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1.
Front Psychol ; 12: 743906, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556274

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated a conceptual model by testing flow experience and subjective well-being of university students during Coronavirus Diseas-19 (COVID-19) via considering their underlying mechanisms of academic self-efficacy and self-esteem. A total of 1,109 Chinese university students completed a questionnaire containing scales of subjective well-being, flow, academic self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Results yielded from the structural equation modeling analysis indicated a significant and positive association between flow experience and subjective well-being, and such an association was sequentially mediated by academic self-efficacy and self-esteem. Findings also provided empirical evidence for the proposed model highlighting the significant role of flow experience at the higher educational context in predicting subjective well-being of Chinese university students, and how such a relation can be supported by suggested mediating roles academic self-efficacy and self-esteem played.

2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e18307, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443931

ABSTRACT

Internet hospitals, as a new forum for doctors to conduct diagnosis and treatment activities based on the internet, are emerging in China and have become integral to the development of the medical field in conjunction with increasing reforms and policies in China's medical and health system. Here, we take the Internet Hospital of the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University (FAHZU Internet Hospital) as an example to discuss the operations and functional positioning of developing internet hospital medical services in relation to physical hospitals. This viewpoint considers the platform operation, management, and network security of FAHZU Internet Hospital, and summarizes the advantages and limitations in the operation to provide a reference for other areas with interest in developing internet hospitals.


Subject(s)
Telemedicine , China , Hospitals , Humans , Internet
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 722027, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399138

ABSTRACT

Approximately half of the SARS-CoV-2 infections occur without apparent symptoms, raising questions regarding long-term humoral immunity in asymptomatic individuals. Plasma levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) against the viral spike or nucleoprotein were determined for 25,091 individuals enrolled in a surveillance program in Wuhan, China. We compared 405 asymptomatic individuals who mounted a detectable antibody response with 459 symptomatic COVID-19 patients. The well-defined duration of the SARS-CoV-2 endemic in Wuhan allowed a side-by-side comparison of antibody responses following symptomatic and asymptomatic infections without subsequent antigen re-exposure. IgM responses rapidly declined in both groups. However, both the prevalence and durability of IgG responses and neutralizing capacities correlated positively with symptoms. Regardless of sex, age, and body weight, asymptomatic individuals lost their SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies more often and rapidly than symptomatic patients did. These findings have important implications for immunity and favour immunization programs including individuals after asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
4.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(38): 7878-7908, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373457

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi and their global spread pose a great threat to human health. The 2019 World Health Organization report predicted that infection-related mortality will be similar to cancer mortality by 2050. Particularly, the global cumulative numbers of the recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have reached 110.7 million cases and over 2.4 million deaths as of February 23, 2021. Moreover, the crisis of these infectious diseases exposes the many problems of traditional diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, such as time-consuming and unselective detection methods, the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, serious side effects, and poor drug delivery. There is an urgent need for rapid and sensitive diagnosis as well as high efficacy and low toxicity treatments. The emergence of nanomedicine has provided a promising strategy to greatly enhance detection methods and drug treatment efficacy. Owing to their unique optical, magnetic, and electrical properties, nanoparticles (NPs) have great potential for the fast and selective detection of bacteria, viruses, and fungi. NPs exhibit remarkable antibacterial activity by releasing reactive oxygen species and metal ions, exerting photothermal effects, and causing destruction of the cell membrane. Nano-based delivery systems can further improve drug permeability, reduce the side effects of drugs, and prolong systemic circulation time and drug half-life. Moreover, effective drugs against COVID-19 are still lacking. Recently, nanomedicine has shown great potential to accelerate the development of safe and novel anti-COVID-19 drugs. This article reviews the fundamental mechanisms and the latest developments in the treatment and diagnosis of bacteria, viruses, and fungi and discusses the challenges and perspectives in the application of nanomedicine.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Nanomedicine , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Communicable Diseases/virology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Humans , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Adv Mater ; 32(42): e2002940, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743232

