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Clin Invest Med ; 44(2): E48-54, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278876


PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to describe the use of masks among health care personnel (HCP) exposed to index cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to evaluate any association with infection rate. METHODS: We did a retrospective, observational study of HCP at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University for the management of COVID-19 (before person-to-person transmission was official confirmed, no additional protection was provided). A questionnaire was given to all staff listed on the roster in the clinical regions providing care for index patients with COVID-19. All participants were surveyed regarding hand-washing and use of surgical masks and gloves and were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Data were analysed (Student's t test and Pearson χ2 test) for an association between infection and use of personal protective equipment. RESULTS: Exposure of a total of 299 non-infected and 30 infected staff was confirmed. None of the 149 staff who reported use of all three preventative measures (hand-washing and use of gloves and masks) became infect-ed. In contrast, all 30 of the staff who became infected had omitted at least one of the measures. Fewer staff who wore surgical masks (P=0.000003) became infected compared with those who did not. Infections rates were significantly lower in HCP from the internal medicine departments, as these personnel generally wore masks. CONCLUSION: An association was found between SARS-CoV-2 infection of HCP and the non-use of masks when working with index cases in clinical settings. We recommend that all HCP follow the strict instructions for prevention and treatment of nosocomial infection during intimate contact with COVID-19, especially staff from surgical departments.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Physicians , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , China , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Gloves, Surgical , Hand Disinfection , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
Curr Med Res Opin ; 37(2): 219-224, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942189


PURPOSE: To describe the radiological features of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and to explore the significant signs that indicate severity of disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data retrospectively of 180 cases of COVID-19, from 15 January 2020 to 31 March 2020, from both the Wuhan Zhongnan and Beijing Ditan Hospitals, including 103 cases of mild and 77 cases of severe pneumonia. All patients had their first chest computed tomography scan within five days of symptom onset. The dandelion sign was defined by a focal ground glass opacity (GGO) with a central thickening of the airway wall, and the focal crazy paving sign was defined by a focal GGO with thickening of the interlobular septa. RESULTS: Consolidation presented in only 4.9% (5/103) of the mild pneumonia cases, which was significantly lower than that in severe pneumonia cases (70.1% 54/77), p < .001). Multifocal distribution and pure GGOs were observed more frequently in severe cases of pneumonia (p < .05). The dandelion sign was present in 86.4% (89/103) of the mild pneumonia cases, significantly more frequent than those with severe pneumonia (13.0% [10/77], p < .001). The focal crazy paving sign presented in 65.0% (67/103) of the mild pneumonia cases and was significantly more frequent than in severe cases (23.4% [18/77], p < .001). The hospital stay duration of the mild pneumonia group (13.6 ± 7.2 days) was significantly shorter than the severe pneumonia group (26.6 ± 11.7 days, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Consolidation, pure GGO and multifocal distribution on a CT scan were associated with severe COVID-19. The dandelion and focal crazy paving signs indicate mild COVID-19.

COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 833-840, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-164692


In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in Wuhan, China, and has spread globally. However, the transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 has not been fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate SARS-CoV-2 shedding in the excreta of COVID-19 patients. Electronical medical records, including demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiological findings of enrolled patients were extracted and analyzed. Pharyngeal swab, stool, and urine specimens were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Viral shedding at multiple time points in specimens was recorded, and its correlation analyzed with clinical manifestations and the severity of illness. A total of 42 laboratory-confirmed patients were enrolled, 8 (19.05%) of whom had gastrointestinal symptoms. A total of 28 (66.67%) patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool specimens, and this was not associated with the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the severity of illness. Among them, 18 (64.29%) patients remained positive for viral RNA in the feces after the pharyngeal swabs turned negative. The duration of viral shedding from the feces after negative conversion in pharyngeal swabs was 7 (6-10) days, regardless of COVID-19 severity. The demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiologic findings did not differ between patients who tested positive and negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the feces. Viral RNA was not detectable in urine specimens from 10 patients. Our results demonstrated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the feces of COVID-19 patients and suggested the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via the fecal-oral route.

Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Virus Shedding , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index