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2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 439, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since COVID-19 broke out worldwide, it had caused extensive public health concerns and psychological distress, including PTSD and stigmatization towards recovered patients and people from high-risk areas. However, the association between PTSD, stigmatization and certain related factors have not been confirmed. METHODS: Through cluster random sampling, 946 Chinese graduates were investigated from 5 universities in Shanghai at three months after China lifted its coronavirus lockdown. PTSD symptoms were evaluated with PCL-5. Demographic and disease-related characteristics including stigmatization, educational attainment and working position were collected to assess their association with PTSD. RESULTS: 12.4% graduates were reported significant PTSD symptoms in PCL-5 screening with a cut-off of 33. Graduates with a Master's degree (P = 0.02) or working position like "looking for a job" and "planning to go abroad" (P = 0.038) showed severer stigmatization related to COVID-19. Stigmatization towards both patients recovering from COVID-19 and people from high-risk areas had significant association with PTSD symptoms. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that stigmatization can explain 5% of variation of PCL-5 scores after controlling gender, age, educational attainments and working position. CONCLUSION: Graduates who were looking for jobs or preparing to go abroad showed more stigmatization related to COVID-19. There was a positive correlation between stigma against COVID-19 and PTSD symptoms. More attention should be paid to the mental health status of graduates who are preparing to go abroad or looking for jobs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , China , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Stereotyping , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
3.
Immunity ; 55(8): 1501-1514.e3, 2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885835

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has presented significant challenges to current antibodies and vaccines. Herein, we systematically compared the efficacy of 50 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), covering the seven identified epitope classes of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD, against Omicron sub-variants BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, and BA.3. Binding and pseudovirus-based neutralizing assays revealed that 37 of the 50 mAbs lost neutralizing activities, whereas the others displayed variably decreased activities against the four Omicron sub-variants. BA.2 was found to be more sensitive to RBD-5 antibodies than the other sub-variants. Furthermore, a quaternary complex structure of BA.1 RBD with three mAbs showing different neutralizing potencies against Omicron provided a basis for understanding the immune evasion of Omicron sub-variants and revealed the lack of G446S mutation accounting for the sensitivity of BA.2 to RBD-5 mAbs. Our results may guide the application of the available mAbs and facilitate the development of universal therapeutic antibodies and vaccines against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins
7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 761314, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559215

ABSTRACT

Many patients who had coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had at least one symptom that persisted after recovery from the acute phase. Our purpose was to review the empirical evidence on symptom prevalence, complications, and management of patients with long COVID. We systematically reviewed the literature on the clinical manifestations of long COVID-19, defined by the persistence of symptoms beyond the acute phase of infection. Bibliographic searches in PubMed and Google Scholar were conducted to retrieve relevant studies on confirmed patients with long COVID that were published prior to August 30, 2021. The most common persistent symptoms were fatigue, cough, dyspnea, chest pains, chest tightness, joint pain, muscle pain, loss of taste or smell, hair loss, sleep difficulties, anxiety, and depression. Some of the less common persistent symptoms were skin rash, decreased appetite, sweating, inability to concentrate, and memory lapses. In addition to these general symptoms, some patients experienced dysfunctions of specific organs, mainly the lungs, heart, kidneys, and nervous system. A comprehensive understanding of the persistent clinical manifestations of COVID-19 can improve and facilitate patient management and referrals. Prompt rehabilitative care and targeted interventions of these patients may improve their recovery from physical, immune, and mental health symptoms.

8.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(46): 967-972, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513532

