Objective: To investigate a SARS-CoV-2 epidemic reported in Rongcheng City, Weihai, Shandong Province. Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive patients and their close contacts were investigated, and the whole genome sequencing and genetic evolution analysis of 9 variant viruses were carried out. An infection source investigation and analysis were carried out from two sources of home and abroad, and three aspects of human, material and environment. Results: A total of 15 asymptomatic infections were reported in this epidemic, including 13 cases as employees of workshop of aquatic products processing company, with an infection rate of 21.67% (13/60). Two cases were infected people's neighbors in the same village (conjugal relation). The first six positive persons were processing workers engaged in the first process of removing squid viscera in the workshop of the company. The nucleic acid Ct value of the first time were concentrated between 15 and 29, suggesting that the virus load was high, which was suspected to be caused by one-time homologous exposure. The whole genome sequence of 9 SARS-CoV-2 strains was highly homologous, belonging to VOC/Gamma (Lineage P.1.15). No highly homologous sequences were found from previous native and imported cases in China. It was highly homologous with the six virus sequences sampled from May 5 to 26, 2021 uploaded by Chile. The infection source investigation showed that the company had used the squid raw materials captured in the ocean near Chile and Argentina from May to June 2021 over the last 14 days. Many samples of raw materials, products and their outer packages in the inventory were tested positive for nucleic acid. Conclusion: This epidemic is the first local epidemic caused by the VOC/Gamma of SARS-CoV-2 in China. It is speculated that the VOC/Gamma, which was prevalent in South America from May to June 2021, could be imported into China through frozen squid.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology
Objective: To understand the common viral infection among the surveillance cases of fever respiratory syndrome (FRS) in nine provinces in China. Methods: The research data were obtained from nine provinces (Anhui, Beijing, Guangdong, Hebei, Hunan, Jilin, Shandong, Shaanxi and Xinjiang) in the "Infectious Disease Surveillance Technology Platform Information Management System" of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention from January 2009 to June 2021. Finally, 8 243 FRS cases with nucleic acid detection results of eight viruses [human influenza virus (HIFV), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), human adenovirus (HAdV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human coronavirus (HCoV) and human Boca virus (HBoV)] were included in the study. The χ2 test/Fisher exact probability method was used to analyze the difference of virus detection rate in different age groups, regions and seasons. Results The M (Q1, Q3) age of 8 243 FRS cases was 4 (1, 18) years old, and 56.56% (4 662 cases) were children under 5 years old. Males accounted for 58.1% (4 792 cases) of all cases. All cases were from outpatient/emergency department (2 043 cases) and inpatient department (6 200 cases). The virus detection rates of FRS cases from high to low were HRSV, HIFV, HPIV, HRV, HAdV, HMPV, HCoV and HBoV. Two or more viruses were detected simultaneously in 524 cases, accounting for 15.66% of virus-positive cases. The difference of the virus detection rate in different age groups was statistically significant (all P values<0.05), and the virus detection rate in children<5 years old was higher (49.96%). The positive rate of any virus in south China was higher than that in north China (P<0.001). The virus-positive FRS cases were detected throughout the year. The detection rate of HRSV was higher in autumn and winter. The detection rate of HIFV was higher in winter. The detection rate of HMPV was higher in winter and spring. The detection rates of HPIV, HRV, HCoV and HBoV were higher in summer and autumn, while there was no significant difference in the detection rate of HAdV in different seasons. Compared with 2009-2019, the detection rate of any virus in 2020-2021 decreased from 41.37% to 37.86%. The detection rate of HIFV decreased sharply from 10.62% to 1.37%. The detection rate of HPIV decreased from 8.24% to 5.88%. The detection rate of HRV and HBoV increased from 5.43% and 1.79% to 9.67% and 3.19%, respectively. Conclusion: HRSV and HIFV infections are more common among FRS cases in nine provinces in China from 2009 to 2021, and the epidemiological characteristics of eight common respiratory viruses vary in different age groups, regions and seasons.
Subject(s)Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
N95 mask has been shown to reduce lower airway infections requiring hospitalization, mortality and exacerbation frequency in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), and therefore is recommended for all COPD patients by guidelines. However, the coverage of influenza vaccination in Chinese COPD patients is far from satisfactory. The large-scale COVID-19 vaccination may have a positive impact on the attitude towards influenza vaccines, and healthcare professionals should take active measures to improve the physical activation in patients with COPD.