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1.
Biomark Res ; 10(1): 4, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622265

ABSTRACT

The negatively charged aminophospholipid, phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), is located in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane in normal cells, and may be exposed to the outer leaflet under some immune and blood coagulation processes. Meanwhile, Ptdser exposed to apoptotic cells can be recognized and eliminated by various immune cells, whereas on the surface of activated platelets Ptdser interacts with coagulation factors prompting enhanced production of thrombin which significantly facilitates blood coagulation. In the case where PtdSer fails in exposure or mistakenly occurs, there are occurrences of certain immunological and haematological diseases, such as the Scott syndrome and Systemic lupus erythematosus. Besides, viruses (e.g., Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Ebola virus (EBOV)) can invade host cells through binding the exposed PtdSer. Most recently, the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been similarly linked to PtdSer or its receptors. Therefore, it is essential to comprehensively understand PtdSer and its functional characteristics. Therefore, this review summarizes Ptdser, its eversion mechanism; interaction mechanism, particularly with its immune receptors and coagulation factors; recognition sites; and its function in immune and blood processes. This review illustrates the potential aspects for the underlying pathogenic mechanism of PtdSer-related diseases, and the discovery of new therapeutic strategies as well.

2.
Accid Anal Prev ; 165: 106478, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has reshaped our cities in many ways. The number of motor vehicles on the road has plummeted during lockdowns, and an increasing number of people are turning to walking and biking. From a road safety perspective, the overall question is what effects the human behavior shift brings on the crash occurrence and, more importantly, how to support decision-makers on safer mobility policies? METHOD: Based on anonymous mobile phone location and crash report data in New York City, this study attempts to provide some new insights by using survival analysis (the hazard function approach) to explore the effects of human mobility changes due to the pandemic on crashes that involve injuries and fatalities (of pedestrian, cyclist or motorist). RESULTS: (1) the increased percentage of people staying at home improves pedestrian and cyclist safety, which adds evidence for making walking and cycling more appealing; (2) the increased percentage of people staying at home raises the likelihood of injuries for motor vehicle drivers, suggesting that it will be critical to monitor the driving behavior and establish new speed limits during the future pandemic waves and in the post-pandemic era as well; (3) non-work trips (e.g., shopping, recreation, personal business, etc.) are positively associated with crash injuries for motor vehicle drivers as well as pedestrian and cyclist; (4) human mobility factors were found not related to crash fatalities; (5) control NPIs implemented increased the motor vehicle drivers' crash risk.

3.
Mucosal Immunol ; 14(5): 1144-1159, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550272

ABSTRACT

Increased IgE is a typical feature of allergic rhinitis. Local class-switch recombination has been intimated but B cell precursors and mechanisms remain elusive. Here we describe the dynamics underlying the generation of IgE-antibody secreting cells (ASC) in human nasal polyps (NP), mucosal tissues rich in ASC without germinal centers (GC). Using VH next generation sequencing, we identified an extrafollicular (EF) mucosal IgD+ naïve-like intermediate B cell population with high connectivity to the mucosal IgE ASC. Mucosal IgD+ B cells, express germline epsilon transcripts and predominantly co-express IgM. However, a small but significant fraction co-express IgG or IgA instead which also show connectivity to ASC IgE. Phenotypically, NP IgD+ B cells display an activated profile and molecular evidence of BCR engagement. Transcriptionally, mucosal IgD+ B cells reveal an intermediate profile between naïve B cells and ASC. Single cell IgE ASC analysis demonstrates lower mutational frequencies relative to IgG, IgA, and IgD ASC consistent with IgE ASC derivation from mucosal IgD+ B cell with low mutational load. In conclusion, we describe a novel mechanism of GC-independent, extrafollicular IgE ASC formation at the nasal mucosa whereby activated IgD+ naïve B cells locally undergo direct and indirect (through IgG and IgA), IgE class switch.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 706380, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502327

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to establish and validate the nomograms to predict the mortality risk of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using routine clinical indicators. This retrospective study included a development cohort enrolled 2,119 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and a validation cohort included 1,504 patients with COVID-19. The demographics, clinical manifestations, vital signs, and laboratory tests of the patients at admission and outcome of in-hospital death were recorded. The independent factors associated with death were identified by a forward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis and used to construct the two prognostic nomograms. The nomogram 1 was a full model to include nine factors identified in the multivariate logistic regression and nomogram 2 was built by selecting four factors from nine to perform as a reduced model. The nomogram 1 and nomogram 2 showed better performance in discrimination and calibration than the Multilobular infiltration, hypo-Lymphocytosis, Bacterial coinfection, Smoking history, hyper-Tension and Age (MuLBSTA) score in training. In validation, nomogram 1 performed better than nomogram 2 for calibration. We recommend the application of nomogram 1 in general hospitals which provide robust prognostic performance though more cumbersome; nomogram 2 in the out-patient, emergency department, and mobile cabin hospitals, which depend on less laboratory examinations to make the assessment more convenient. Both the nomograms can help the clinicians to identify the patients at risk of death with routine clinical indicators at admission, which may reduce the overall mortality of COVID-19.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259061, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496526

ABSTRACT

Effective, low-cost therapeutics are needed to prevent and treat COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 disease is linked to excessive inflammation. Disulfiram is an approved oral drug used to treat alcohol use disorder that is a potent anti-inflammatory agent and an inhibitor of the viral proteases. We investigated the potential effects of disulfiram on SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity in an observational study using a large database of clinical records from the national US Veterans Affairs healthcare system. A multivariable Cox regression adjusted for demographic information and diagnosis of alcohol use disorder revealed a reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection with disulfiram use at a hazard ratio of 0.66 (34% lower risk, 95% confidence interval 24-43%). There were no COVID-19 related deaths among the 188 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients treated with disulfiram, in contrast to 5-6 statistically expected deaths based on the untreated population (P = 0.03). Our epidemiological results suggest that disulfiram may contribute to the reduced incidence and severity of COVID-19. These results support carefully planned clinical trials to assess the potential therapeutic effects of disulfiram in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Disulfiram/therapeutic use , Adult , Alcoholism/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Disulfiram/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Veterans
6.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 31(14):2236-2240, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1451826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the status of contamination with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) in isolation wards of Huoshenshan Hospital so as to provide scientific basis for developing reasonable strategies of management of environmental health in isolation wards of COVID-19. METHODS: From Mar 9, 2020 to Mar 29, 2020, the samples were systematically collected from 2 common isolation wards that were randomly selected from Huoshenshan Hospital. The sampling objects included environmental samples, samples from personal protective equipment(PPE) of medical staff and samples from hands of medical staff. The samples were collected by cotton swab wiping method, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing was performed by real time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the testing results were colleted and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 244 samples were collected. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing showed that 1 sample that was collected from bedrail of a patient was tested positive among 171 environmental samples, with the positive rate 0.58%;all of the samples that were collected from PPE of 49 medical staff were tested negative;1 sample that was collected from the hands of a patient was tested positive among 24 samples that were collected from hands of patients and medical staff, with the positive rate 4.17%. CONCLUSION: It is an effective way to reasonably plan for layout of isolation ward and isolation procedure and rigidly implement the systems of environmental disinfection and hand hygiene so as to reduce the degree of contamination with SARS-CoV-2 in isolation wards, cut off the transmission routes of the virus and reduce the risk of exposure to nosocomial infection, meanwhile, it is necessary to strengthen the personal hygiene management during prevention and control of COVID-19.

8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 760, 2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread around the world. This retrospective study aims to analyze the clinical features of COVID-19 patients with cancer and identify death outcome related risk factors. METHODS: From February 10th to April 15th, 2020, 103 COVID-19 patients with cancer were enrolled. Difference analyses were performed between severe and non-severe patients. A propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed, including 103 COVID-19 patients with cancer and 206 matched non-cancer COVID-19 patients. Next, we identified death related risk factors and developed a nomogram for predicting the probability. RESULTS: In 103 COVID-19 patients with cancer, the main cancer categories were breast cancer, lung cancer and bladder cancer. Compared to non-severe patients, severe patients had a higher median age, and a higher proportion of smokers, diabetes, heart disease and dyspnea. In addition, most of the laboratory results between two groups were significantly different. PSM analysis found that the proportion of dyspnea was much higher in COVID-19 patients with cancer. The severity incidence in two groups were similar, while a much higher mortality was found in COVID-19 patients with cancer compared to that in COVID-19 patients without cancer (11.7% vs. 4.4%, P = 0.028). Furthermore, we found that neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were related to death outcome. And a nomogram based on the factors was developed. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients with cancer, the clinical features and laboratory results between severe group and non-severe group were significantly different. NLR and CRP were the risk factors that could predict death outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Lymphocytes/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/mortality , Neutrophils/cytology , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
9.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 28, 2021 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Routine preoperative methods to assess airway such as the interincisor distance (IID), Mallampati classification, and upper lip bite test (ULBT) have a certain risk of upper respiratory tract exposure and virus spread. Condyle-tragus maximal distance(C-TMD) can be used to assess the airway, and does not require the patient to expose the upper respiratory tract, but its value in predicting difficult laryngoscopy compared to other indicators (Mallampati classification, IID, and ULBT) remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to observe the value of C-TMD to predict difficult laryngoscopy and the influence on intubation time and intubation attempts, and provide a new idea for preoperative airway assessment during epidemic. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing general anesthesia and tracheal intubation were enrolled. IID, Mallampati classification, ULBT, and C-TMD of each patient were evaluated before the initiation of anesthesia. The primary outcome was intubation time. The secondary outcomes were difficult laryngoscopy defined as the Cormack-Lehane Level > grade 2 and the number of intubation attempts. RESULTS: Three hundred four patients were successfully enrolled and completed the study, 39 patients were identified as difficult laryngoscopy. The intubation time was shorter with the C-TMD>1 finger group 46.8 ± 7.3 s, compared with the C-TMD<1 finger group 50.8 ± 8.6 s (p<0.01). First attempt success rate was higher in the C-TMD>1 finger group 98.9% than in the C-TMD<1 finger group 87.1% (P<0.01). The correlation between the C-TMD and Cormack-Lehane Level was 0.317 (Spearman correlation coefficient, P<0.001), and the area under the ROC curve was 0.699 (P<0.01). The C-TMD < 1 finger width was the most consistent with difficult laryngoscopy (κ = 0.485;95%CI:0.286-0.612) and its OR value was 10.09 (95%CI: 4.19-24.28), sensitivity was 0.469 (95%CI: 0.325-0.617), specificity was 0.929 (95%CI: 0.877-0.964), positive predictive value was 0.676 (95%CI: 0.484-0.745), negative predictive value was 0.847 (95%CI: 0.825-0.865). CONCLUSION: Compared with the IID, Mallampati classification and ULBT, C-TMD has higher value in predicting difficult laryngoscopy and does not require the exposure of upper respiratory tract. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered on October 21, 2019 in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( ChiCTR1900026775 ).


Subject(s)
Airway Management/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Predictive Value of Tests , Preoperative Care , Prospective Studies , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Traditional Medicine Research ; 5(3):160-166, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1366019

ABSTRACT

Huajuhong (Exocarpium Citri grandis, ECG) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine and has been used for the treatment of respiratory diseases for hundreds of years. Recently, ECG has been listed in a traditional Chinese medicine formula in the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (sixth edition) in China. To date, the effect and mechanism of ECG against respiratory diseases have not been systematically reviewed. In this paper, the researchers summarized the effects of ECG and its pharmacologically active compound naringin in functioning as an antitussive and expectorant, improving lung function, alleviating acute lung injury, attenuating pulmonary fibrosis, and enhancing antiviral immune response, so as to provide a reference for its clinical application in the prevention and treatment of multiple respiratory diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019.

11.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 711658, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359249

ABSTRACT

Background: While the lockdown strategies taken by many countries effectively limited the spread of COVID-19, those were thought to have a negative impact on older people. This study aimed to investigate the impact of lockdown on cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms over a 1-year follow-up period in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Methods: We enrolled consecutive patients with MCI, probable AD or DLB who were receiving outpatient memory care before the COVID-19 pandemic and followed-up with them after 1 year by face-to-face during the COVID-19 pandemic to assess changes in physical activity, social contact, cognitive function and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Results: Total 105 probable AD, 50 MCI and 22 probable DLB patients were included and completed the 1-year follow-up between October 31 and November 30, 2020. Among the respondents, 42% of MCI, 54.3% of AD and 72.7% of DLB patients had a decline in MMSE scores and 54.4% of DLB patients had worsening Neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI) scores. Patients with DLB showed a more rapid decline of MMSE than those with AD. Diminished physical activity and social contact might have hastened the deterioration of cognition and the worsening of NPS. Conclusion: Social isolation and physical inactivity even after strict lockdown for at least 6 months were correlated with accelerated decline of cognitive function and NPS in patients with AD and DLB.

12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 783, 2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads rapidly among people and causes a pandemic. It is of great clinical significance to identify COVID-19 patients with high risk of death. METHODS: A total of 2169 adult COVID-19 patients were enrolled from Wuhan, China, from February 10th to April 15th, 2020. Difference analyses of medical records were performed between severe and non-severe groups, as well as between survivors and non-survivors. In addition, we developed a decision tree model to predict death outcome in severe patients. RESULTS: Of the 2169 COVID-19 patients, the median age was 61 years and male patients accounted for 48%. A total of 646 patients were diagnosed as severe illness, and 75 patients died. An older median age and a higher proportion of male patients were found in severe group or non-survivors compared to their counterparts. Significant differences in clinical characteristics and laboratory examinations were found between severe and non-severe groups, as well as between survivors and non-survivors. A decision tree, including three biomarkers, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein and lactic dehydrogenase, was developed to predict death outcome in severe patients. This model performed well both in training and test datasets. The accuracy of this model were 0.98 in both datasets. CONCLUSION: We performed a comprehensive analysis of COVID-19 patients from the outbreak in Wuhan, China, and proposed a simple and clinically operable decision tree to help clinicians rapidly identify COVID-19 patients at high risk of death, to whom priority treatment and intensive care should be given.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Decision Trees , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(11): 694-703, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349668

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), results in life-threatening disease in a minority of patients, especially elderly people and those with co-morbidities such as obesity and diabetes. Severe disease is characterized by dysregulated cytokine release, pneumonia and acute lung injury, which can rapidly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, multisystem failure and death. However, a mechanistic understanding of COVID-19 progression remains unclear. Here we review evidence that SARS-CoV-2 directly or indirectly activates inflammasomes, which are large multiprotein assemblies that are broadly responsive to pathogen-associated and stress-associated cellular insults, leading to secretion of the pleiotropic IL-1 family cytokines (IL-1ß and IL-18), and pyroptosis, an inflammatory form of cell death. We further discuss potential mechanisms of inflammasome activation and clinical efforts currently under way to suppress inflammation to prevent or ameliorate severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Inflammasomes/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 703481, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337682

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Numerous countries went into lockdown to contain the COVID-19 outbreak, which has impeded follow-up of chronic diseases, such as cognitive impairment (CI). Cognitive and neuropsychiatric changes during the COVID-19 pandemic are neglected in China, which is the world's whistleblower. To investigate the cognitive and neuropsychologic changes in CI, as well as the proportions of rapid cognitive decline (RCD) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic to provide clinical evidence for CI intervention during a public health emergency. Methods: We performed a descriptive and retrospective study based on medical records from the memory clinic of Tianjin Dementia Institute collected through face-to-face evaluations. Information of 205 patients with CI, including patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia, of whom 131 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were analyzed and compared to a control group before the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: Among the 205 CI patients, the scores on the Chinese Mini Mental State Examination (C-MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), activities of daily living (ADLs), and the global Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were significantly different at the baseline and follow-up evaluations (p < 0.05) after 14.07 (±2.87) months. The same findings were recorded among AD patients, and they exhibited more sleep disturbances at the follow-up than at baseline (32.8 vs. 20.6%, p = 0.035). When compared to the control group, slightly worse performance of cognitive, -1.00 (-4.00, 1.00) from the C-MMSE, -1.00 (-2.00, 0.00) on the MoCA, 1.00 (0.00, 9.00) on ADLs and neuropsychological 0.00 (-1.00, 3.50) on the global NPI profile, at the follow-up were presented, particularly for delusion, agitation, irritability, and appetite disturbances (p < 0.05). Twenty-five (19.1%) AD patients and 48 (36.6%) controls suffered RCD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, AD patients during the COVID-19 pandemic were 0.408 times (95% confidence interval: 0.232-0.716) less likely to suffer RCD than the control. Conclusion: Confinement might ease the cognitive and neuropsychiatric deterioration of AD patients compared to those not in crisis and help prevent RCD in AD patients.

15.
Cell Prolif ; 54(9): e13091, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have shown the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the tissues of clinically recovered patients and persistent immune symptoms in discharged patients for up to several months. Pregnant patients were shown to be a high-risk group for COVID-19. Based on these findings, we assessed SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and protein retention in the placentas of pregnant women who had fully recovered from COVID-19 and cytokine fluctuations in maternal and foetal tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Remnant SARS-CoV-2 in the term placenta was detected using nucleic acid amplification and immunohistochemical staining of the SARS-CoV-2 protein. The infiltration of CD14+ macrophages into the placental villi was detected by immunostaining. The cytokines in the placenta, maternal plasma, neonatal umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid specimens at delivery were profiled using the Luminex assay. RESULTS: Residual SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and protein were detected in the term placentas of recovered pregnant women. The infiltration of CD14+ macrophages into the placental villi of the recovered pregnant women was higher than that in the controls. Furthermore, the cytokine levels in the placenta, maternal plasma, neonatal umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid specimens fluctuated significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid (in one patient) and protein (in five patients) were present in the placentas of clinically recovered pregnant patients for more than 3 months after diagnosis. The immune responses induced by the virus may lead to prolonged and persistent symptoms in the maternal plasma, placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid.


Subject(s)
Cytokines/analysis , Placenta/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Proteins/isolation & purification , Adult , Amniotic Fluid/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Macrophages/immunology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Placenta/immunology , Pregnancy , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Proteins/blood
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 357, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, quickly spread worldwide within a few months. Although coronaviruses typically infect the upper or lower respiratory tract, the virus RNA can be detected in plasma. The risk of transmitting coronavirus via transfusion of blood products remains. As more asymptomatic infections are identified in COVID-19 cases, blood safety has become particularly important. Methylene blue (MB) photochemical technology has been proven to inactivate lipid-enveloped viruses with high efficiency and safety. The present study aimed to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 inactivation effects of MB in plasma. METHODS: The SARS-CoV-2 virus strain was isolated from Zhejiang University. The live virus was harvested from cultured VERO-E6 cells, and mixed with MB in plasma. The MB final concentrations were 0, 1, 2, and 4 µM. The "BX-1 AIDS treatment instrument" was used at room temperature, the illumination adjusted to 55,000 ± 0.5 million Lux, and the plasma was irradiated for 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mins using light at a single wavelength of 630 nm. Virus load changes were measured using quantitative reverse transcription- PCR. RESULTS: BX-1 could effectively eliminate SARS-CoV-2 within 2 mins in plasma, and the virus titer declined to 4.5 log10 TCID50 (median tissue culture infectious dose)/mL. CONCLUSION: BX-1 is based on MB photochemical technology, which was designed to inactivate HIV-1 virus in plasma. It was proven to be safe and reliable in clinical trials of HIV treatment. In this study, we showed that BX-1 could also be applied to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. During the current outbreak, this technique it has great potential for ensuring the safety of blood transfusions, for plasma transfusion therapy in recovering patients, and for preparing inactivated vaccines.


