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1.
Front Psychol ; 12: 798199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731827

ABSTRACT

The increasing number of quick response (QR) code mobile payment users heralds the coming of a cashless society. However, the extent to which the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic accelerated the adoption of QR code mobile payment has not been sufficiently researched. Based on social learning theory, this study models how external interaction with the environment has affected the internal appraisal and behavioral intention to adopt QR code mobile payment during COVID-19. Empirical results from 248 respondents revealed that perceived severity and social influence positively affected the perception of utilitarian and health benefits of respondents, which in turn influenced the behavioral intention to use the QR code mobile payment. The theoretical contribution and managerial implications of this study are also discussed.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315245

ABSTRACT

Background: Chest computed tomography (CT) has been accepted to provide reference for the diagnose and assessment the severity of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Decrease in the counts of lymphocyte and leukocyte is used as the diagnostic indicator of suspected COVID-19 cases. However, there is few study on exploring the hysteresis of chest CT changes and the predictive role of lymphocyte count in peripheral blood before treatment in the severity of the disease. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out focusing on the data of patients tested to be positive for RNA nucleic acid test of SARS-CoV-2 with nasopharyngeal swabs in 4 hospitals. An independent assessment was performed by one clinician using the DEXIN FACT Workstation Analysis System, and the assessment results were reviewed by another clinician. Furthermore, the mean hysteresis time was calculated according to the median time from progression to the most serious situation to improvement of chest CT in patients after fever relief. The optimal scaling regression analysis was performed by including variables with statistical significance in univariate analysis. In addition, a multivariate regression model was established to investigate the relationship of the percentage of lesion/total lung volume with lymphocyte and other variables. Results In the included 166 patients with COVID-19, the average value of the most serious percentage of lesion/total lung volume was 6.62, of which 90 patients with fever had an average hysteresis time of 4.5 days after symptom relief, with a similar trend observed in those without fever. Multivariate analysis revealed that lymphocyte count in peripheral blood and transcutaneous oxygen saturation decreased with the increase of the percentage of lesion/total lung volume. Meanwhile, age, fever and C-reactive protein exhibited no such effect in the established model. Conclusions There is a hysteresis effect in the improvement of chest CT image in relative to fever relief in patients with COVID-19. Besides, the percentage of lesion/total lung volume of chest CT correlates negatively with lymphocyte count in peripheral blood and transcutaneous oxygen saturation. Findings in our study may contribute to understanding the disease status of patients with COVID-19 and grasping the opportunity of treatment by clinicians.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310978

ABSTRACT

The clinical characteristics of patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Hunan Province are less understood. We analyzed retrospectively the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and risk factors associated with severity of 113 confirmed COVID-19 cases in Yueyang, Hunan Province, China, from January 20, 2020, to March 8, 2020, and followed until April 13, 2020. Of the 113 confirmed cases, 92 (81.4%) were from or infected by patients from Hubei province. More than half (63) of patients with COVID-19 had no fever in the early stages of disease. 23% patients had no symptoms at the onset. As of March 8, 2020, 113 (100%) of 113 patients had met the discharge criteria, 0 (0%) patients died. Compared with the non-severe cases, severe cases were associated with older age or patients with comorbidities, secondary bacterial infections, and higher levels of C-reactive protein. Longer duration of virus clearance was associated with a higher risk of progression to critical status. Older patients or patients with comorbidities such as diabetes were more likely to have severe condition. Prompt and effective treatment and sufficient medical resources may still significantly reduce hospital-related transmissions and mortality.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324209

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 has been spreading across the world since early 2020, a growing number of malicious campaigns are capitalizing the topic of COVID-19. COVID-19 themed cryptocurrency scams are increasingly popular during the pandemic. However, these newly emerging scams are poorly understood by our community. In this paper, we present the first measurement study of COVID-19 themed cryptocurrency scams. We first create a comprehensive taxonomy of COVID-19 scams by manually analyzing the existing scams reported by users from online resources. Then, we propose a hybrid approach to perform the investigation by: 1) collecting reported scams in the wild;and 2) detecting undisclosed ones based on information collected from suspicious entities (e.g., domains, tweets, etc). We have collected 195 confirmed COVID-19 cryptocurrency scams in total, including 91 token scams, 19 giveaway scams, 9 blackmail scams, 14 crypto malware scams, 9 Ponzi scheme scams, and 53 donation scams. We then identified over 200 blockchain addresses associated with these scams, which lead to at least 330K US dollars in losses from 6,329 victims. For each type of scams, we further investigated the tricks and social engineering techniques they used. To facilitate future research, we have released all the well-labelled scams to the research community.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324149