ABSTRACT

Recent years have seen enormous advances in nanovaccines for both prophylactic and therapeutic applications, but most of these technologies employ chemical or hybrid semi-biosynthetic production methods. Thus, production of nanovaccines has to date failed to exploit biology-only processes like complex sequential post-translational biochemical modifications and scalability, limiting the realization of the initial promise for offering major performance advantages and improved therapeutic outcomes over conventional vaccines. A Nano-B5 platform for in vivo production of fully protein-based, self-assembling, stable nanovaccines bearing diverse antigens including peptides and polysaccharides is presented here. Combined with the self-assembly capacities of pentamer domains from the bacterial AB5 toxin and unnatural trimer peptides, diverse nanovaccine structures can be produced in common Escherichia coli strains and in attenuated pathogenic strains. Notably, the chassis of these nanovaccines functions as an immunostimulant. After showing excellent lymph node targeting and immunoresponse elicitation and safety performance in both mouse and monkey models, the strong prophylactic effects of these nanovaccines against infection, as well as their efficient therapeutic effects against tumors are further demonstrated. Thus, the Nano-B5 platform can efficiently combine diverse modular components and antigen cargos to efficiently generate a potentially very large diversity of nanovaccine structures using many bacterial species.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Proteins/chemistry , Proteins/immunology , Vaccination , Antigens/immunology , Proteins/metabolism
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14691, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317812

ABSTRACT

Since spring 2020, the human world seems to be exceptionally silent due to mobility reduction caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. To better measure the real-time decline of human mobility and changes in socio-economic activities in a timely manner, we constructed a silent index (SI) based on Google's mobility data. We systematically investigated the relations between SI, new COVID-19 cases, government policy, and the level of economic development. Results showed a drastic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on increasing SI. The impact of COVID-19 on human mobility varied significantly by country and place. Bi-directional dynamic relationships between SI and the new COVID-19 cases were detected, with a lagging period of one to two weeks. The travel restriction and social policies could immediately affect SI in one week; however, could not effectively sustain in the long run. SI may reflect the disturbing impact of disasters or catastrophic events on the activities related to the global or national economy. Underdeveloped countries are more affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Travel , Humans , Public Policy
7.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306953

ABSTRACT

In 2020 and 2021, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus, caused a global pandemic. Vaccines are expected to reduce the pressure of prevention and control, and have become the most effective strategy to solve the pandemic crisis. SARS-CoV-2 infects the host by binding to the cellular receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) via the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the surface spike (S) glycoprotein. In this study, a candidate vaccine based on a RBD recombinant subunit was prepared by means of a novel glycoengineered yeast Pichia pastoris expression system with characteristics of glycosylation modification similar to those of mammalian cells. The candidate vaccine effectively stimulated mice to produce high-titer anti-RBD specific antibody. Furthermore, the specific antibody titer and virus-neutralizing antibody (NAb) titer induced by the vaccine were increased significantly by the combination of the double adjuvants Al(OH)3 and CpG. Our results showed that the virus-NAb lasted for more than 6 months in mice. To summarize, we have obtained a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine based on the RBD of the S glycoprotein expressed in glycoengineered Pichia pastoris, which stimulates neutralizing and protective antibody responses. A technical route for fucose-free complex-type N-glycosylation modified recombinant subunit vaccine preparation has been established.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 708523, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295646

ABSTRACT

Major advances have been made in understanding the dynamics of humoral immunity briefly after the acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, knowledge concerning long-term kinetics of antibody responses in convalescent patients is limited. During a one-year period post symptom onset, we longitudinally collected 162 samples from 76 patients and quantified IgM and IgG antibodies recognizing the nucleocapsid (N) protein or the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein (S). After one year, approximately 90% of recovered patients still had detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies recognizing N and RBD-S. Intriguingly, neutralizing activity was only detectable in ~43% of patients. When neutralization tests against the E484K-mutated variant of concern (VOC) B.1.351 (initially identified in South Africa) were performed among patients who neutralize the original virus, the capacity to neutralize was even further diminished to 22.6% of donors. Despite declining N- and S-specific IgG titers, a considerable fraction of recovered patients had detectable neutralizing activity one year after infection. However, neutralizing capacities, in particular against an E484K-mutated VOC were only detectable in a minority of patients one year after symptomatic COVID-19. Our findings shed light on the kinetics of long-term immune responses after natural SARS-CoV-2 infection and argue for vaccinations of individuals who experienced a natural infection to protect against emerging VOC.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Convalescence , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256498

