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2.
Computers in Biology and Medicine ; : 106385, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2130528

ABSTRACT

Background: Numerous traditional filtering approaches and deep learning-based methods have been proposed to improve the quality of ultrasound (US) image data. However, their results tend to suffer from over-smoothing and loss of texture and fine details. Moreover, they perform poorly on images with different degradation levels and mainly focus on speckle reduction, even though texture and fine detail enhancement are of crucial importance in clinical diagnosis. Methods: We propose an end-to-end framework termed US-Net for simultaneous speckle suppression and texture enhancement in US images. The architecture of US-Net is inspired by U-Net, whereby a feature refinement attention block (FRAB) is introduced to enable an effective learning of multi-level and multi-contextual representative features. Specifically, FRAB aims to emphasize high-frequency image information, which helps boost the restoration and preservation of fine-grained and textural details. Furthermore, our proposed US-Net is trained essentially with real US image data, whereby real US images embedded with simulated multi-level speckle noise are used as an auxiliary training set. Results: Extensive quantitative and qualitative experiments indicate that although trained with only one US image data type, our proposed US-Net is capable of restoring images acquired from different body parts and scanning settings with different degradation levels, while exhibiting favorable performance against state-of-the-art image enhancement approaches. Furthermore, utilizing our proposed US-Net as a pre-processing stage for COVID-19 diagnosis results in a gain of 3.6% in diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions: The proposed framework can help improve the accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis.

3.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1064372, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142269

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created an urgent need for volunteers to complement overwhelmed public health systems. This study aims to explore Chinese people's attitudes toward volunteerism amid the COVID-19 pandemic. To this end, we identify the latent topics in volunteerism-related microblogs on Weibo, the Chinese equivalent of Twitter using the topic modeling analysis via Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). To further investigate the public sentiment toward the topics generated by LDA, we also conducted sentiment analysis on the sample posts using the open-source natural language processing (NLP) technique from Baidu. Through an in-depth analysis of 91,933 Weibo posts, this study captures 10 topics that are, in turn, distributed into five factors associated with volunteerism in China as motive fulfillment (n = 31,661, 34.44%), fear of COVID-19 (n = 22,597, 24.58%), individual characteristic (n = 17,688, 19.24%), government support (n = 15,482, 16.84%), and community effect (n = 4,505, 4.90%). The results show that motive fulfillment, government support, and community effect are the factors that could enhance positive attitudes toward volunteerism since the topics related to these factors report high proportions of positive emotion. Fear of COVID-19 and individual characteristic are the factors inducing negative sentiment toward volunteerism as the topics related to these factors show relatively high proportions of negative emotion. The provision of tailored strategies based on the factors could potentially enhance Chinese people's willingness to participate in volunteer activities during the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2126258

ABSTRACT

Aim COVID-19 patients' security is related to their mental health. However, the classification of this group's sense of security is still unclear. The aim of our research is to clarify the subtypes of security of patients infected with COVID-19, explore the factors affecting profile membership, and examine the relationship between security and psychological capital for the purpose of providing a reference for improving patients' sense of security and mental health. Methods A total of 650 COVID-19 patients in a mobile cabin hospital were selected for a cross-sectional survey from April to May 2022. They completed online self-report questionnaires that included a demographic questionnaire, security scale, and psychological capital scale. Data analysis included latent profile analysis, variance analysis, the Chi-square test, multiple comparisons, multivariate logistical regression, and hierarchical regression analysis. Results Three latent profiles were identified—low security (Class 1), moderate security (Class 2), and high security (Class 3)—accounting for 12.00, 49.51, and 38.49% of the total surveyed patients, respectively. In terms of the score of security and its two dimensions, Class 3 was higher than Class 2, and Class 2 was higher than Class 1 (all P < 0.001). Patients with difficulty falling asleep, sleep quality as usual, and lower tenacity were more likely to be grouped into Class 1 rather than Class 3;Patients from families with a per capita monthly household income <3,000 and lower self-efficacy and hope were more likely to be grouped into Classes 1 and 2 than into Class 3. Psychological capital was an important predictor of security, which could independently explain 18.70% of the variation in the patients' security. Conclusions Security has different classification features among patients with COVID-19 infection in mobile cabin hospitals. The security of over half of the patients surveyed is at the lower or middle level, and psychological capital is an important predictor of the patients' security. Medical staff should actively pay attention to patients with low security and help them to improve their security level and psychological capital.

6.
Front Psychol ; 13: 985728, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121896

ABSTRACT

Aim: Our study aimed to investigate the effect of social responsibility on the subjective well-being of volunteers for COVID-19 and to examine the mediating role of job involvement in this relationship. Background: Nowadays, more and more people join volunteer service activities. As we all know, volunteer work contributes to society without any return. Volunteers often have a strong sense of social responsibility and reap subjective well-being in their dedication. Although research shows that social responsibility will drive them to participate in volunteer work actively, it is less clear whether job involvement will impact their subjective well-being. Methods: The data were collected in the precaution zone in Shanghai, China, from April to May 2022. A sample of 302 volunteers for COVID-19 completed the social responsibility scale, subjective well-being scale and job involvement scale in the form of an electronic questionnaire on their mobile phones. A structural equation model was adopted to verify the research hypotheses. Results: Social responsibility was significantly and positively related to volunteers' subjective well-being and job involvement (p < 0.05). Job involvement fully mediates the relationship between volunteers' social responsibility and subjective well-being. Conclusion: Social responsibility is critical to predicting volunteers' subjective well-being. Job involvement plays an intervening mechanism in explaining how social responsibility promotes volunteers' subjective well-being.

8.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 24(10): 1098-1103, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the changes in the disease spectrum among hospitalized children in the pediatric intensive care units (PICU) within 2 years before and after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The related data on disease diagnosis were collected from all children who were hospitalized in the PICU of Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical College from January 2018 to December 2019 (pre-COVID-19 group) and from January 2020 to December 2021 (post-COVID-19 group). A statistical analysis was performed for the disease spectrum of the two groups. RESULTS: There were 2 368 children in the pre-COVID-19 group and 1 653 children in the post-COVID-19 group. The number of children in the post-COVID-19 group was reduced by 30.19% compared with that in the pre-COVID-19 group. There was a significant difference in age composition between the two groups (P<0.05). The top 10 diseases in the pre-COVID-19 group by number of cases were respiratory diseases, neurological diseases, sepsis, critical illness, circulatory system diseases, severe neurosurgical diseases, digestive system diseases, unintentional injuries, endocrine system diseases, and tumors. The top 10 diseases in the post-COVID-19 group by number of cases were respiratory diseases, neurological diseases, sepsis, circulatory system diseases, unintentional injuries, endocrine system diseases, severe neurosurgical diseases, acute abdomen, trauma surgical diseases, and digestive system diseases. The proportions of respiratory diseases, critical illness and severe neurosurgical diseases in the post-COVID-19 group were lower than those in the pre-COVID-19 group (P<0.05), while the proportions of unintentional injuries, acute abdomen, endocrine system diseases, trauma surgical diseases and sepsis were higher than those in the pre-COVID-19 group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 epidemic has led to a significant reduction in the number of children admitted to the PICU, and there are significant changes in the disease spectrum within 2 years before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. Relevant prevention and control measures taken during the COVID-19 epidemic can reduce the incidence of respiratory diseases, neurological diseases, and other critical illness in children, but it is necessary to strengthen the prevention of unintentional injuries and chronic disease management during the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Nervous System Diseases , Sepsis , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Sepsis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
9.
The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2085505

ABSTRACT

Online businesses have been surging worldwide during the past decade, especially during the recent COVID-19 epidemic. However, the market share of online real estate transactions is still limited, mainly due to the information-asymmetry problem. In this study, we manually collect data on online judicial housing auctions in China, which is currently the largest online real estate market globally, and investigate how information disclosure facilitates real estate transactions. The empirical results suggest that disclosing better quality information online can attract more potential buyers. In particular, providing more comprehensive information such as professional appraisal reports or videos of the property can help to convert buyers' initial interests into completed transactions and higher sales proceeds. The positive effects of information are particularly strong when combined with offline services, in a more mature online market, and for low-value properties. We also provide preliminary analysis of factors affecting online-information-disclosure quality from both the macro and micro perspectives. We also provide preliminary analysis of factors affecting online-information-disclosure quality from both the macro and micro perspectives.

10.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 114, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087192

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccine booster dose can induce a robust humoral immune response, however, its cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated the durability of antibody responses and single-cell immune profiles following booster dose immunization, longitudinally over 6 months, in recipients of a homologous BBIBP-CorV/BBIBP-CorV or a heterologous BBIBP-CorV/ZF2001 regimen. The production of neutralizing antibodies was dramatically enhanced by both booster regimens, and the antibodies could last at least six months. The heterologous booster induced a faster and more robust plasmablast response, characterized by activation of plasma cells than the homologous booster. The response was attributed to recall of memory B cells and the de novo activation of B cells. Expanded B cell clones upon booster dose vaccination could persist for months, and their B cell receptors displayed accumulated mutations. The production of antibody was positively correlated with antigen presentation by conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), which provides support for B cell maturation through activation and development of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. The proper activation of cDC/Tfh/B cells was likely fueled by active energy metabolism, and glutaminolysis might also play a general role in promoting humoral immunity. Our study unveils the cellular mechanisms of booster-induced memory/adaptive humoral immunity and suggests potential strategies to optimize vaccine efficacy and durability in future iterations.

11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066011

ABSTRACT

Mental health attitude has huge impacts on the improvement of mental health. In response to the ongoing damage the COVID-19 pandemic caused to the mental health of the Chinese people, this study aims to explore the factors associated with mental health attitude in China. To this end, we extract the key topics in mental health-related microblogs on Weibo, the Chinese equivalent of Twitter, using the structural topic modeling (STM) approach. An interaction term of sentiment polarity and time is put into the STM model to track the evolution of public sentiment towards the key topics over time. Through an in-depth analysis of 146,625 Weibo posts, this study captures 12 topics that are, in turn, classified into four factors as stigma (n = 54,559, 37.21%), mental health literacy (n = 32,199, 21.96%), public promotion (n = 30,747, 20.97%), and social support (n = 29,120, 19.86%). The results show that stigma is the primary factor inducing negative mental health attitudes in China as none of the topics related to this factor are considered positive. Mental health literacy, public promotion, and social support are the factors that could enhance positive attitudes towards mental health, since most of the topics related to these factors are identified as positive ones. The provision of tailored strategies for each of these factors could potentially improve the mental health attitudes of the Chinese people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Attitude , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics
13.
Advanced Functional Materials ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2047421

ABSTRACT

Human‐machine interfaces (HMIs) play important role in the communication between humans and robots. Touchless HMIs with high hand dexterity and hygiene hold great promise in medical applications, especially during the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) to reduce the spread of virus. However, current touchless HMIs are mainly restricted by limited types of gesture recognition, the requirement of wearing accessories, complex sensing platforms, light conditions, and low recognition accuracy, obstructing their practical applications. Here, an intelligent noncontact gesture‐recognition system is presented through the integration of a triboelectric touchless sensor (TTS) and deep learning technology. Combined with a deep‐learning‐based multilayer perceptron neural network, the TTS can recognize 16 different types of gestures with a high average accuracy of 96.5%. The intelligent noncontact gesture‐recognition system is further applied to control a robot for collecting throat swabs in a noncontact mode. Compared with present touchless HMIs, the proposed system can recognize diverse complex gestures by utilizing charges naturally carried on human fingers without the need of wearing accessories, complicated device structures, adequate light conditions, and achieves high recognition accuracy. This system could provide exciting opportunities to develop a new generation of touchless medical equipment, as well as touchless public facilities, smart robots, virtual reality, metaverse, etc. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Advanced Functional Materials is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

14.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 62(5): 1514-1517, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031417

ABSTRACT

Despite the positive impact pharmacists have had on access to vaccines, only a limited number of community pharmacists and pharmacies are able to participate in most federal- and state-supported vaccine programs. In this commentary we (1) review vaccination services currently provided by community pharmacists in the United States, (2) highlight regulatory, reimbursement, and role-based barriers to community pharmacists' participation in the vaccines for children (VFC) program, a cornerstone program to support vaccinations of children in the United States, and (3) suggest changes to support and improve VFC participation for all health care providers. For the purposes of this commentary, community pharmacies are defined as retail pharmacies not associated with a health care system, hospital, or clinic.


Subject(s)
Community Pharmacy Services , Pharmacies , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Immunization Programs , Pharmacists , United States , Vaccination
15.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2117503, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028942

ABSTRACT

The origins of preexisting SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies and their potential impacts on vaccine efficacy have not been fully clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that S2 was the prevailing target of the preexisting S protein cross-reactive antibodies in both healthy human and SPF mice. A dominant antibody epitope was identified on the connector domain of S2 (1147-SFKEELDKYFKNHT-1160, P144), which could be recognized by preexisting antibodies in both human and mouse. Through metagenomic sequencing and fecal bacteria transplant, we demonstrated that the generation of S2 cross-reactive antibodies was associated with commensal gut bacteria. Furthermore, six P144 reactive monoclonal antibodies were isolated from naïve SPF mice and were proven to cross-react with commensal gut bacteria collected from both human and mouse. A variety of cross-reactive microbial proteins were identified using LC-MS, of which E. coli derived HSP60 and HSP70 proteins were confirmed to be able to bind to one of the isolated monoclonal antibodies. Mice with high levels of preexisting S2 cross-reactive antibodies mounted higher S protein specific binding antibodies, especially against S2, after being immunized with a SARS-CoV-2 S DNA vaccine. Similarly, we found that levels of preexisting S2 and P144-specific antibodies correlated positively with RBD binding antibody titers after two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in human. Collectively, our study revealed an alternative origin of preexisting S2-targeted antibodies and disclosed a previously neglected aspect of the impact of gut microbiota on host anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Escherichia coli , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(4): 361-367, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006506

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had severe health impacts worldwide. We aim to provide suggestions to the government for managing serious infectious disease outbreaks in remote regions having relatively poor medical resources. Basic reproduction number (R0), incubation period, time from symptom onset to confirmation, and duration of hospitalization were analyzed. We compared the compositions of imported and local secondary cases and cases with mild/common and severe/critical illnesses according to age, sex, and clinical symptoms. From January 23 to February 19, 2020 (less than one month), 75 local COVID-19 cases were confirmed in Inner Mongolia. Among these, the median age was 45.0 years, and 33 (44.0%) were imported cases. More than 80.0% cases had mild/common illness. The case fatality rate was 1.3%, and R0 was estimated to be 2.3. The median incubation period was 8.5 days. There was a significant difference in the incubation period between imported and local secondary cases (P < 0.001). Early and mandatory control strategies implemented by the government were associated with a rapid reduction in COVID-19 incidence in Inner Mongolia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Government , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Indoor Air ; 32(8): e13099, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005271

ABSTRACT

Particle size removal efficiencies for 0.1-1.0 µm ( PSE 0.1 - 1.0 $$ {PSE}_{0.1-1.0} $$ ) and 0.3-1.0 µm ( PSE 0.3 - 1.0 $$ {PSE}_{0.3-1.0} $$ ) diameter of Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) filters, an electrostatic enhanced air filter (EEAF), and their two-stage filtration systems were evaluated. Considering the most penetrating particle size was 0.1-0.4 µm particulate matter (PM), the PSE 0.1 - 1.0 $$ {PSE}_{0.1-1.0} $$ as an evaluation parameter deserves more attention during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to the PSE 0.3 - 1.0 $$ {PSE}_{0.3-1.0} $$ . The MERV 13 filters were recommended for a single-stage filtration system because of their superior quality factor (QF) compared to MERV 6, MERV 8, MERV 11 filters, and the EEAF. Combined MERV 8 + MERV 11 filters have the highest QF compared to MERV 6 + MERV 11 filters and EEAF + MERV 11 filters; regarding 50% of PSE 0.1 - 1.0 $$ {PSE}_{0.1-1.0} $$ as the filtration requirements of two-stage filtration systems, the MERV 8 + MERV 11 filtration system can achieve this value at 1.0 m/s air velocity, while PSE 0.1 - 1.0 $$ {PSE}_{0.1-1.0} $$ values were lower than 50% at 1.5 m/s and 2.0 m/s. EEAF obtained a better PSE 0.3 - 1.0 $$ {PSE}_{0.3-1.0} $$ in the full-recirculated test rig than in the single-pass mode owing to active ionization effects when EEAF was charged by alternating current.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Conditioning , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Filtration , Heating , Humans , Pandemics , Respiration , Ventilation
18.
Neuro-oncology practice ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998878

ABSTRACT

Background Cognitive impairments are a common burden for patients with primary CNS tumors. Neuropsychological assessment batteries can be too lengthy, which limits their use as an objective measure of cognition during routine care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of the brief Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in routine in-person and telehealth visits (as a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic) with neuro-oncology patients. Methods Seventy-one adults with primary CNS tumors completed MoCA testing in person (n = 47) and via telehealth (n = 24). Correlation analysis and patient-reported outcomes (PROs), including symptom burden and interference, perceived cognition, general health status, and anxiety and depression, were included in this study. Feasibility was assessed through a provider satisfaction questionnaire. Results Patients were primarily White (83%), college-educated (71%) males (54%) with high-grade tumors (66%). The average total score on the MoCA administered in person was 25 (range: 6-30), with 34% classified as abnormal, and the average total score via telehealth was 26 (range: 12-30), with 29% classified as abnormal. Providers reported satisfaction in using the MoCA during routine clinical care, both in person and via telehealth. Lower MoCA scores correlated with worse symptom severity, KPS, age, education, and previous treatment. Conclusions The MoCA was feasible in clinical and telehealth settings, and its relationship to clinical characteristics and PROs highlights the need for both objective and patient-reported measures of cognition to understand the overall cognitive profile of a patient with a CNS tumor.

19.
Research (Wash D C) ; 2022: 9873831, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989006

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 variants have been emerging and have made great challenges to current vaccine and pandemic control strategies. It is urgent to understand the current immune status of various Chinese populations given that the preexisting immunity has been established by national vaccination or exposure to past variants. Using sera from 85 individuals (including 21 convalescents of natural infection, 15 cases which suffered a breakthrough infection after being fully vaccinated, and 49 healthy vaccinees), we showed significantly enhanced neutralizing activities against SRAS-CoV-2 variants in convalescent sera, especially those who had been fully vaccinated. The neutralizing antibodies against Omicron were detectable in 75% of convalescents and 44.9% of healthy vaccinees (p = 0.006), with a GMT of 289.5, 180.9-463.3, and 42.6, 31.3-59, respectively. However, the neutralizing activities were weaker in young convalescents (aged < 18 y), with a detectable rate of 50% and a GMT of 46.4 against Omicron. We also examined and found no pan-sarbecovirus neutralizing activities in vaccinated SARS-CoV-1 survivors. A booster dose could further increase the breadth and magnitude of neutralization against WT and variants of concern (VOCs) to different degrees. In addition, we showed that COVID-19-inactivated vaccines can elicit Omicron-specific T-cell responses. The positive rates of ELISpot reactions were 26.7% (4/15) and 43.8% (7/16) in the full vaccination group and the booster vaccination group, respectively, although without statistically significant difference. The neutralizing antibody titers declined while T-cell responses remain consistent over 6 months. These findings will inform the optimization of public health vaccination and intervention strategies to protect diverse populations against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Advances. Breakthrough infection significantly boosted neutralizing activities against SARS-CoV-2 variants as compared to booster immunization with inactivated vaccine. Vaccine-induced virus-specific T-cell immunity, on the other hand, may compensate for the shortfall. Furthermore, the public health system should target the most vulnerable group due to a poorer protective serological response in both infected and vaccinated adolescents.

20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 632, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019 sounded the alarm for early inspection on acute respiratory infection (ARI). However, diagnosis pathway of ARI has still not reached a consensus and its impact on prognosis needs to be further explored. METHODS: ESAR is a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial on evaluating the diagnosis performance and its impact on prognosis of ARI between mNGS and multiplex PCR. Enrolled patients will be divided into two groups with a ratio of 1:1. Group I will be directly tested by mNGS. Group II will firstly receive multiplex PCR, then mNGS in patients with severe infection if multiplex PCR is negative or inconsistent with clinical manifestations. All patients will be followed up every 7 days for 28 days. The primary endpoint is time to initiate targeted treatment. Secondary endpoints include incidence of significant events (oxygen inhalation, mechanical ventilation, etc.), clinical remission rate, and hospitalization length. A total of 440 participants will be enrolled in both groups. DISCUSSION: ESAR compares the efficacy of different diagnostic strategies and their impact on treatment outcomes in ARI, which is of great significance to make precise diagnosis, balance clinical resources and demands, and ultimately optimize clinical diagnosis pathways and treatment strategies. Trial registration Clinicaltrial.gov, NCT04955756, Registered on July 9th 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
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