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, treatment and short-term prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in children with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to twelve hospitals in eight cities in Hunan province, China, from January 26, 2020 to June 30, 2020. Results: A total of 48 children were enrolled in this study. 11 cases (23%) were asymptomatic, 15 cases (31%) were mild, 20 cases (42%) were moderate, and 2 cases (4%) were severe. No children were critical requiring intensive care. The most common symptom was fever (42%), cough (40%), fatigue (17%) and diarrhea (10%). The total peripheral blood leukocytes count decreased in two case (4%), Lymphocytopenia was present in 5 cases (10%). There were abnormal chest CT changes in 22 children (46%), including 15 (68%) with patchy ground glass opacity. In addition to supportive treatment, 41 children (85%) received antiviral therapy, 11 patients and (23%) were treated with antibiotics, 2 children (4%) were treated with methylprednisolone and IVIG. There was no death occurred. Conclusions: Most children with SARS CoV-2 infection in Hunan province were asymptomatic, mild or moderate. Severe cases are rare. Close family contact was the main route of infection. The younger the age, the less obvious symptoms for children might be. Epidemiological history, nucleic acid test and chest imaging were important tools for the diagnosis in children.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323629

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in early 2020, a number of malicious actors have started capitalizing the topic. Although a few media reports mentioned the existence of coronavirus-themed mobile malware, the research community lacks the understanding of the landscape of the coronavirus-themed mobile malware. In this paper, we present the first systematic study of coronavirus-themed Android malware. We first make efforts to create a daily growing COVID-19 themed mobile app dataset, which contains 4,322 COVID-19 themed apk samples (2,500 unique apps) and 611 potential malware samples (370 unique malicious apps) by the time of mid-November, 2020. We then present an analysis of them from multiple perspectives including trends and statistics, installation methods, malicious behaviors and malicious actors behind them. We observe that the COVID-19 themed apps as well as malicious ones began to flourish almost as soon as the pandemic broke out worldwide. Most malicious apps are camouflaged as benign apps using the same app identifiers (e.g., app name, package name and app icon). Their main purposes are either stealing users' private information or making profit by using tricks like phishing and extortion. Furthermore, only a quarter of the COVID-19 malware creators are habitual developers who have been active for a long time, while 75% of them are newcomers in this pandemic. The malicious developers are mainly located in US, mostly targeting countries including English-speaking countries, China, Arabic countries and Europe. To facilitate future research, we have publicly released all the well-labelled COVID-19 themed apps (and malware) to the research community. Till now, over 30 research institutes around the world have requested our dataset for COVID-19 themed research.

8.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2022: 8733598, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lianhua Qingke (LH) tablets is an effective traditional Chinese medicine against various viral infections, especially in relieving coughing. However, its effects on COVID-19 are unknown. METHODS: To examine the therapeutic effectiveness of LH tablets in COVID-19 patients with mild and common types, a randomized, multicenter, controlled study was carried out. COVID-19 cases were randomized to undergo routine treatment with or without LH tablets (4 tablets, three times a day) for 14 days. The primary endpoints were the rate of achieving clinical symptom resolution and the corresponding time. RESULTS: There were 144 participants in the full analysis set (72 each in the LH and control groups). The LH group participants had elevated symptom alleviation rate at 14 days compared with control cases (FAS: 98.61% vs. 84.72%, p = 0.0026). In comparison with control group participants, the LH group participants had reduced median time to clinical symptom alleviation (median: 4 vs. 7 days, p < 0.0001). Higher resolution rates of coughing (98.44% vs. 84.51%, p = 0.0045) and expectoration (100% vs. 82.35%, p = 0.0268) were observed in the LH group. Times to recovery of fever (median: 2 vs. 3 days, p = 0.0007), coughing (median: 4 vs. 7 days, p < 0.0001), and expectoration (median: 3 vs. 6 days, p < 0.0001) were also notably shorter in the LH group. Moreover, the LH group had elevated improvement rates in chest computed tomography signs (FAS: 86.11% vs. 72.22%, p = 0.0402) and clinical cure at day 28 (FAS: 83.33% vs. 68.06%, p = 0.0326). However, no differences were found in the laboratory test and viral assay. Serious adverse events were not detected. CONCLUSION: These preliminary findings indicate LH tablets may be effective in symptomatic COVID-19, especially in relieving coughing. This trial was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2100042069).

