the other formulations and the COVID-19 Convalescent Serum Panel. No differences were found between FINLAY-FR-1 homologous or heterologous schedules. ConclusionsVaccine candidates were safe and immunogenic, and induced live-virus neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. The highest values were obtained when outer membrane vesicles were used as adjuvant. Trial registryhttps://rpcec.sld.cu/en/trials/RPCEC00000338-En

13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Zhejiang Province is one of the five provinces in China that had the highest incidence of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Zhejiang, ranked fourth highest in COVID-19 incidence, is located in the Yangtze River Delta region of southeast China. This study was undertaken to identify the space-time characteristics of COVID-19 in Zhejiang. METHODS: Data on COVID-19 cases in Zhejiang Province from January to July 2020 were obtained from this network system. Individual information on cases and deaths was imported, and surveillance information, including demographic characteristics and geographic and temporal distributions, was computed by the system. The Knox test was used to identify possible space-time interactions to test whether cases that are close in distance were also close in time. Network analysis was performed to determine the relationship among the cases in a transmission community and to try to identify the key nodes. RESULTS: In total, 1475 COVID-19 cases and 1 fatal case were reported from January to July 2020 in Zhejiang Province, China. Most of the cases occurred before February 15th, which accounted for 90.10%. The imported cases increased and became the main risk in Zhejiang Province after February 2020. The risk areas showed strong heterogeneity according to the Knox test. The areas at short distances within 1 kilometer and at brief periods within 5 days presented relatively high risk. The numbers of subcommunities for the four clusters were 12, 9, 6 and 4. There was obvious heterogeneity in the modularity of subcommunities. The maximum values of the node centrality for the four clusters were 2.9474, 4.3706, 4.1080 and 2.7500. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 was brought under control over a short period in Zhejiang Province. Imported infections from outside of mainland China then became a new challenge. The effects of spatiotemporal interaction exhibited interval heterogeneity. The characteristics of transmission showed short range and short term risks. The importance to the cluster of each case was detected, and the key patients were identified. It is suggested that we should focus on key patients in complex conditions and in situations with limited control resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
14.
Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf ; 103: 102503, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356278

ABSTRACT

In order to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, Wuhan was the first city to implement strict lockdown policy in 2020. Even though numerous researches have discussed the travel restriction between cities and provinces, few studies focus on the effect of transportation control inside the city due to the lack of the measurement and available data in Wuhan. Since the public transports have been shut down in the beginning of city lockdown, the change of traffic density is a good indicator to reflect the intracity population flow. Therefore, in this paper, we collected time-series high-resolution remote sensing images with the resolution of 1 m acquired before, during and after Wuhan lockdown by GF-2 satellite. Vehicles on the road were extracted and counted for the statistics of traffic density to reflect the changes of human transmissions in the whole period of Wuhan lockdown. Open Street Map was used to obtain observation road surfaces, and a vehicle detection method combing morphology filter and deep learning was utilized to extract vehicles with the accuracy of 62.56%. According to the experimental results, the traffic density of Wuhan dropped with the percentage higher than 80%, and even higher than 90% on main roads during city lockdown; after lockdown lift, the traffic density recovered to the normal rate. Traffic density distributions also show the obvious reduction and increase throughout the whole study area. The significant reduction and recovery of traffic density indicates that the lockdown policy in Wuhan show effectiveness in controlling human transmission inside the city, and the city returned to normal after lockdown lift.

15.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 121(2): 454-466, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330958

ABSTRACT

This review evaluates the ability of the fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB-4) identifying fibrosis stages, long-time prognosis in chronic liver disease, and short-time outcomes in acute liver injury. FIB-4 was accurate in predicting the absence or presence of advanced fibrosis with cut-offs of 1.0 and 2.65 for viral hepatitis B, 1.45 and 3.25 for viral hepatitis C, 1.30 (<65 years), 2.0 (≥65 years), and 2.67 for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), respectively, but had a low-to-moderate accuracy in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and autoimmune hepatitis. It performed better in excluding fibrosis, so we built an algorithm for identifying advanced fibrosis by combined methods and giving work-up and follow-up suggestions. High FIB-4 in viral hepatitis, NAFLD, and ALD was associated with significantly high hepatocellular carcinoma incidence and mortality. Additionally, FIB-4 showed the ability to predict high-risk varices with cut-offs of 2.87 and 3.91 in cirrhosis patients and predict long-term survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after hepatectomy. In acute liver injury caused by COVID-19, FIB-4 had a predictive value for mechanical ventilation and 30-day mortality. Finally, FIB-4 may act as a screening tool in the secondary prevention of NAFLD in the high-risk population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Neoplasms , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Fibrosis , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21260618

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted the importance of an international standard (IS) for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody titer detection, with the aim of calibrating different diagnostic techniques. In this study, IS was applied to calibrate neutralizing antibody titers (IU/mL) and binding antibody titers (BAU/mL) in response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Serum samples were collected from participants receiving the Moderna (n = 20) and Pfizer (n = 20) vaccines at three time points: pre-vaccination, after one dose, and after two doses. We obtained geometric mean titers of 1404.16 and 928.75 IU/mL for neutralizing antibodies after two doses of the Moderna and Pfizer vaccines, respectively. These values provide an important baseline for vaccine development and the implementation of non-inferiority trials. We also compared three commercially available kits from Roche, Abbott, and MeDiPro for the detection of COVID-19 antibodies based on binding affinity to S1 and/or RBD. Our results demonstrated that antibody titers measured by commercial assays are highly correlated with neutralizing antibody titers calibrated by IS.