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently emergent coronavirus of natural origin and caused the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The study of its natural origin and host range is of particular importance for source tracing, monitoring of this virus, and prevention of recurrent infections. One major approach is to test the binding ability of the viral receptor gene ACE2 from various hosts to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, but it is time-consuming and labor-intensive to cover a large collection of species. METHODS: In this paper, we applied state-of-the-art machine learning approaches and created a pipeline reaching >87% accuracy in predicting binding between different ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 spike. RESULTS: We further validated our prediction pipeline using 2 independent test sets involving >50 bat species and achieved >78% accuracy. A large-scale screening of 204 mammal species revealed 144 species (or 61%) were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infections, highlighting the importance of intensive monitoring and studies in mammalian species. DISCUSSION: In short, our study employed machine learning models to create an important tool for predicting potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2 and achieved the highest precision to our knowledge in experimental validation. This study also predicted that a wide range of mammals were capable of being infected by SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1519-1531, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 has developed into a pandemic. Data are required that specifically address the psychological consequences in COVID-19 confirmed patients. This study mainly aimed to examine posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and sleep quality among COVID-19 confirmed patients during hospitalization. METHODS: An observational study was conducted in two designated hospitals in Wuhan, China. Data were collected from 190 patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection between February 10, 2020 and March 13, 2020. RESULTS: The mean age of the 190 confirmed patients was 55.7 years (SD = 13.7), of which 96 (50.5%) were female and 88 (46.3%) had family members or acquaintances infected with COVID-19. Lymphocytopenia was presented in 62 (32.6%) patients and 25 (13.2%) patients showed oxygen desaturation. The prevalence of high PTSD symptoms was 22.6% among the 190 patients. The median time from symptom onset to first medical visit and hospitalization was 2 days (IQR, 1-5) and 16 days (IQR, 10-27), respectively. Patients' PTSD symptoms were positively related to the time from symptom onset to first medical visit (r = 0.156, p < 0.05) and hospitalization (r = 0.181, p < 0.01). There were significant correlations between sleep quality and PTSD symptoms (r = 0.312-0.547, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of high PTSD symptoms was 22.6% among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Early diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 symptoms are beneficial to infected patients both physically and psychologically. With the recovery of physical symptoms, psychological intervention is desired to promote the trauma recovery in COVID-19 patients.

10.
Cell ; 184(13): 3438-3451.e10, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275185

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading worldwide, causing a global pandemic. Bat-origin RaTG13 is currently the most phylogenetically related virus. Here we obtained the complex structure of the RaTG13 receptor binding domain (RBD) with human ACE2 (hACE2) and evaluated binding of RaTG13 RBD to 24 additional ACE2 orthologs. By substituting residues in the RaTG13 RBD with their counterparts in the SARS-CoV-2 RBD, we found that residue 501, the major position found in variants of concern (VOCs) 501Y.V1/V2/V3, plays a key role in determining the potential host range of RaTG13. We also found that SARS-CoV-2 could induce strong cross-reactive antibodies to RaTG13 and identified a SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody (mAb), CB6, that could cross-neutralize RaTG13 pseudovirus. These results elucidate the receptor binding and host adaption mechanisms of RaTG13 and emphasize the importance of continuous surveillance of coronaviruses (CoVs) carried by animal reservoirs to prevent another spillover of CoVs.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chiroptera/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Chiroptera/immunology , Chiroptera/metabolism , Host Specificity/immunology , Humans , Phylogeny , Protein Binding/physiology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sequence Alignment
11.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 560602, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259393

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has taken a huge toll on medical resources and the economy and will inevitably have an impact on public mental health. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as the most common mental illness after an epidemic, must be seriously addressed. This study aimed to investigate the subjective fear of the Chinese general public during COVID-19 and to explore how it affected the development of PTSD. Methods: An online questionnaire survey was conducted among 1,009 people from January 30 to February 14, 2020 (about 1 month after the COVID-19 outbreak). The subjective fear was measured by a self-reported single-choice question. Four items from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were selected to measure the subjects' sleep quality. Their post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) were measured by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Pearson correlation, hierarchical multivariate regression analysis, multiple mediator model, and bootstrapping were used in statistical analyses. Results: Different people showed different levels of subjective fear in response to the outbreak. There was a significant positive correlation between subjective fear and the total score of PCL-5 (R = 0.513, P < 0.01), meaning that the higher the degree of subjective fear, the more severe the symptoms of post-traumatic stress are. Subjective fear was an important predictor of PTSS, accounting for 24.3% of the variance. The total effect of subjective fear on PCL-5 scores was significant (total effect = 7.426, SE = 0.405, 95% CI = 6.631-8.221). The total indirect effect of subjective fear on PCL-5 scores through sleep quality was also significant (total indirect effect = 1.945, SE = 0.258, 95% CI = 1.436-2.470). Conclusions: Subjective fear has an important predictive effect on PTSS. In addition to the direct effect, our findings firstly demonstrate the mediating role of sleep quality in the relationship between subjective fear and PTSS.