9.
Curr Med Imaging ; 17(12): 1487-1495, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622466

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influencing factors for chest CT hysteresis and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The chest CT data of patients with confirmed COVID-19 in 4 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. An independent assessment was performed by one clinician using the DEXIN FACT Workstation Analysis System, and the assessment results were reviewed by another clinician. Furthermore, the mean hysteresis time was calculated according to the median time from progression to the most serious situation to improve chest CT in patients after fever relief. The optimal scaling regression analysis was performed by including variables with statistical significance in univariate analysis. In addition, a multivariate regression model was established to investigate the relationship of the percentage of lesion/total lung volume with lymphocyte and other variables. RESULTS: In the included 166 patients with COVID-19, the average value of the most serious percentage of lesion/total lung volume was 6.62, of which 90 patients with fever had an average hysteresis time of 4.5 days after symptom relief, with a similar trend observed in those without fever. Multivariate analysis revealed that lymphocyte count in peripheral blood and transcutaneous oxygen saturation decreased with the increase of the percentage of lesion/total lung volume. CONCLUSION: There is a hysteresis effect in the improvement of chest CT image relative to fever relief in patients with COVID-19. The pulmonary lesions may be related to the severity as well as decreased lymphocyte count or percutaneous oxygen saturation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 228: 114035, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560787

ABSTRACT

Many populations suffer from thrombotic disorders such as stroke, myocardial infarction, unstable angina and thromboembolic disease. Thrombus is one of the major threatening factors to human health and the prevalence of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases induced by thrombus is growing worldwide, even some persons got rare and severe blood clots after receiving the AstraZeneca COVID vaccine unexpectedly. In terms of mechanism of thrombosis, antithrombotic drugs have been divided into three categories including anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors and fibrinolytics. Nowadays, a large number of new compounds possessing antithrombotic activities are emerging in an effort to remove the inevitable drawbacks of previously approved drugs such as the high risk of bleeding, a slow onset of action and a narrow therapeutic window. In this review, we describe the causes and mechanisms of thrombus formation firstly, and then summarize these reported active compounds as potential antithrombotic candidates based on their respective mechanism, hoping to promote the development of more effective bioactive molecules for treating thrombotic disorders.


Subject(s)
Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Structure
11.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 665377, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463494

ABSTRACT

Objective: Aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, treatment, and short-term prognosis of COVID-19 in children. Methods: Retrospective analysis was conducted in 48 children with COVID-19 admitted to 12 hospitals in eight cities in Hunan province, China, from January 26, 2020 to June 30, 2020. Results: Of the 48 cases, Familial clusters were confirmed for 46 children (96%). 16 (33%) were imported from other provinces. There were 11 (23%) asymptomatic cases. only 2 cases (4%) were severe. The most common symptom was fever (n = 20, 42%). Other symptoms included cough (n = 19, 40%), fatigue (n = 8, 17%), and diarrhea (n = 5, 10%). In the early stage, the total peripheral blood leukocytes count increased in 3(6%) cases and the lymphocytes count decreased in 5 (10%) cases. C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were elevated respectively in 3 (6%) cases and 2 (4%) cases. There were abnormal chest CT changes in 22 (46%) children, including 15 (68%) with patchy ground glass opacity, 5 (22%) with consolidation, and 2 (10%) with mixed shadowing. In addition to supportive treatment, antiviral therapy was received by 41 (85%) children, 11 (23%) patients were treated with antibiotics, and 2 (4%) were treated with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin. Compared to 2 weeks follow-up, one child developed low fever and headache during the 4 weeks follow-up, 3 (6%) children had runny noses, one of them got mild cough, and 4 (12%) children had elevated white blood cells and lymphocytes. However, LDH and CK increased at 2 weeks and 4 weeks follow-up. 2 weeks follow-up identified normal chest radiographs in 33 (69%) pediatric patients. RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 was negative in all follow-up patients at 2 and 4 weeks follow-up. All 48 pediatric patients were visited by calling after 1 year of discharge. Conclusions: Most cases of COVID-19 in children in Hunan province were asymptomatic, mild, or moderate. Close family contact was the main route of infection. It appeared that the younger the patient, the less obvious their symptoms. Epidemiological history, nucleic acid test, and chest imaging were important tools for diagnosis in children.

12.
Empir Softw Eng ; 26(4): 82, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265535

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in early 2020, a number of malicious actors have started capitalizing the topic. Although a few media reports mentioned the existence of coronavirus-themed mobile malware, the research community lacks the understanding of the landscape of the coronavirus-themed mobile malware. In this paper, we present the first systematic study of coronavirus-themed Android malware. We first make efforts to create a daily growing COVID-19 themed mobile app dataset, which contains 4,322 COVID-19 themed apk samples (2,500 unique apps) and 611 potential malware samples (370 unique malicious apps) by the time of mid-November, 2020. We then present an analysis of them from multiple perspectives including trends and statistics, installation methods, malicious behaviors and malicious actors behind them. We observe that the COVID-19 themed apps as well as malicious ones began to flourish almost as soon as the pandemic broke out worldwide. Most malicious apps are camouflaged as benign apps using the same app identifiers (e.g., app name, package name and app icon). Their main purposes are either stealing users' private information or making profit by using tricks like phishing and extortion. Furthermore, only a quarter of the COVID-19 malware creators are habitual developers who have been active for a long time, while 75% of them are newcomers in this pandemic. The malicious developers are mainly located in the US, mostly targeting countries including English-speaking countries, China, Arabic countries and Europe. To facilitate future research, we have publicly released all the well-labelled COVID-19 themed apps (and malware) to the research community. Till now, over 30 research institutes around the world have requested our dataset for COVID-19 themed research.

13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1554, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194588

ABSTRACT

The RNase T2 family consists of evolutionarily conserved endonucleases that express in many different species, including animals, plants, protozoans, bacteria, and viruses. The main biological roles of these ribonucleases are cleaving or degrading RNA substrates. They preferentially cleave single-stranded RNA molecules between purine and uridine residues to generate two nucleotide fragments with 2'3'-cyclic phosphate adenosine/guanosine terminus and uridine residue, respectively. Accumulating studies have revealed that RNase T2 is critical for the pathophysiology of inflammation and cancer. In this review, we introduce the distribution, structure, and functions of RNase T2, its differential roles in inflammation and cancer, and the perspective for its research and related applications in medicine.


Subject(s)
Disease Susceptibility , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Neoplasms/etiology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Animals , Biomarkers , Cellular Microenvironment/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Endoribonucleases/chemistry , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Immunomodulation , Inflammation/pathology , Neoplasms/pathology , Structure-Activity Relationship
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3165-3175, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085669

ABSTRACT

The disease spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies from asymptomatic infection to critical illness and death. Identification of prognostic markers is vital for predicting progression and clinical practice. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA, known as RNAemia, has been detected in the blood. However, the potential clinical value of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia remains unknown. We, therefore, conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to estimate the pooled prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia as well as summary strength of RNAemia in association with disease severity and unfavorable clinical outcomes. A total of 21 studies involving 2181 patients were included. SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia in COVID-19 patients varied from 9.4% to 74.1%, with a pooled estimate of 34% (95% confidene interval [CI]: 26%-43%). Overall, SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was associated with COVID-19 severity with odds ratio (OR) of 5.43 (95% CI: 3.46-8.53). In addition, SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was a significant risk factor for unfavorable clinical outcomes (OR = 6.54, 95% CI: 3.82-11.21). The summary OR was 4.28 (95% CI: 2.20-8.33) for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, 11.07 (95% CI: 5.60-21.88) for mortality. Furthermore, RNAemia was also a significant risk factor for invasive mechanical ventilation and multiple organ failure. SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia is associated with disease severity, ICU admission, death in COVID-19, and may serve as a clinical predictor. More prospective trials in evaluating the potential of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia as a prognostic indicator are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Databases, Factual , Hospitalization , Humans , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , Viral Load
15.
J Int Med Res ; 48(9): 300060520955063, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796210

