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2.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 18(2): 319-326, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816974

ABSTRACT

Airborne transmission is much more common than previously thought. Based on our knowledge about SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) infection, the aerosol transmission routes for all respiratory infections must be reassessed. Thus far, the COVID-19 outbreak has caused catastrophic public health and economic crises, posing a serious threat to the lives and health of people around the world and directing public attention toward the airborne transmission of pathogens. The novel coronavirus transmission in the form of nanoaerosols in a wider range hinders prevention and early warning efforts. As a classical bioaerosol sampler, the Andersen six-stage sampler is widely used in the collection and research of aerosol particles. In this study, the physical and biological collection efficiency of the six-stage sampler was explored by qPCR and colony counting method. Results showed that the physical collection efficiency reached more than 50% when the particle size was larger than 0.75 µm. However, the overall biological collection efficiency was only 0.25%. In addition, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used to detect the microbial state after sampling, and the results showed that the proportion of the collected live bacteria was less than 15% of the total. This result is of great significance not only for the application of the Andersen six-stage sampler in collecting nanosized bioaerosols, but also provides reference for the selection of subsequent detection technologies for effective collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Aerosols/analysis , Humans , Particle Size , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(5): 2452-2453, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788831
4.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(14): 293-297, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786625

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic?: Compared with the international mRNA and adenovirus-vectored coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, there is less real-world research data about breakthrough cases in people vaccinated with China-made COVID-19 vaccines. Analyses of clinical outcomes of breakthrough cases will be an important supplement to the clinical trial efficacy and observational effectiveness data of China-made COVID-19 vaccines. What is added by this report?: COVID-19 vaccine age-eligible individuals (≥3 years old) who received full primary series and a booster dose of China-made COVID-19 vaccines had good protection from pneumonia caused by Delta variant infection. There was only one serious Delta case in children (unvaccinated), but among adults 18 years and older, there was good protection from serious illness with primary vaccination and booster vaccination. Among people ≥60 years, full vaccination and booster vaccination were associated with protection from pneumonia and risk of serious COVID-19 caused by Omicron variant infection. There were few serious Omicron cases. What are the implications for public health practice?: Everyone 3 years and older without contraindications should be fully vaccinated against COVID-19; schedule-eligible adults should receive booster doses. The pace of booster dose administration, especially among the elderly, should be accelerated.

5.
Vaccine ; 40(20): 2869-2874, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In partial response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, countries around the world are conducting large-scale vaccination campaigns. Real-world estimates of vaccine effectiveness (VE) against the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant are still limited. An outbreak in Ruili city of Chinaprovided an opportunity to evaluate VE against the Delta variant of two types of COVID-19 vaccines in use in China and globally - inactivated (CoronaVac and BBIBP-CorV) and adenovirus type 5 vectored (Convidecia) vaccines. METHODS: We estimated VE using a retrospective cohort study two months after the Ruili vaccination campaign (median: 63 days). Close contacts of infected people (Chinese nationality, 18 years and above) were included to assess VE against symptomatic Covid-19, COVID-19 pneumonia, and severe COVID-19. We calculated the relative risks (RR) of the outcomes for unvaccinated compared with fully vaccinated individuals. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate adjusted VEs, controlling for gender and age group (18-59 years and 60 years and over).We compared unvaccinated and fully vaccinated individuals on duration of RT-PCR positivity and Ct value. FINDINGS: There were 686 close contacts eligible for VE estimates. Adjusted VE ofad5-vectored vaccine was 61.5% (95% CI, 9.5-83.6) against symptomatic COVID-19, 67.9% (95%CI: 1.7-89.9) against pneumonia, and 100% (95%CI: 36.6-100) against severe/critical illness. For the two inactivated vaccines, combined VE was 74.6% (95% CI, 36.0-90.0) against symptomatic COVID-19, 76.7% (95% CI: 19.3-93.3) against pneumonia, and 100% (95% CI: 47.6-100) against severe/critical COVID-19. There were no statistically significant differences in VE between twoinactivated vaccines for symptomatic COVID-19 and for pneumonia, nor were there statistically significant differences between inactivated and ad5-vectored VE in any of the three outcomes. The median durations of RT-PCR positivity were 17 days for fifteen people vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine, 18 days for forty-four people vaccinated with the Ad5 vectored vaccine, and 26 days for eleven unvaccinated individuals. INTERPRETATION: These results provide reassuring evidence that the three vaccines are effective at preventing Delta-variant COVID-19 in short term following vaccination campaign, and are most effective at preventing more serious illness. The findings of reduced duration of RT-PCR positivity and length of hospital stay associated with full vaccination suggests potential saving of health-care system resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324259