ABSTRACT

Fireworks are often used in celebration, causing short term, extremely high particulate matter air pollution. In recent years, the rapid development and expansion of low-cost air quality sensors by companies such as PurpleAir has enabled an understanding of air pollution at a much higher spatiotemporal resolution compared to traditional monitoring networks. In this study, real-time PM2.5 measurements from 751 PurpleAir sensors operating from June to July in 2019 and 2020 were used to examine the impact of 4th of July fireworks on hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at the census tract and county levels in California. American Community Survey (ACS) and CalEnviroScreen 3.0 data were used to identify correlations between PM2.5 measurements and socioeconomic status (SES). A two-step method was implemented to assure the quality of raw PM2.5 sensor data and sensor calibration against co-located reference instruments. The results showed that over 67% and 81% of counties experienced immediate impacts related to fireworks in 2019 and 2020, respectively. Relative to 2019, the peak PM2.5 concentrations on July 4th and 5th 2020 were, on average, over 50% higher in California, likely due to the COVID-19-related increase in the use of household-level fireworks. This increase was most pronounced in southern counties, which tend to have less strict firework-related regulations and a greater use of illegal fireworks. Los Angeles County experienced the highest July 4th daily PM2.5 levels both in 2019 (29.9 µg·m-3) and 2020 (42.6 µg·m-3). Spatial hot spot analyses generally showed these southern counties (e.g., Los Angeles County) to be regional air pollution hotspots, whereas the opposite pattern was seen in the north (e.g., San Francisco). The results also showed PM2.5 peaks that were over two-times higher among communities with lower SES, higher minority group populations, and higher asthma rates. Our findings highlight the important role that policy and enforcement can play in reducing firework-related air pollution and protecting public health, as exemplified by southern California, where policy was more relaxed and air pollution was higher (especially in 2020 when the 4th of July coincided with the COVID-19-lockdown period), and in disadvantaged communities where disparities were greatest.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco
10.
PLoS Biol ; 19(5): e3001209, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219261

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens global public health and economy unprecedentedly, requiring accelerating development of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Molecular understanding of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) would greatly help advance the development of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy, as well as the design of next generation recombinant vaccines. Here, we applied H2L2 transgenic mice encoding the human immunoglobulin variable regions, together with a state-of-the-art antibody discovery platform to immunize and isolate NAbs. From a large panel of isolated antibodies, 25 antibodies showed potent neutralizing activities at sub-nanomolar levels by engaging the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). Importantly, one human NAb, termed PR1077, from the H2L2 platform and 2 humanized NAb, including PR953 and PR961, were further characterized and subjected for subsequent structural analysis. High-resolution X-ray crystallography structures unveiled novel epitopes on the receptor-binding motif (RBM) for PR1077 and PR953, which directly compete with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) for binding, and a novel non-blocking epitope on the neighboring site near RBM for PR961. Moreover, we further tested the antiviral efficiency of PR1077 in the Ad5-hACE2 transduction mouse model of COVID-19. A single injection provided potent protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in either prophylactic or treatment groups. Taken together, these results shed light on the development of mAb-related therapeutic interventions for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
11.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206004