12.
Chin J Traumatol ; 24(4): 231-236, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240246

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: As COVID-19 spreads globally and affects people's health, there are concerns that the pandemic and control policies may have psychological effects on young people (age from 17 to 35 years). This psychological impact might vary in different countries, and thus we compared the prevalence of self-reported psychological distress, loneliness and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among young people in the United Kingdom (UK) and China at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data of this study came from two sources. One source was the first wave of COVID-19 study in Understanding Society, a special wave of the UK household longitudinal study, which provided the high-quality, national-wide representative panel data. The sample comprised 1054 young people. The other source was an online survey on the mental health of 1003 young people from Shanghai, a highly developed area in China. The questionnaire included questions on the prevalence of common mental disorders (cut-off score ≥ 4), loneliness and potential PTSS (cut-off ≥ 33). Univariable analyses were conducted to test the differences in the self-reported prevalence of psychological distress and loneliness between the two groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were run to explore the predictors of psychological distress and loneliness among all the young people from England and Shanghai. RESULTS: Among the samples with self-reported psychological distress, the UK sample accounted for 34.4% (n=1054) and the Chinese sample accounted for 14.1% (n=1003). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Additionally, 57.1% of people in the UK and 46.7% in China reported that they sometimes or often felt lonely, of which the difference is statistically significant (p < 0.001). Regression analysis of the entire samples showed that nationality, gender, psychotherapy and loneliness were significant predictors of 12-item General Health Questionnaire scores, while the variables of age and living alone were not. Significant predictors of self-reported loneliness were the nationality, gender, age, living alone and psychotherapy. In China, 123 (12.3%) young people, 49 men (11.3%) and 74 women (13.0%), met the criteria of PTSS symptoms (cut-off scores ≥ 33). These scores were only collected in China. CONCLUSION: This evidence suggests that mental health and loneliness reported by young people were lower in China than that in the UK during the studied period. More research is needed to understand these differences. If the differential negative psychological impacts are confirmed, country-specific measures of prevention and intervention should be adopted to improve the mental health of young people under the ongoing impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Loneliness , Mental Health , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Prevalence , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
EMBO J ; 40(16): e107786, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239217

ABSTRACT

Pangolins have been suggested as potential reservoir of zoonotic viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 causing the global COVID-19 outbreak. Here, we study the binding of two SARS-CoV-2-like viruses isolated from pangolins, GX/P2V/2017 and GD/1/2019, to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), the receptor of SARS-CoV-2. We find that the spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) of pangolin CoVs binds to hACE2 as efficiently as the SARS-CoV-2 RBD in vitro. Furthermore, incorporation of pangolin CoV RBDs allows entry of pseudotyped VSV particles into hACE2-expressing cells. A screen for binding of pangolin CoV RBDs to ACE2 orthologs from various species suggests a broader host range than that of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, cryo-EM structures of GX/P2V/2017 and GD/1/2019 RBDs in complex with hACE2 show their molecular binding in modes similar to SARS-CoV-2 RBD. Introducing the Q498H substitution found in pangolin CoVs into the SARS-CoV-2 RBD expands its binding capacity to ACE2 homologs of mouse, rat, and European hedgehog. These findings suggest that these two pangolin CoVs may infect humans, highlighting the necessity of further surveillance of pangolin CoVs.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Pangolins/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Binding Sites , HEK293 Cells , Hedgehogs/virology , Host Specificity , Humans , Mice , Models, Molecular , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Rats , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization
14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(8): 1107-1119, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several COVID-19 vaccines have been developed so far, they will not be sufficient to meet the global demand. Development of a wider range of vaccines, with different mechanisms of action, could help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 globally. We developed a protein subunit vaccine against COVID-19 using a dimeric form of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as the antigen. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine, ZF2001, and determine the appropriate dose and schedule for an efficacy study. METHODS: We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and phase 2 trials. Phase 1 was done at two university hospitals in Chongqing and Beijing, China, and phase 2 was done at the Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Xiangtan, China. Healthy adults aged 18-59 years, without a history of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 infection, an RT-PCR-positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, a history of contact with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases, and severe allergies to any component of the vaccine were eligible for enrolment. In phase 1, participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive three doses of the vaccine (25 µg or 50 µg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart. In phase 2, participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1) to receive the vaccine (25 µg or 50 µg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart, in either a two-dose schedule or a three-dose schedule. Investigators, participants, and the laboratory team were masked to group allocation. For phase 1, the primary outcome was safety, measured by the occurrence of adverse events and serious adverse events. For phase 2, the primary outcome was safety and immunogenicity (the seroconversion rate and the magnitude, in geometric mean titres [GMTs], of SARS-CoV-2-neutralising antibodies). Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat and per-protocol basis. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04445194 and NCT04466085) and participant follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between June 22 and July 3, 2020, 50 participants were enrolled into the phase 1 trial and randomly assigned to receive three doses of placebo (n=10), the 25 µg vaccine (n=20), or the 50 µg vaccine (n=20). The mean age of participants was 32·6 (SD 9·4) years. Between July 12 and July 17, 2020, 900 participants were enrolled into the phase 2 trial and randomly assigned to receive two doses of placebo (n=150), 25 µg vaccine (n=150), or 50 µg vaccine (n=150), or three doses of placebo (n=150), 25 µg vaccine (n=150), or 50 µg vaccine (n=150). The mean age of participants was 43·5 (SD 9·2) years. In both phase 1 and phase 2, adverse events reported within 30 days after vaccination were mild or moderate (grade 1 or 2) in most cases (phase 1: six [60%] of ten participants in the placebo group, 14 [70%] of 20 in the 25 µg group, and 18 [90%] of 20 in the 50 µg group; phase 2: 37 [25%] of 150 in the two-dose placebo group, 43 [29%] of 150 in the two-dose 25 µg group, 50 [33%] of 150 in the two-dose 50 µg group, 47 [31%] of 150 in the three-dose placebo group, 72 [48%] of 150 in the three-dose 25 µg group, and 65 [43%] of 150 in the three-dose 50 µg group). In phase 1, two (10%) grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported in the 50 µg group. In phase 2, grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported by 18 participants (four [3%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, four [3%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and six [4%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group), and 11 were considered vaccine related (two [1%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, two [1%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and five [3%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group); seven participants reported serious adverse events (one [1%] in the two-dose 25 µg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 µg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, one [1%] in the three-dose 25 µg vaccine group, and two [1%] in the three-dose 50 µg vaccine group), but none was considered vaccine related. In phase 2, on the two-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the second dose were 76% (114 of 150 participants) in the 25 µg group and 72% (108 of 150) in the 50 µg group; on the three-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the third dose were 97% (143 of 148 participants) in the 25 µg group and 93% (138 of 148) in the 50 µg group. In the two-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the second dose were 17·7 (95% CI 13·6-23·1) in the 25 µg group and 14·1 (10·8-18·3) in the 50 µg group. In the three-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the third dose were 102·5 (95% CI 81·8-128·5) in the 25 µg group and 69·1 (53·0-90·0) in the 50 µg group. INTERPRETATION: The protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 appears to be well tolerated and immunogenic. The safety and immunogenicity data from the phase 1 and 2 trials support the use of the 25 µg dose in a three-dose schedule in an ongoing phase 3 trial for large-scale evaluation of ZF2001's safety and efficacy. FUNDING: National Program on Key Research Project of China, National Science and Technology Major Projects of Drug Discovery, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Multimerization , Tandem Repeat Sequences , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066044