17.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21258672

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 vaccination widely implemented in most countries, propelled by the need to revive the tourism economy, there is a growing prospect for relieving the social distancing regulation and reopening borders in tourism-oriented countries and regions. The need incentivizes stakeholders to develop border control strategies that fully evaluate health risks if mandatory quarantines are lifted. In this study, we have employed a computational approach to investigate the contact tracing integrated policy in different border reopening scenarios in Hong Kong, China. Built on a modified SEIR epidemic model with a 30% vaccination coverage, the results suggest that scenarios with digital contact tracing and quick isolation intervention can reduce the infectious population by 92.11% compared to those without contact tracing. By further restricting the inbound population with a 10,000 daily quota and applying moderate-to-strong community non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs), the average daily confirmed cases in the forecast period of 60 days can be well controlled at around 9 per day (95% CI: 7-12). Two main policy recommendations are drawn from the study. First, digital contact tracing would be an effective countermeasure for reducing local virus spread, especially when it is applied along with a moderate level of vaccination coverage. Second, implementing a daily quota on inbound travelers and restrictive community NPIs would further keep the local infection under control. This study offers scientific evidence and prospective guidance for developing and instituting plans to lift mandatory border control policies in preparing for the global economic recovery.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25951, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262277

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: During outbreaks of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries adopted quarantine to slow the spread of the virus of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Quarantine will cause isolation from families, friends, and the public, which consequently leads to serious psychological pressure with potentially long-lasting effects on the quarantined population. Experience of specific practices to improve the psychological status of the mandatory quarantined population was limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of mandatory quarantine, and evaluate the effect of psychological intervention on the quarantined population.We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess and manage the psychological status of a mandatory quarantined population in Beijing, China. A total of 638 individuals completed 2 questionnaires and were enrolled in this study, of which 372 participants accepted designed psychological intervention while other 266 participants refused it. The SCL-90 questionnaire was used to evaluate the psychological status and its change before and after the intervention. The differences of SCL-90 factor scores between participants and the national norm group were assessed by 2 samples t test. While the SCL-90 factor scores before and after intervention were compared with 2 paired samples t test.Compared with the Chinese norms of SCL-90, the participants had higher SCL-90 factor scores in most items of the SCL-90 inventory. The SCL-90 factor scores of participants with psychological intervention significantly decreased in somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. In contrast, most factor scores of the SCL-90 inventory changed little without statistical significance in participants without psychological intervention.Psychological problems should be emphasized in the quarantined individuals and professional psychological intervention was a feasible approach to improve the psychological status of the mandatory quarantined population in the epidemic of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 626609, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259344

ABSTRACT

Accurate detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies provides a more accurate estimation of incident cases, epidemic dynamics, and risk of community transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study specifically targeting different populations to examine the performance of pandemic control in Taiwan: symptomatic patients with epidemiological risk and negative qRT-PCR test (Group P), frontline healthcare workers (Group H), healthy adult citizens (Group C), and participants with prior virologically-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infection in 2003 (Group S). The presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 total and IgG antibodies in all participants were determined by Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 test and Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay, respectively. Sera that showed positive results by the two chemiluminescent immunoassays were further tested by three anti-SARS-CoV-2 lateral flow immunoassays and line immunoassay (MIKROGEN recomLine SARS-CoV-2 IgG). Between June 29 and July 25, 2020, sera of 2,115 participates, including 499 Group P participants, 464 Group H participants, 1,142 Group C participants, and 10 Group S participants, were tested. After excluding six false-positive samples, SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence were 0.4, 0, and 0% in Groups P, H, and C, respectively. Cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was observed in 80.0% of recovered SARS participants. Our study showed that rigorous exclusion of false-positive testing results is imperative for an accurate estimate of seroprevalence in countries with previous SARS outbreak and low COVID-19 prevalence. The overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was extremely low among populations of different exposure risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 in Taiwan, supporting the importance of integrated countermeasures in containing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 before effective COVID-19 vaccines available.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Taiwan/epidemiology
20.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21252091

ABSTRACT

We evaluated response to a single dose of the FINLAY-FR-1A recombinant dimeric-RBD base vaccine during a phase I clinical trial with 30 COVID-19 convalescents, to test its capacity for boosting natural immunity. This short report shows: a) an excellent safety profile one month after vaccination for all participants, similar to that previously found during vaccination of naive individuals; b) a single dose of vaccine induces a >20 fold increase in antibody response one week after vaccination and remarkably 4-fold higher virus neutralization compared to the median obtained for Cuban convalescent serum panel. These preliminary results prompt initiation of a phase II trial in order to establish a general vaccination protocol for convalescents.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL