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1.
NPJ Digit Med ; 5(1): 5, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625359

ABSTRACT

While COVID-19 diagnosis and prognosis artificial intelligence models exist, very few can be implemented for practical use given their high risk of bias. We aimed to develop a diagnosis model that addresses notable shortcomings of prior studies, integrating it into a fully automated triage pipeline that examines chest radiographs for the presence, severity, and progression of COVID-19 pneumonia. Scans were collected using the DICOM Image Analysis and Archive, a system that communicates with a hospital's image repository. The authors collected over 6,500 non-public chest X-rays comprising diverse COVID-19 severities, along with radiology reports and RT-PCR data. The authors provisioned one internally held-out and two external test sets to assess model generalizability and compare performance to traditional radiologist interpretation. The pipeline was evaluated on a prospective cohort of 80 radiographs, reporting a 95% diagnostic accuracy. The study mitigates bias in AI model development and demonstrates the value of an end-to-end COVID-19 triage platform.

3.
Frontiers in medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610581

ABSTRACT

This paper reports a complete case of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who presented with rapid deterioration of oxygenation during hospitalization despite escalating high-flow nasal cannulation to invasive mechanical ventilation. After inefficacy with lung-protective ventilation, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration, prone position, we administered extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a salvage respiratory support with ultra-protective ventilation for 47 days and finally discharged the patient home with a good quality of life with a Barthel Index Score of 100 after 76 days of hospitalization. The purpose of this paper is to provide a clinical reference for the management of ECMO and respiratory strategy of critical patients with COVID-19-related ARDS.

4.
Neuro-oncology ; 23(Suppl 6):vi191-vi191, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Primary CNS tumors are associated with uncertainty likely contributing to mood disturbance that is common throughout the disease trajectory. The intersection of the COVID-19 pandemic with a CNS tumor diagnosis may further impact the anxiety/depression experienced in this population. This study assessed key anxiety/depression symptoms in patients with CNS tumors prior to and during the COVID year. METHODS Patient reported outcomes (PROs), including the PROMIS Anxiety and Depression Short Forms and EQ-5D-3L, were collected at the time of clinical or telehealth evaluation from the COVID year (March 2020-February 2021) and were compared to assessments through February 2020 (a NOB-normative sample), reflecting what we would typically see in our regular clinic evaluations. RESULTS The COVID sample (N = 178) was primarily White (82%), male (55%), median age of 45 (range 18–79), and KPS ³ 90 (50%). The majority had high grade (70%) brain (83%) tumors with ³ 1 prior recurrence (60%) and 25% were on active treatment. Visits were primarily conducted via telehealth (64%) and 20% had progression at assessment. Compared to the NOB-normative sample, patients reported significantly higher depression scores (moderate-severe, 17% vs. 12%, p < 0.05), but not anxiety (18% vs. 16%). Eleven percent reported both moderate-severe anxiety and depressive symptoms (8% pre-COVID). Overall health assessed by the EQ-5D-3L was similar to the normative sample in all dimensions, apart from impact of moderate/extreme mood disturbance, which was more prevalent in the COVID year (53% vs. 43%, p < 0.05%). CONCLUSION Patients with CNS tumors are at risk for significant symptoms of depression and anxiety;this risk was heightened during the COVID year. Further evaluation of clinical factors associated with risk are underway. These findings highlight the need for assessments and interventions that can be administered via telehealth to address the mental health needs of this vulnerable population. Radiobiology

5.
Neuro-oncology ; 23(Suppl 6):vi156-vi157, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602405

ABSTRACT

CNS tumor patients are highly symptomatic causing interference with activity and worse quality of life. Social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic increased demands on the patient, caregivers, clinicians, and the health care system. The NCI’s Neuro-Oncology Branch Natural History Study (NHS) systematically collected patient-reported outcomes (PROs) provide insight into how these challenges influenced symptom burden and interference during the COVID year. METHODS: Patient and disease characteristic as well as patient-reported symptoms and interference (MDASI-BT/-SP) and general health status (EQ-5D-3L) from 3/2020-2/2021) were compared to NHS normative sample collected prior to 3/2020. RESULTS: The sample (n = 178) was primarily White (82%), male (55%), median age of 45 (range 18 – 79) and KPS ³ 90 (51%). The majority had high-grade (70%) brain (83%) tumors (BT) with ≥ 1 prior recurrence (60%) and 25% were on active treatment. Clinical visits were primarily conducted via telehealth (64%) and 20% of all patients were diagnosed with progression at the time of assessment. Most commonly reported moderate-severe symptoms among BT patients were fatigue (30%), difficulty remembering (28%), feeling drowsy (22%). Among spinal cord tumor patients, fatigue (39%), pain (35%) and numbness/tingling in arms/legs/trunk (35%) were most frequently reported. These symptoms were reported in similar frequencies by the normative sample. Nearly half of the COVID year sample (48%) reported moderate-severe activity-related interference. Reported problems with mobility (38%), self-care (19%), pain/discomfort (40%), and usual activities (50%) were similar in both groups except for increased mood disturbance (53%) was reported during the COVID year. CONCLUSION: These findings support CNS tumor patients remained highly symptomatic with significant impact on health-related quality of life during the COVID year. Clinicians should develop timely individual care plans to help BT patients navigate their disease course. Evaluation of risk associated with more severe symptoms and functional limitations are ongoing.

6.
Neuro-oncology ; 23(Suppl 6):vi187-vi187, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602177

ABSTRACT

Primary brain tumor (PBT) patients experience high symptom burden and functional limitations, which may be impacted by the economic strain and mood disturbance during the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed financial toxicity and associated patient reported outcomes (PROs) after one year of lockdown in a cohort of PBT patients. Patient and disease characteristics and PROs including FACIT-COST, MDASI-Brain Tumor, PROMIS-Anxiety/Depression short forms, and EQ-5D-3L were collected from 7/2020 to 5/2021 from participants in our Natural History Study. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and independent samples t-tests evaluated PRO relationships. The cohort included 112 PBT patients: 57% male, 87% white, mean age = 47 (range 25 – 80). Majority were married (65%), completed ≥ 4-year college degree (73%), earned annual family income ≥ $50,000 (68%) and living with a high-grade glioma (72%) complicated by recurrence (51%). Using FACIT-COST, 56% reported some financial hardship due to illness with a mean FACIT-COST of 28.3 (SD = 11.3, range: 0 - 44). Half of patients reported feeling moderately to extremely anxious or depressed. Non-Whites and Hispanics as well as those not currently working reported worse financial toxicity compared to White non-Hispanics and individuals currently working (21.4 vs 29.8 and 25.7 vs 30.4, respectively). Worse financial toxicity scores strongly correlated with worse overall symptom burden (r = -0.55) and interference (r = -0.42), worse anxiety (r = -0.39) and depression scores (r = -0.44), and worse overall HRQOL scores (r = –0.33)[all p< .01]. This is the first report of FACIT-COST in PBT patients to our knowledge and demonstrates that non-White individuals living with high grade glioma who are not currently working due to their tumor reported worse financial toxicity which was strongly correlated with higher symptom burden and interference with lower HRQOL. Future studies to assess financial toxicity longitudinally and post-pandemic using the FACIT-COST are needed.

7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-24, 2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585241

ABSTRACT

AbstractThe emerging new VOC B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant has raised serious concerns due to multiple mutations, reported significant immune escape, and unprecedented rapid spreading speed. Currently, studies describing the neutralization ability of different homologous and heterologous booster vaccination against Omicron are still lacking. In this study, we explored the immunogenicity of COVID-19 breakthrough patients, BBIBP-CorV homologous booster group and BBIBP-CorV/ZF2001 heterologous booster group against SARS-CoV-2 pseudotypes corresponding to the prototype, Beta, Delta, and the emergent Omicron variant.Notably, at 14 days post two-dose inactivated vaccines, pVNT titer increased to 67.4 GMTs against prototype, 8.85 against Beta and 35.07 against Delta, while neutralization activity against Omicron was below the lower limit of quantitation in 80% of the samples. At day 14 post BBIBP-CorV homologous booster vaccination, GMTs of pVNT significantly increased to 285.6, 215.7, 250.8, 48.73 against prototype, Beta, Delta, and Omicron, while at day 14 post ZF2001 heterologous booster vaccination, GMTs of pVNT significantly increased to 1436.00, 789.6, 1501.00, 95.86, respectively. Post booster vaccination, 100% samples showed positive neutralization activity against Omicron, albeit illustrated a significant reduction (5.86- to 14.98-fold) of pVNT against Omicron compared to prototype at 14 days after the homologous or heterologous vaccine boosters.Overall, our study demonstrates that vaccine-induced immune protection might more likely be escaped by Omicron compared to prototypes and other VOCs. After two doses of inactivated whole-virion vaccines as the "priming" shot, a third heterologous protein subunit vaccine and a homologous inactivated vaccine booster could improve neutralization against Omicron.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580811

ABSTRACT

In July 2021, breakthrough cases were reported in the outbreak of COVID-19 in Nanjing, sparking concern and discussion about the vaccine's effectiveness and becoming a trending topic on Sina Weibo. In order to explore public attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine and their emotional orientations, we collected 1542 posts under the trending topic through data mining. We set up four categories of attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines, and used a big data analysis tool to code and manually checked the coding results to complete the content analysis. The results showed that 45.14% of the Weibo posts (n = 1542) supported the COVID-19 vaccine, 12.97% were neutral, and 7.26% were doubtful, which indicated that the public did not question the vaccine's effectiveness due to the breakthrough cases in Nanjing. There were 66.47% posts that reflected significant negative emotions. Among these, 50.44% of posts with negative emotions were directed towards the media, 25.07% towards the posting users, and 11.51% towards the public, which indicated that the negative emotions were not directed towards the COVID-19 vaccine. External sources outside the vaccine might cause vaccine hesitancy. Public opinions expressed in online media reflect the public's cognition and attitude towards vaccines and their core needs in terms of information. Therefore, online public opinion monitoring could be an essential way to understand the opinions and attitudes towards public health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579810

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused severe health impacts to worldwide. The aim of our study was to provide suggestions for government to manage serious infectious disease outbreaks in remote regions with relatively poor medical resources. The basic reproduction number (R0), incubation period, time from symptom onset to confirmed and duration of hospitalization were analyzed. We compared the composition of imported and local secondary cases, and cases with mild/common and severe/critical illness according to age, sex, and clinical symptoms. From January 23 to February 19, 2020 (less than 1 month), 75 local COVID-19 cases were confirmed in Inner Mongolia. Among them, the median age was 45.0 years and 33 (44.0%) were imported. More than 80.0% cases were mild/common. The case fatality rate was 1.3% and the R0 was estimated to be 2.3. The median incubation period was 8.5 days. There was a significant difference in the incubation period between imported and local secondary cases (P<0.001). The early and mandatory control strategies implemented by government were associated with a rapid reduction in COVID-19 incidence in Inner Mongolia.

10.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589037

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new type of virus, coronavirus disease 2019 broke out globally and caused great harm. The virus mutates rapidly, and more research reports are urgently needed to increase our understanding of the disease. We found the reversed halo sign (RHS) occurred in the imaging manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 delta variant of concern pneumonia. In the absence of pathology, the mechanism is unknown. Therefore, we reported two cases of RHS and tried to speculate the pathological mechanism through multiple computed tomography follow-up comparisons to judge the prognosis of the disease.

12.
Virol J ; 18(1): 244, 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a huge challenge worldwide. Although previous studies have suggested that type I interferon (IFN-I) could inhibit the virus replication, the expression characteristics of IFN-I signaling-related miRNAs (ISR-miRNAs) during acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and its relationship with receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG antibody response at the recovery phase remain unclear. METHODS: Expression profiles of 12 plasma ISR-miRNAs in COVID-19 patients and healthy controls were analyzed using RT-qPCR. The level of RBD-IgG antibody was determined using the competitive ELISA. Spearman correlation was done to measure the associations of plasma ISR-miRNAs with clinical characteristics during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and RBD-IgG antibody response at the recovery phase. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy controls, COVID-19 patients exhibited higher levels of miR-29b-3p (Z = 3.15, P = 0.002) and miR-1246 (Z = 4.98, P < 0.001). However, the expression of miR-186-5p and miR-15a-5p were significantly decreased. As the results shown, miR-30b-5p was negatively correlated with CD4 + T cell counts (r = - 0.41, P = 0.027) and marginally positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose in COVID-19 patients (r = 0.37, P = 0.052). The competitive ELISA analysis showed the plasma level of miR-497-5p at the acute phase was positively correlated with RBD-IgG antibody response (r = 0.48, P = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Our present results suggested that the expression level of ISR-miRNAs was not only associated with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection but also with RBD-IgG antibody response at the recovery phase of COVID-19. Future studies should be performed to explore the biological significance of ISR-miRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

13.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295053

ABSTRACT

The origins of pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies and their potential impacts on vaccine efficacy have not been fully clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that S2 was the prevailing target of the pre-existing S protein cross-reactive antibodies in both healthy human and SPF mice. A dominant antibody epitope was identified on the connector domain of S2 (1147-SFKEELDKYFKNHT-1160, P144), which could be recognized by pre-existing antibodies in both human and mouse. Through metagenomic sequencing and fecal bacteria transplant, we proved that the generation of S2 cross-reactive antibodies was associated with commensal gut bacteria. Furthermore, six P144 specific monoclonal antibodies were isolated from mouse and proved to cross-react with commensal gut bacteria collected from both human and mouse. Mice with high levels of pre-existing S2 cross-reactive antibodies mounted higher S protein specific binding antibodies, especially against S2, after being immunized with a candidate COVID-19 DNA vaccine. Similarly, we found that levels of pre-existing antibodies against both S2 and P144 correlated positively with RBD specific binding antibody titers after two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in human. Taken together, our findings revealed that the pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein could be induced by commensal gut bacteria and suggested that these pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies could facilitate the induction of S protein specific antibody responses after vaccination.

14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 723015, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551551

ABSTRACT

Introduction: On December 31, 2020, the Chinese government announced that the domestic coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have obtained approval for conditional marketing and are free for vaccination. This release drove the attention of the public and intense debates on social media, which reflected public attitudes to the domestic vaccine. This study examines whether the public concerns and public attitudes to domestic COVID-19 vaccines changed after the official announcement. Methods: This article used big data analytics in the research, including semantic network and sentiment analysis. The purpose of the semantic network is to obtain the public concerns about domestic vaccines. Sentiment analysis reflects the sentiments of the public to the domestic vaccines and the emotional changes by comparing the specific sentiments shown on the posts before and after the official announcement. Results: There exists a correlation between the public concerns about domestic vaccines before and after the official announcement. According to the semantic network analysis, the public concerns about vaccines have changed after the official announcement. The public focused on the performance issues of the vaccines before the official approval, but they cared more about the practical issues of vaccination after that. The sentiment analysis showed that both positive and negative emotions increased among the public after the official announcement. "Good" was the most increased positive emotion and indicated great public appreciation for the production capacity and free vaccination. "Fear" was the significantly increased negative emotion and reflected the public concern about the safety of the vaccines. Conclusion: The official announcement of the approval for marketing improved the Chinese public acceptance of the domestic COVID-19 vaccines. In addition, safety and effectiveness are vital factors influencing public vaccine hesitancy.

15.
EClinicalMedicine ; 43: 101226, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549739

ABSTRACT

Background: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective in the general population with intact immunity. However, their safety and immunogenicity have not been demonstrated in people living with HIV (PLWH). Methods: 42 HIV-1 infected individuals who were stable on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and 28 healthy individuals were enrolled in this open-label two-arm non-randomized study at Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China. Two doses of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) were given on April 22, 2021 and May 25, 2021, respectively. The reactogenicity of the vaccine were evaluated by observing clinical adverse events and solicited local and systemic reactions. Humoral responses were measured by anti-spike IgG ELISA and surrogate neutralization assays. Cell-mediated immune responses and vaccine induced T cell activation were measured by flow cytometry. Findings: All the HIV-1 infected participants had a CD4+ T cell count >200 cells/µL both at baseline (659·0 ± 221·9 cells/µL) and 4 weeks after vaccination (476·9 ± 150·8 cells/µL). No solicited adverse reaction was observed among all participants. Similar binding antibody, neutralizing antibody and S protein specific T cell responses were elicited in PLWH and healthy individuals. PLWH with low baseline CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratios (<0·6) generated lower antibody responses after vaccination than PLWH with medium (0·6∼1·0) or high (≥1·0) baseline CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratios (P<0·01). The CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts of PLWH decreased significantly after vaccination (P<0·0001), but it did not lead to any adverse clinical manifestation. Moreover, we found that the general HIV-1 viral load among the PLWH cohort decreased significantly after vaccination (P=0·0192). The alteration of HIV-1 viral load was not significantly associated with the vaccine induced CD4+ T cell activation (P>0·2). Interpretation: Our data demonstrated that the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was safe, immunogenic in PLWH who are stable on cART with suppressed viral load and CD4+ T cell count > 200 cells/µL. However, the persistence of the vaccine-induced immunities in PLWH need to be further investigated.

16.
National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series ; No. 27295, 2020.
Article in English | NBER, Grey literature | ID: grc-748625

ABSTRACT

The Federal Reserve has reacted swiftly to the COVID-19 pandemic. It has resuscitated many of its programs from the last crisis by lending to the financial sector, which we refer to as “Wall Street QE.” The Fed is now proposing to also lend directly to, and purchase debt directly from, non-financial firms, which we label “Main Street QE.” Our paper develops a new framework to compare and contrast these different policies. In a situation in which financial intermediary balance sheets are impaired, such as the Great Recession, Main Street and Wall Street QE are perfect substitutes and both stimulate aggregate demand. In contrast, for situations like the one we are now facing due to COVID-19, where the production sector is facing significant cash flow shortages, Wall Street QE becomes almost completely ineffective, whereas Main Street QE can be highly stimulative.

17.
BMC Nurs ; 20(1): 206, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nurses play critical roles when providing health care in high-risk situations, such as during the COVID-19 outbreak. However, no previous study had systematically assessed nurses' mental workloads and its interaction patterns with fatigue, work engagement and COVID-19 exposure risk. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted via online questionnaire. The NASA Task Load Index, Fatigue Scale-14, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were used to assess nurses' mental workload, fatigue and work engagement, respectively. A total of 1337 valid questionnaires were received and analyzed. Nurses were categorized into different subgroups of mental workload via latent class analysis (LCA). Cross-sectional comparisons, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and multivariate (or logistic) regression were subsequently performed to examine how demographic variables, fatigue and work engagement differ among nurses belonging to different subgroups. RESULTS: Three latent classes were identified based on the responses to mental workload assessment: Class 1 - low workload perception & high self-evaluation group (n = 41, 3.1%); Class 2 - medium workload perception & medium self-evaluation group (n = 455, 34.0%); and Class 3 - high workload perception & low self-evaluation group (n = 841, `62.9%). Nurses belonging into class 3 were most likely to be older and have longer professional years, and displayed higher scores of fatigue and work engagement compared with the other latent classes (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that high cognitive workload increased subjective fatigue, and mental workload may be positively associated with work engagement. Group comparison results indicated that COVID-19 exposure contributed to significantly higher mental workload levels. CONCLUSIONS: The complex scenario for the care of patients with infectious diseases, especially during an epidemic, raises the need for improved consideration of nurses' perceived workload, as well as their physical fatigue, work engagement and personal safety when working in public health emergencies.

18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 564938, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468327

ABSTRACT

T-cell reduction is an important characteristic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and its immunopathology is a subject of debate. It may be due to the direct effect of the virus on T-cell exhaustion or indirectly due to T cells redistributing to the lungs. HIV/AIDS naturally served as a T-cell exhaustion disease model for recognizing how the immune system works in the course of COVID-19. In this study, we collected the clinical charts, T-lymphocyte analysis, and chest CT of HIV patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection who were admitted to Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China). The median age of the 21 patients was 47 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 40-50 years] and the median CD4 T-cell count was 183 cells/µl (IQR = 96-289 cells/µl). Eleven HIV patients were in the non-AIDS stage and 10 were in the AIDS stage. Nine patients received antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 12 patients did not receive any treatment. Compared to the reported mortality rate (nearly 4%-10%) and severity rate (up to 20%-40%) among COVID-19 patients in hospital, a benign duration with 0% severity and mortality rates was shown by 21 HIV/AIDS patients. The severity rates of COVID-19 were comparable between non-AIDS (median CD4 = 287 cells/µl) and AIDS (median CD4 = 97 cells/µl) patients, despite some of the AIDS patients having baseline lung injury stimulated by HIV: 7 patients (33%) were mild (five in the non-AIDS group and two in the AIDS group) and 14 patients (67%) were moderate (six in the non-AIDS group and eight in the AIDS group). More importantly, we found that a reduction in T-cell number positively correlates with the serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), which is contrary to the reported findings on the immune response of COVID-19 patients (lower CD4 T-cell counts with higher levels of IL-6 and CRP). In HIV/AIDS, a compromised immune system with lower CD4 T-cell counts might waive the clinical symptoms and inflammatory responses, which suggests lymphocyte redistribution as an immunopathology leading to lymphopenia in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1826, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the face of a sudden outbreak of COVID-19, it is essential to promote health communication, especially to reduce communication inequality. The paper targeted China to investigate whether social structural factors (education level and urban-rural differences) lead to the knowledge gap of COVID-19. Also, this paper examined whether media use, interpersonal communication, public communication, and perceived salience of information can influence the knowledge gap of COVID-19. Furthermore, this paper explored the strategies to promote communication equality. METHODS: An online survey on COVID-19 knowledge and its influencing factors was conducted in February 2020, with a valid sample of 981 participants. The dependent variable was the total score of knowledge related to COVID-19. In addition to demographic variables such as education level and residence, the main explanatory variables include four independent variables: the use of different media (print media, radio, television, Internet), interpersonal communication, public communication, and perceived salience of information. This paper utilized descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis for data processing. RESULTS: Descriptive statistics indicated that the Internet was the most frequent source of information for participants to obtain COVID-19 knowledge (M = 6.28, SD = 1.022). Bi-variate analysis and regression analysis presented that education level, Internet media use, and perceived salience of information predicted the difference in knowledge level. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that Internet media use significantly predicted differences in the level of knowledge related to COVID-19 among groups with different education levels. CONCLUSIONS: This study found a COVID-19 knowledge gap among the Chinese public, especially the digital knowledge gap. Education level, perceived salience of information, and internet media use can significantly predict the difference in COVID-19 knowledge level. In contrast, the use of traditional media such as newspaper, radio, and television, public communication, and interpersonal communication did not improve knowledge level. Internet media use and education level have an interactive effect on the formation of a COVID-19 knowledge gap. That is, online media use will expand the COVID-19 knowledge gap between groups with different education levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Communication , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Promotion , Humans , Internet , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439702
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