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world deeply, with more than 3,000,000 people infected and nearly 200,000 deaths. This review aimed to summarize the epidemiologic traits, clinical spectrum, CT results and laboratory findings of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We scoped for relevant literatures published during 1 st Dec 2019 to 23 rd Apr 2020 based on four databases using English and Chinese languages. We reviewed and analyzed the relevant clinic outcomes of COVID-19. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic was found to have a higher transmission rate compared to SARS and MERS and involved 4 stages of evolution. The basic reproduction number (R 0 ) is 3.32 (95% CI:3.24-3.39), the incubation period was 5.24 days (95% CI:3.97-6.50, 5 studies) on average, and the average time for symptoms onset varied by countries. Common clinical spectrums identified included fever (38.1-39.0℃), cough and fatigue, with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) being the most common complication reported. Body temperatures above 39.0 ℃, dyspnea, and anorexia were more common symptoms in severe patients. Aged over 60 years old, having co-morbidities, and developing complications were the commonest high-risk factors associated with severe conditions. Leucopenia and lymphopenia were the most common signs of infection while liver and kidney damage were rare but may cause bad outcomes for patients. The bilateral, multifocal Ground-Glass Opacification (GGO) on peripheral, and the consolidative pulmonary opacity were the most frequent CT results and the tendency of mortality rates differed by region. Conclusions: We provided a bird’s-eye view of the COVID-19 during the current pandemic, which will help better understanding the key traits of the disease. The findings could be used for disease’s future research, control and prevention.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324120

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic brings unprecedented uncertainty and stress. This study aimed to characterize sleep behaviors among Chinese residents during the early stage of the outbreak and to test the extent to which sleep quality was driven by COVID-19 uncertainty, intolerance of uncertainty, and perceived stress. Methods. A cross-sectional correlational survey was conducted online. A total of 2,534 Chinese residents were recruited from February 7 to 14, 2020, the third week of lockdown. Self-report measures assessed uncertainty about COVID-19, intolerance of uncertainty, perceived stress, and sleep quality. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the relationships among uncertainty about COVID-19, intolerance of uncertainty, perceived stress, and sleep quality. Results. Sleep disturbance was common, with approximately half of participants (47.1%) reporting going to bed after 12:00am, 23.0% taking 30 minutes or longer to fall asleep, and 30.3% sleeping a total of 7 hours or less. Higher uncertainty about COVID-19 was significantly positively correlated with higher intolerance of uncertainty (r = 0.506, p < 0.001). Uncertainty about COVID-19 had a weak direct effect on poor sleep (β = 0.043, p < 0.05);however, there was a robust indirect effect on poor sleep through intolerance of uncertainty (β = 0.506, p < 0.001) and perceived stress (β = 0.479, p < 0.001). Conclusions. These findings suggest that intolerance of uncertainty and perceived stress are critical targets for reducing sleep disturbance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the sustained uncertainties and challenges managing COVID-19, it is likely that, if unmanaged, COVID-19 related uncertainty will persist and continue to impact sleep outcomes.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323798