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection was detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. The COVID-19 infection characteristics include a long incubation period, strong infectivity, and high fatality rate, and it negatively affects human health and social development. COVID-19 has become a common problem in the global medical and health system. It is essentially an acute self-limiting disease. Patients with severe COVID-19 infection usually progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, metabolic acidosis that is difficult to correct, coagulation dysfunction, multiple organ failure, and even death within a short period after onset. There remains a lack of effective drugs for such patients clinically. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are expected to reduce the risk of complications and death in patients because they have strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities, which can improve the microenvironment, promote neovascularization, and enhance tissue repair capabilities. China is currently conducting several clinical trials on MSCs for the treatment of COVID-19. Here, we review the research progress related to using stem cells to treat patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Antiviral Res ; 181: 104885, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663032

ABSTRACT

Influenza A virus (IAV) infection represents a global health challenge. Excavating antiviral active components from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a promising anti-IAV strategy. Our previous studies have demonstrated that 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DAP), a major ingredient of a TCM herb called Andrographis paniculata, shows anti-IAV activity that is mainly effective against A/chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (H5N1), A/duck/Hubei/XN/2007 (H5N1), and A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) in vitro and in vivo. However, the underlying anti-IAV molecular mechanism of DAP needs further investigation. In the present work, we found that DAP can significantly inhibit the apoptosis of human lung epithelial (A549) cells infected with A/chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (H5N1). After DAP treatment, the protein expression levels of cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9, and the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in H5N1-infected A549 cells were all obviously downregulated. However, DAP had no inhibitory effect on caspase-8 activity and cleaved caspase-8 production. Meanwhile, the efficacy of DAP in reducing the apoptotic cells was lost after using the inhibitor of caspase-3 or caspase-9 but remained intact after the caspase-8 inhibitor treatment. Moreover, DAP efficiently attenuated the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, suppressed cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, and decreased the protein expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in the mitochondrial fraction. Furthermore, the silencing of caspase-9 reduced the yield of nucleoprotein (NP) and disabled the inhibitory ability of DAP in NP production in A549 cells. Overall results suggest that DAP exerts its antiviral effects by inhibiting H5N1-induced apoptosis on the caspase-9-dependent intrinsic/mitochondrial pathway, which may be one of the anti-H5N1 mechanisms of DAP.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Caspase 9/genetics , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Caspase 9/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dogs , Drug Discovery , Humans , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells
17.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153282, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is thought to be a potential intervention in the treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of CHM or CHM combination therapy for COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis METHODS: We searched for relevant studies in the CNKI, CBM, Wanfang Data, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and other resources from their inception to April 15, 2020. Randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies on CHM or CHM combination therapy for COVID-19 were included. Meta-analysis was performed according to the Cochrane Handbook. RESULTS: Overall, 19 studies with 1474 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that the overall clinical effectiveness (OR = 2.67, 95% CI 1.83-3.89, I2 = 0%), improvement in the CT scan (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.80-3.29, I2 = 0%), percentage of cases turning to severe/critical (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.24-0.67, I2 = 17.1%), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negativity rate (OR = 2.55, 95% CI 1.06-6.17, I2 = 56.4%) and disappearance rate of symptoms (fever, cough, and fatigue) were superior by combined CHM treatment of COVID-19. However, there was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of length of hospital stay (WMD = -0.46, 95% CI -3.87 - 2.95, I2 = 99.5%), and rate of adverse effects (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.48-3.07, I2 = 43.5%). The quality of evidence was very low to low. CONCLUSION: The combined treatment of COVID-19 with Chinese and Western medicine may be effective in controlling symptoms and reducing the rate of disease progression due to low quality evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Length of Stay , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
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