Subject(s)
Blood Safety , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Methylene Blue/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation , Animals , Blood Transfusion , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Plasma/virology , RNA, Viral , Vero Cells
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 675380, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295725

ABSTRACT

Background: As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic progressed globally, school closures and home quarantine may cause an increase in problematic Internet use among students in universities. Such a traumatic stress event may also contribute to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive, and anxiety symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms as well as the predictive role of problematic Internet use in the above-mentioned psychological problems in university students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online survey of 8,879 students in China between April 20 and April 26, 2020. The presence of PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms and problematic Internet use were evaluated using PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression 9-item scale, the generalized anxiety disorder 7-item scale, and the Young diagnostic questionnaire, respectively. Sociodemographic information and the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward COVID-19 data were also collected. Results: A total of 4,834 (54.4%) participants were female, and 7,564 (85.2%) were undergraduate students. A total of 615 students (6.9%) reported PTSD symptoms; 5.2% (465) and 10.1% (896) reported moderate to severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The problematic Internet use was significantly associated with higher risk of PTSD, depressive, and anxiety symptoms (odds ratio 2.662 [95% CI, 2.239-3.165], odds ratio 4.582 [95% CI, 3.753-5.611], odds ratio 3.251 [95% CI, 2.814-3.757], respectively; all P < 0.001). Lower attitude and practice scores also contributed to the risk of depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Psychological problems should be paid more attention, and problematic Internet use may be a predictor when screening high-risk students for psychological problems. Our results will aid in timely psychological screening, which is meaningful in the prevention and intervention of psychological problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Universities , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Internet Use , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 655604, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282393

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Diabetes is a risk factor for poor COVID-19 prognosis. The analysis of related prognostic factors in diabetic patients with COVID-19 would be helpful for further treatment of such patients. Methods: This retrospective study involved 3623 patients with COVID-19 (325 with diabetes). Clinical characteristics and laboratory tests were collected and compared between the diabetic group and the non-diabetic group. Binary logistic regression analysis was applied to explore risk factors associated in diabetic patients with COVID-19. A prediction model was built based on these risk factors. Results: The risk factors for higher mortality in diabetic patients with COVID-19 were dyspnea, lung disease, cardiovascular diseases, neutrophil, PLT count, and CKMB. Similarly, dyspnea, cardiovascular diseases, neutrophil, PLT count, and CKMB were risk factors related to the severity of diabetes with COVID-19. Based on these factors, a risk score was built to predict the severity of disease in diabetic patients with COVID-19. Patients with a score of 7 or higher had an odds ratio of 7.616. Conclusions: Dyspnea is a critical clinical manifestation that is closely related to the severity of disease in diabetic patients with COVID-19. Attention should also be paid to the neutrophil, PLT count and CKMB levels after admission.

20.
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information ; 10(6):387, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1259505

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Human mobility between geographic units is an important way in which COVID-19 is spread across regions. Due to the pressure of epidemic control and economic recovery, states in the United States have adopted different policies for mobility limitations. Assessing the impact of these policies on the spatiotemporal interaction of COVID-19 transmission among counties in each state is critical to formulating epidemic policies. (2) Methods: We utilized Moran’s I index and K-means clustering to investigate the time-varying spatial autocorrelation effect of 49 states (excluding the District of Colombia) with daily new cases at the county level from 22 January 2020 to 20 August 2020. Based on the dynamic spatial lag model (SLM) and the SIR model with unreported infection rate (SIRu), the integrated SLM-SIRu model was constructed to estimate the inter-county spatiotemporal interaction coefficient of daily new cases in each state, which was further explored by Pearson correlation test and stepwise OLS regression with socioeconomic factors. (3) Results: The K-means clustering divided the time-varying spatial autocorrelation curves of the 49 states into four types: continuous increasing, fluctuating increasing, weak positive, and weak negative. The Pearson correlation analysis showed that the spatiotemporal interaction coefficients in each state estimated by SLM-SIRu were significantly positively correlated with the variables of median age, population density, and proportions of international immigrants and highly educated population, but negatively correlated with the birth rate. Further stepwise OLS regression retained only three positive correlated variables: poverty rate, population density, and highly educated population proportion. (4) Conclusions: This result suggests that various state policies in the U.S. have imposed different impacts on COVID-19 transmission among counties. All states should provide more protection and support for the low-income population;high-density populated states need to strengthen regional mobility restrictions;and the highly educated population should reduce unnecessary regional movement and strengthen self-protection.

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