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 has become a pandemic worldwide. 216 countries and regions reported their occurrence of COVID-19 cases by 19 th Sep 2020. Meanwhile, the COVID-19 had infected more than 30 million people and caused almost one million deaths until 19 th Sep 2020. Method: We scoped data related to reported epidemic durations, incidences, fatalities, and epidemic risk factors of the studied countries. Disease Development Speed (DDS), Population-Level Incidence (PLI), and Case-Fatality Rate (CFR) were calculated to assess the COVID-19 pandemic globally. The Spearman rank correlation was applied to further explore the relationship among DDS, PLI, CFR, and their influencing factors. Result: 216 countries and regions had reported their COVID-19 cases by 19 th Sep 2020. Globally, the medians of epidemic duration, DDS, PLI, and CFR were 167 days (IQR: 158-175 days;Range: 110-221 days),4.6 (IQR: 3.1-6.0;Range: 1.8-10.1), 17.0 (IQR: 5.3-56.0;Range: 0.36-1758.3), and 2.2% (IQR: 1.3%-3.5%) respectively. DDS, PLI, and CFR were found enjoying positive correlations with the urban population proportion, UHC (Universal Health Coverage) service coverage, the population with basic handwashing facilities at home, the number of reported deaths, and the number of doctors and nurses. Conclusion: Nationwide development of the COVID-19, its incidence and fatality suggested regional similarity in the world. National population structure, human resources of medical staff, structure of national health expenditure, and the sanitation facility were revealed as vital risk factors for the COVID-19 in epidemiology.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315889

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to investigate the potential risk factors associated with hospital stay in mild patients with COVID-19. Methods A total of 109 laboratory-confirmed COVID patients with initial common subtype diseased by real-time RT-PCR that meet discharge standards were retrospectively included from January 16 to March 15 of 2020. Baseline demographic, clinical, laboratory examination was extracted from electronic medical records at the first day of admission and compared between short-term hospital stay and long-term hospital stay. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods were used to explore the risk factors associated with hospital stay. Results Of 109 COVID-19 patients, 61 patients were short-term stay (≤ 10 days) and 48 patients were long-term stay (> 10 days). The average age of patients in short-term stay were younger than those long-term stay(P = 0.01). Hypertension was the most common comorbidity (34%, 21/61), followed by diabetes (15%,9/61) and Cardiopathy (8%, 5/61). Fever and cough were the typical clinical manifestation in two group. Decreased WBC, Hemoglobin and increased Monocyte, MLR (Monocyte Lymphocyte ratio) and Hypersensitive CRP showed a long-term stay (all P < 0.05). The treatment of Resochin and Human immunoglobulin had a shorter hospital stay. Multivariable regression showed that MLR and CRP on admission were risk factors for predicting the hospital stay, with the HR (hazard ratio 2.03, 1.02–5.39;P = 0.022) and (1.32,1.05–3.24, P = 0.045) respectively. Conclusions The potential risk factors of MLR and CRP may help clinicians to predict the hospital stay of COVID-19 patients.