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a major threat to global health. Although varied SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses have been isolated from bats and SARS-CoV-2 may infect bat, the structural basis for SARS-CoV-2 to utilize the human receptor counterpart bat angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (bACE2) for virus infection remains less understood. Here, we report that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) could bind to bACE2 from Rhinolophus macrotis (bACE2-Rm) with substantially lower affinity compared with that to the human ACE2 (hACE2), and its infectivity to host cells expressing bACE2-Rm was confirmed with pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus and SARS-CoV-2 wild virus. The structure of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD with the bACE2-Rm complex was determined, revealing a binding mode similar to that of hACE2. The analysis of binding details between SARS-CoV-2 RBD and bACE2-Rm revealed that the interacting network involving Y41 and E42 of bACE2-Rm showed substantial differences with that to hACE2. Bats have extensive species diversity and the residues for RBD binding in bACE2 receptor varied substantially among different bat species. Notably, the Y41H mutant, which exists in many bats, attenuates the binding capacity of bACE2-Rm, indicating the central roles of Y41 in the interaction network. These findings would benefit our understanding of the potential infection of SARS-CoV-2 in varied species of bats.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Chiroptera , SARS-CoV-2 , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chiroptera/genetics , Chiroptera/metabolism , Chiroptera/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mutation, Missense , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Species Specificity
16.
J Affect Disord ; 283: 123-129, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To examine the prevalence of and risk factors for acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) shortly after the massive outbreak of COVID-19 in China. METHODS: An online anonymous survey was conducted between 30 January and 3 February, 2020. The survey included two self-administered questionnaires: one collected personal information (gender, age, education background), current location, recent epidemic area contact history, the classification of population, and subjective sleep quality; the other was the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). RESULTS: A total of 2091 Chinese participated in the current study. The prevalence of PTSD among the Chinese public one month after the COVID-19 outbreak was 4.6%. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that gender (p < 0.001), epidemic area contact history (p = 0.047), classification of population (p < 0.001), and subjective sleep quality (p < 0.001) could be regarded as predictors for PTSD. LIMITATIONS: First, the majority of participants in this study were the general public, with confirmed or suspected patients being a small part. Second, the measurement of PTSD in this study might be vulnerable to selection bias because of an online self-report study, such as participants' recruitment. Third, the prevalence of PTSD in this study was estimated by an online questionnaire rather than a clinical interview. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that some Chinese showed acute PTSD during the COVID-19 outbreak. Therefore, comprehensive psychological intervention needs further implementation. Furthermore, females, people who had recent epidemic area contact history, those at high risk of infection or with poor sleep quality deserve special attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
J Transl Int Med ; 9(1): 38-42, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the necessity and safety of digestive endoscopy during the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study method was used to collect patients' data from the endoscopy center of the Civil Aviation General Hospital of China from February 1 to May 31, 2020, as the observation group. The patients' data of endoscopic diagnosis and treatment during the same period in 2019 were used as a control group, to compare the differences in the number of diagnosis and treatment and the detection rate of gastrointestinal diseases in the two groups. At the same time, patients and related staff were followed up for the situation of new infection. RESULTS: During the epidemic, our endoscopy center conducted a total of 1,808 cases of endoscopic operations and 5,903 cases in the control group. The amount of endoscopic work during the epidemic period was 30.63% in the same period last year. During the epidemic, 26 patients underwent endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR)/endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) treatment, 26 patients underwent ERCP, and 18 patients underwent gastrointestinal stent implantation. In the control group, 273 patients underwent EMR/ESD, 17 underwent ERCP, and 16 underwent gastrointestinal stenting. During COVID-19, compared with the same period last year, the detection rates of peptic ulcer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, and rectal cancer were significantly higher (χ 2 = 4.482, P = 0.034; χ 2 = 5.223, P = 0.006; χ 2 = 2.329, P = 0.041; χ 2 = 8.755, P = 0.003; and χ 2 = 5.136, P = 0.023). Through telephone follow-up, novel coronavirus nucleic acid detection and blood antibody detection, no patients or medical staff were infected with the novel coronavirus. CONCLUSION: During COVID-19, the number of digestive endoscopic operations decreased significantly compared with the same period last year, but the detection rate of various diseases of the digestive tract increased significantly. On the basis of strict prevention and control, orderly recovery of endoscopic work is essential.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22463, 2020 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003322