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affected over 120 million people and killed over 2.7 million individuals by March 2021. While acute and intermediate interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and the immune system have been studied extensively, long-term impacts on the cellular immune system remain to be analyzed. Here, we comprehensively characterized immunological changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 49 COVID-19-convalescent individuals (CI) in comparison to 27 matched SARS-CoV-2-unexposed individuals (UI). Despite recovery from the disease for more than 2 months, CI showed significant decreases in frequencies of invariant NKT and NKT-like cells compared to UI. Concomitant with the decrease in NKT-like cells, an increase in the percentage of annexin V and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) double-positive NKT-like cells was detected, suggesting that the reduction in NKT-like cells results from cell death months after recovery. Significant increases in regulatory T cell frequencies and TIM-3 expression on CD4 and CD8 T cells were also observed in CI, while the cytotoxic potential of T cells and NKT-like cells, defined by granzyme B (GzmB) expression, was significantly diminished. However, both CD4 and CD8 T cells of CI showed increased Ki67 expression and were fully able to proliferate and produce effector cytokines upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Collectively, we provide a comprehensive characterization of immune signatures in patients recovering from SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting that the cellular immune system of COVID-19 patients is still under a sustained influence even months after the recovery from disease.IMPORTANCE Wuhan was the very first city hit by SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, the patients who experienced the longest phase of convalescence following COVID-19 reside here. This enabled us to investigate the "immunological scar" left by SARS-CoV-2 on cellular immunity after recovery from the disease. In this study, we characterized the long-term impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the immune system and provide a comprehensive picture of cellular immunity of a convalescent COVID-19 patient cohort with the longest recovery time. We revealed that the cellular immune system of COVID-19 patients is still under a sustained influence even months after the recovery from disease; in particular, a profound NKT cell impairment was found in the convalescent phase of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Immunity, Cellular , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , Adult , Apoptosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 5648-5656, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191612

ABSTRACT

Although evidences showed an overall reduction in outdoor air pollution levels across the globe due to COVID-19-related lockdown, no comprehensive assessment was available for indoor air quality during the period of stay-at-home orders, despite that the residential indoor environment contributes most to personal exposures. We examined temporal and diurnal variations of indoor PM2.5 based on real-time measurements from 139 indoor-outdoor co-located low-cost PurpleAir sensor sets across California for pre-, during, and post-lockdown periods in 2020 and "business-as-usual" periods in 2019. A two-step method was implemented to systematically control the quality of raw sensor data and calibrate the sensor data against co-located reference instruments. During the lockdown period, 17-24% higher indoor PM2.5 concentrations were observed in comparison to those in the 2019 business-as-usual period. In residential sites, a clear peak in PM2.5 concentrations in the afternoon and elevated evening levels toping at roughly 10 µg·m-3 was observed, which reflects enhanced human activity during lunch and dinner time (i.e., cooking) and possibly more cleaning and indoor movement that increase particle generation and resuspension in homes. The contribution of indoor-generated PM2.5 to total indoor concentrations increased as high as 80% during and post-lockdown periods compared to before lockdown.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , California , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
13.
The International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Education ; : 00207209211003270, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1153835

ABSTRACT

Under the circumstance of COVID-19, online education has become an inevitable choice and a mainstream form of education in various countries. Intelligent Tutoring Systems ( ITSs ) are a critical category of a carrier of online education which refers to using Artificial Intelligence Technology ( AIT ) to realize distance teaching and learning through integrating multiple resources, assist teachers to implement online classes and help students learn courses online, etc. The target of this study is to examine the determinants that explain college students? adoption of ITSs based on TRA and TAM under the era of COVID-19 in China.. This study targets college students who have used ITSs over the previous year to learn courses. In total, 590 valid samples were collected. Partial least squares ( PLS ) approach is employed to inspect the determinants of college students? acceptance of using ITSs. The results of the analysis indicate that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, subjective norm, college students? attitude and political influence significantly affect college students? behavioral intention towards using ITSs. In addition, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and political influence also affect college students? attitude toward using ITSs. And consisitent with previous research, perceived ease of use has a significant effects on perceived usefulness. This study enriches the TRA and TAM theories by incorporating a new variable political influence for researchers to consider in the future. In addition, it makes several suggestions for system developers to improve system functions regarding its ease of use and for content manufactures to pay attention to quality regarding usefulness. Recommendations are provided to colleges, universities and education authorities to rethink their roles in reforming online education through ITSs.