10.
PLoS Med ; 19(2): e1003928, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital network-based methods may enhance peer distribution of HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits, but interventions that can optimize this approach are needed. We aimed to assess whether monetary incentives and peer referral could improve a secondary distribution program for HIVST among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between October 21, 2019 and September 14, 2020, a 3-arm randomized controlled, single-blinded trial was conducted online among 309 individuals (defined as index participants) who were assigned male at birth, aged 18 years or older, ever had male-to-male sex, willing to order HIVST kits online, and consented to take surveys online. We randomly assigned index participants into one of the 3 arms: (1) standard secondary distribution (control) group (n = 102); (2) secondary distribution with monetary incentives (SD-M) group (n = 103); and (3) secondary distribution with monetary incentives plus peer referral (SD-M-PR) group (n = 104). Index participants in 3 groups were encouraged to order HIVST kits online and distribute to members within their social networks. Members who received kits directly from index participants or through peer referral links from index MSM were defined as alters. Index participants in the 2 intervention groups could receive a fixed incentive ($3 USD) online for the verified test result uploaded to the digital platform by each unique alter. Index participants in the SD-M-PR group could additionally have a personalized peer referral link for alters to order kits online. Both index participants and alters needed to pay a refundable deposit ($15 USD) for ordering a kit. All index participants were assigned an online 3-month follow-up survey after ordering kits. The primary outcomes were the mean number of alters motivated by index participants in each arm and the mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants in each arm. These were assessed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression to determine the group differences in the mean number of alters and the mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants. Analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. We also conducted an economic evaluation using microcosting from a health provider perspective with a 3-month time horizon. The mean number of unique tested alters motivated by index participants was 0.57 ± 0.96 (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) in the control group, compared with 0.98 ± 1.38 in the SD-M group (mean difference [MD] = 0.41),and 1.78 ± 2.05 in the SD-M-PR group (MD = 1.21). The mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants was 0.16 ± 0.39 (mean ± SD) in the control group, compared with 0.41 ± 0.73 in the SD-M group (MD = 0.25) and 0.57 ± 0.91 in the SD-M-PR group (MD = 0.41), respectively. Results indicated that index participants in intervention arms were more likely to motivate unique tested alters (control versus SD-M: incidence rate ratio [IRR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.82 to 4.89, p-value < 0.001; control versus SD-M-PR: IRR = 3.26, 95% CI = 2.29 to 4.63, p-value < 0.001) and newly tested alters (control versus SD-M: IRR = 4.22, 95% CI = 1.93 to 9.23, p-value < 0.001; control versus SD-M-PR: IRR = 3.49, 95% CI = 1.92 to 6.37, p-value < 0.001) to conduct HIVST. The proportion of newly tested testers among alters was 28% in the control group, 42% in the SD-M group, and 32% in the SD-M-PR group. A total of 18 testers (3 index participants and 15 alters) tested as HIV positive, and the HIV reactive rates for alters were similar between the 3 groups. The total costs were $19,485.97 for 794 testers, including 450 index participants and 344 alter testers. Overall, the average cost per tester was $24.54, and the average cost per alter tester was $56.65. Monetary incentives alone (SD-M group) were more cost-effective than monetary incentives with peer referral (SD-M-PR group) on average in terms of alters tested and newly tested alters, despite SD-M-PR having larger effects. Compared to the control group, the cost for one more alter tester in the SD-M group was $14.90 and $16.61 in the SD-M-PR group. For newly tested alters, the cost of one more alter in the SD-M group was $24.65 and $49.07 in the SD-M-PR group. No study-related adverse events were reported during the study. Limitations include the digital network approach might neglect individuals who lack internet access. CONCLUSIONS: Monetary incentives alone and the combined intervention of monetary incentives and peer referral can promote the secondary distribution of HIVST among MSM. Monetary incentives can also expand HIV testing by encouraging first-time testing through secondary distribution by MSM. This social network-based digital approach can be expanded to other public health research, especially in the era of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) ChiCTR1900025433.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Testing/instrumentation , Homosexuality, Male , Reimbursement, Incentive , Self-Testing , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , China , Costs and Cost Analysis , HIV Testing/economics , HIV Testing/methods , Humans , Male
11.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(4): 57-65, 2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631490

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS TOPIC?: Effectiveness of China's 2 inactivated vaccines (BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac) against pre-Delta severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants ranged from 47% to over 90%, depending on the clinical endpoint, and with greater effectiveness against more severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). During an outbreak in Guangdong, inactivated vaccine effectiveness (VE) against the Delta variant was 70% for symptomatic infection and 100% for severe COVID-19. However, separate or combined VE estimates for the two inactivated vaccines against Delta are not available. WHAT IS ADDED BY THIS REPORT?: In an outbreak that started in a hospital, VEs of completed primary vaccination with inactivated COVID-19 vaccines against symptomatic COVID-19, COVID-19 pneumonia, and severe COVID-19 caused by the Delta variant were 51%, 61%, and 82%. Completed primary vaccination reduced the risk of progressing from mild to moderate or severe COVID-19 by 74%. VE estimates for BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac or combined vaccination were similar, and partial vaccination was ineffective. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE?: Completed primary vaccination with either of the 2 inactivated COVID-19 vaccines reduces risk of symptomatic COVID-19, COVID-19 pneumonia, and severe COVID-19 caused by the Delta variant. Completion of the completed primary vaccination with two doses is necessary for protection from Delta.

12.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 778011, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581384

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide and is the main microvascular complication of diabetes. The increasing prevalence of diabetes has increased the need for effective treatment of DKD and identification of new therapeutic targets for better clinical management. Mitophagy is a highly conserved process that selectively removes damaged or unnecessary mitochondria via the autophagic machinery. Given the important role of mitophagy in the increased risk of DKD, especially with the recent surge in COVID-19-associated diabetic complications, in this review, we provide compelling evidence for maintaining homeostasis in the glomeruli and tubules and its underlying mechanisms, and offer new insights into potential therapeutic approaches for treatment of DKD.

13.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(7):641-644, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1436126

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in July 2021.

14.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(9): e25781, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384195

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected antiretroviral therapy (ART) continuity among people living with HIV (PLHIV) worldwide. We conducted a qualitative study to explore barriers to ART maintenance and solutions to ART interruption when stringent COVID-19 control measures were implemented in China, from the perspective of PLHIV and relevant key stakeholders. METHODS: Between 11 February and 15 February 2020, we interviewed PLHIV, community-based organization (CBO) workers, staff from centres for disease control and prevention (CDC) at various levels whose work is relevant to HIV care (CDC staff), HIV doctors and nurses and drug vendors from various regions in China. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using a messaging and social media app. Challenges and responses relevant to ART continuity during the COVID-19 pandemic were discussed. Themes were identified by transcript coding and mindmaps. RESULTS: Sixty-four stakeholders were recruited, including 16 PLHIV, 17 CBO workers, 15 CDC staff, 14 HIV doctors and nurses and two drug vendors. Many CDC staff, HIV doctors and nurses responsible for ART delivery and HIV care were shifted to COVID-19 response efforts. Barriers to ART maintenance were (a) travel restrictions, (b) inadequate communication and bureaucratic obstacles, (c) shortage in personnel, (d) privacy concerns, and (e) insufficient ART reserve. CBO helped PLHIV maintain access to ART through five solutions identified from thematic analysis: (a) coordination to refill ART from local CDC clinics or hospitals, (b) delivery of ART by mail, (c) privacy protection measures, (d) mental health counselling, and (e) providing connections to alternative sources of ART. Drug vendors contributed to ART maintenance by selling out-of-pocket ART. CONCLUSIONS: Social and institutional disruption from COVID-19 contributed to increased risk of ART interruption among PLHIV in China. Collaboration among key stakeholders was needed to maintain access to ART, with CBO playing an important role. Other countries facing ART interruption during current or future public health emergencies may learn from the solutions employed in China.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/supply & distribution , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , COVID-19 , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Stakeholder Participation
16.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(2): 237-268, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365230

ABSTRACT

Intestinal flora is essential for maintaining host health and plays a unique role in transforming Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). TCM, as a bodyguard, has saved countless lives and maintained human health in the long history, especially in this COVID-19 pandemic. Pains of diseases have been removed from the effective TCM therapy, such as TCM preparation, moxibustion, and acupuncture. With the development of life science and technology, the wisdom and foresight of TCM has been more displayed. Furthermore, TCM has been also inherited and developed in innovation to better realize the modernization and globalization. Nowadays, intestinal flora transforming TCM and TCM targeted intestinal flora treating diseases have been important findings in life science. More and more TCM researches showed the significance of intestinal flora. Intestinal flora is also a way to study TCM to elucidate the profound theory of TCM. Processing, compatibility, and properties of TCM are well demonstrated by intestinal flora. Thus, it is no doubt that intestinal flora is a core in TCM study. The interaction between intestinal flora and TCM is so crucial for host health. Therefore, it is necessary to sum up the latest results in time. This paper systematically depicted the profile of TCM and the importance of intestinal flora in host. What is more, we comprehensively summarized and discussed the latest progress of the interplay between TCM and intestinal flora to better reveal the core connotation of TCM.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Autoimmune Diseases/microbiology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/microbiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/microbiology , Metabolic Diseases/therapy , Neoplasms/microbiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/microbiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Obesity/microbiology , Obesity/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/microbiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
The Electronic Library ; 39(2):296-317, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1360384

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to construct an indicator framework for evaluating open health data portals from the perspective of user experience (UX) to reduce users’ learning costs, save their time and energy and strengthen the emotional connection with users, thereby encouraging them to actively use open health data.Design/methodology/approachThis study uses card sorting, Delphi and analytic hierarchy process to determine the weights of indicators for evaluating open health data portals. Then, this study uses a coding method to score, evaluate and compare the selection of more than 120 open health data portals supported by organizations in more than 100 countries or regions that are in the World's top confirmed cases of COVID-19 as released by the World Health Organization.FindingsAt present, open health data portals have shortcomings with regard to UX. Different types of open health data portals vary significantly in the dimensions of technical experience and functional experience, but the differences in the dimensions of aesthetic experience, emotional experience and content experience are not significant.Originality/valueThe constructed open health data portal evaluation indicator framework introduces users' actual application needs and proposes optimization suggestions for the portal to meet the needs of users to quickly obtain, reliable and accurate health data.

20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 306, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic brings unprecedented uncertainty and stress. This study aimed to characterize general sleep status among Chinese residents during the early stage of the outbreak and to explore the network relationship among COVID-19 uncertainty, intolerance of uncertainty, perceived stress, and sleep status. METHODS: A cross-sectional correlational survey was conducted online. A total of 2534 Chinese residents were surveyed from 30 provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions of China and regions abroad during the period from February 7 to 14, 2020, the third week of lockdown. Final valid data from 2215 participants were analyzed. Self-report measures assessed uncertainty about COVID-19, intolerance of uncertainty, perceived stress, and general sleep status. Serial mediation analysis using the bootstrapping method and path analysis were applied to test the mediation role of intolerance of uncertainty and perceived stress in the relationship between uncertainty about COVID-19 and sleep status. RESULTS: The total score of sleep status was 4.82 (SD = 2.72). Age, place of residence, ethnicity, marital status, infection, and quarantine status were all significantly associated with general sleep status. Approximately half of participants (47.1%) reported going to bed after 12:00 am, 23.0% took 30 min or longer to fall asleep, and 30.3% slept a total of 7 h or less. Higher uncertainty about COVID-19 was significantly positively correlated with higher intolerance of uncertainty (r = 0.506, p < 0.001). The mediation analysis found a mediating role of perceived stress in the relationship between COVID-19 uncertainty and general sleep status (ß = 0.015, 95%C.I. = 0.009-0.021). However, IU was not a significant mediator of the relationship between COVID-19 uncertainty and sleep (ß = 0.009, 95%C.I. = - 0.002-0.020). Moreover, results from the path analysis further showed uncertainty about COVID-19 had a weak direct effect on poor sleep (ß = 0.043, p < 0.05); however, there was a robust indirect effect on poor sleep through intolerance of uncertainty and perceived stress. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that intolerance of uncertainty and perceived stress are critical factors in the relationship between COVID-19 uncertainty and sleep outcomes. Results are discussed in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and practical policy implications are also provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Uncertainty
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