14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1813, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147224

ABSTRACT

Long-term antibody responses and neutralizing activities in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection are not yet clear. Here we quantify immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies recognizing the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) or the nucleocapsid (N) protein, and neutralizing antibodies during a period of 6 months from COVID-19 disease onset in 349 symptomatic COVID-19 patients who were among the first be infected world-wide. The positivity rate and magnitude of IgM-S and IgG-N responses increase rapidly. High levels of IgM-S/N and IgG-S/N at 2-3 weeks after disease onset are associated with virus control and IgG-S titers correlate closely with the capacity to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Although specific IgM-S/N become undetectable 12 weeks after disease onset in most patients, IgG-S/N titers have an intermediate contraction phase, but stabilize at relatively high levels over the 6 month observation period. At late time points, the positivity rates for binding and neutralizing SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies are still >70%. These data indicate sustained humoral immunity in recovered patients who had symptomatic COVID-19, suggesting prolonged immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
16.
Biomater Sci ; 9(6): 1961-1973, 2021 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065971

ABSTRACT

Methionine (Met), an essential amino acid in the human body, possesses versatile features based on its chemical modification, cell metabolism and metabolic derivatives. Benefitting from its multifunctional properties, Met holds immense potential for biomedical applications. In this review, we systematically summarize the recent progress in Met-based strategies for biomedical applications. First, given the unique structural characteristics of Met, two chemical modification methods are briefly introduced. Subsequently, due to the disordered metabolic state of tumor cells, applications of Met in cancer treatment and diagnosis are summarized in detail. Furthermore, the efficacy of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), as the most important metabolic derivative of Met, for treating liver diseases is mentioned. Finally, we analyze the current challenges and development trends of Met in the biomedical field, and suggest that Met-restriction therapy might be a promising approach to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Methionine/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Docetaxel/chemistry , Docetaxel/pharmacology , Humans , Liver Diseases/diet therapy , Liver Diseases/pathology , Methionine/chemistry , Methionine/deficiency , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , S-Adenosylmethionine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(24): 1631, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045261

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already become a pandemic wherein the infection's timely diagnosis has proven beneficial to patient treatment and disease control. Nucleic acid detection has been the primary laboratory diagnostic method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. To ensure laboratory staff safety and quality nucleic acid testing, the Chinese Society of Laboratory Medicine formulated this consensus, based on the Chinese National Recommendations and previous literature for nucleic acid detection. A working group comprises 34 hospital professionals experience with real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 drafted guidance statements during online discussions. A modified Delphi methodology was used in forming a consensus among a wider group of hospital professionals with SARS-CoV-2 detection experience. Guidance statements were developed for four categories: (I) specimen type, priority, collecting, transportation and receiving; (II) nucleic acid isolation and amplification; (III) quality control; (IV) biosafety management and decontamination. The modified Delphi voting process included a total of 29 guidance statements and final agreement. Consensus was reached after two rounds of voting. Recommendations were established for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 using real time PCR testing based on evidence and group consensus. The manuscript was evaluated against The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation Instrument (AGREE II) and was developed to aid medical laboratory staff in the detection of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) of SARS-CoV-2.

18.
The International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Education ; : 0020720920984001, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1039961

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, Online Tutoring Platforms (OTPs) have been applied extensively in education in China. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants that influence college students? behavioural intention of using OTPs to acquire knowledge. This study also explores how students? attitude change in using OTPs five months after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic based on a hierarchical component model which is combined by the Social Impact Theory (SIT) and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Partial least squares (PLS) analysis is employed to analyse the data collected from 1133 students in Mainland China. The results of the analysis indicate that social impact consists of three dimensions (compliance, identification, internalization) significantly influences college students? attitude toward OTPs and further affects college students? behavioural intention toward OTPs usage. Furthermore, performance expectancy and effort expectancy also positively affect students? behavioural intention toward using OTPs to acquire knowledge. This study makes several suggestions for universities to encourage students using OTPs to cope with the situation of Covid-19 pandemic and for educators to promote online tutoring for reforming universities in the future.

19.
Nano Res ; : 1-23, 2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033043

ABSTRACT

Lung diseases, including COVID-19 and lung cancers, is a huge threat to human health. However, for the treatment and diagnosis of various lung diseases, such as pneumonia, asthma, cancer, and pulmonary tuberculosis, are becoming increasingly challenging. Currently, several types of treatments and/or diagnostic methods are used to treat lung diseases; however, the occurrence of adverse reactions to chemotherapy, drug-resistant bacteria, side effects that can be significantly toxic, and poor drug delivery necessitates the development of more promising treatments. Nanotechnology, as an emerging technology, has been extensively studied in medicine. Several studies have shown that nano-delivery systems can significantly enhance the targeting of drug delivery. When compared to traditional delivery methods, several nanoparticle delivery strategies are used to improve the detection methods and drug treatment efficacy. Transporting nanoparticles to the lungs, loading appropriate therapeutic drugs, and the incorporation of intelligent functions to overcome various lung barriers have broad prospects as they can aid in locating target tissues and can enhance the therapeutic effect while minimizing systemic side effects. In addition, as a new and highly contagious respiratory infection disease, COVID-19 is spreading worldwide. However, there is no specific drug for COVID-19. Clinical trials are being conducted in several countries to develop antiviral drugs or vaccines. In recent years, nanotechnology has provided a feasible platform for improving the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, nanotechnology-based strategies may have broad prospects in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. This article reviews the latest developments in nanotechnology drug delivery strategies in the lungs in recent years and studies the clinical application value of nanomedicine in the drug delivery strategy pertaining to the lung.

20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e21980, 2020 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the prevention and control of infectious diseases, previous research on the application of big data technology has mainly focused on the early warning and early monitoring of infectious diseases. Although the application of big data technology for COVID-19 warning and monitoring remain important tasks, prevention of the disease's rapid spread and reduction of its impact on society are currently the most pressing challenges for the application of big data technology during the COVID-19 pandemic. After the outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, the Chinese government and nongovernmental organizations actively used big data technology to prevent, contain, and control the spread of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to discuss the application of big data technology to prevent, contain, and control COVID-19 in China; draw lessons; and make recommendations. METHODS: We discuss the data collection methods and key data information that existed in China before the outbreak of COVID-19 and how these data contributed to the prevention and control of COVID-19. Next, we discuss China's new data collection methods and new information assembled after the outbreak of COVID-19. Based on the data and information collected in China, we analyzed the application of big data technology from the perspectives of data sources, data application logic, data application level, and application results. In addition, we analyzed the issues, challenges, and responses encountered by China in the application of big data technology from four perspectives: data access, data use, data sharing, and data protection. Suggestions for improvements are made for data collection, data circulation, data innovation, and data security to help understand China's response to the epidemic and to provide lessons for other countries' prevention and control of COVID-19. RESULTS: In the process of the prevention and control of COVID-19 in China, big data technology has played an important role in personal tracking, surveillance and early warning, tracking of the virus's sources, drug screening, medical treatment, resource allocation, and production recovery. The data used included location and travel data, medical and health data, news media data, government data, online consumption data, data collected by intelligent equipment, and epidemic prevention data. We identified a number of big data problems including low efficiency of data collection, difficulty in guaranteeing data quality, low efficiency of data use, lack of timely data sharing, and data privacy protection issues. To address these problems, we suggest unified data collection standards, innovative use of data, accelerated exchange and circulation of data, and a detailed and rigorous data protection system. CONCLUSIONS: China has used big data technology to prevent and control COVID-19 in a timely manner. To prevent and control infectious diseases, countries must collect, clean, and integrate data from a wide range of sources; use big data technology to analyze a wide range of big data; create platforms for data analyses and sharing; and address privacy issues in the collection and use of big data.


Subject(s)
Big Data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Computer Security , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Data Collection , Humans , Information Dissemination , Information Storage and Retrieval , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Privacy , SARS-CoV-2
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