ABSTRACT

The impact of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak on mental health was of widespread concern recently. The present study aimed to exam sleep quality and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and potential influence factors in the first phases of COVID-19 massive outbreak in China. A snowball sampling technique was used and a total of 2027 Chinese participated in the present study. Demographic information, epidemic area contact history, sleep quality and PTSS data were collected with an internet-based cross-sectional survey. Results suggested that 59.7% participants were not fully satisfied with their sleep quality, and 50.9% participants had various degrees of short sleep duration problems. 44.1% and 33.0% participants had sleep disturbance and sleep onset latency problems. Also, the prevalence of PTSS reached 4.7% in the self-rating survey. Epidemic area contact history affected PTSS and latency onset of sleep under the influence of COVID-19. Epidemic area contact history and sleep quality had interaction effects on PTSS. The present study was one of the first to evaluate acute psychological responses and possible risk factors during the peak of COVID-19 in China and results indicate that keeping good sleep quality in individuals with pandemic exposure experiences is a way to prevent PTSS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990135

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a major threat to global health. Although varied SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses have been isolated from bats and SARS-CoV-2 may infect bat, the structural basis for SARS-CoV-2 to utilize the human receptor counterpart bat angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (bACE2) for virus infection remains less understood. Here, we report that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) could bind to bACE2 from Rhinolophus macrotis (bACE2-Rm) with substantially lower affinity compared with that to the human ACE2 (hACE2), and its infectivity to host cells expressing bACE2-Rm was confirmed with pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus and SARS-CoV-2 wild virus. The structure of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD with the bACE2-Rm complex was determined, revealing a binding mode similar to that of hACE2. The analysis of binding details between SARS-CoV-2 RBD and bACE2-Rm revealed that the interacting network involving Y41 and E42 of bACE2-Rm showed substantial differences with that to hACE2. Bats have extensive species diversity and the residues for RBD binding in bACE2 receptor varied substantially among different bat species. Notably, the Y41H mutant, which exists in many bats, attenuates the binding capacity of bACE2-Rm, indicating the central roles of Y41 in the interaction network. These findings would benefit our understanding of the potential infection of SARS-CoV-2 in varied species of bats.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Chiroptera , SARS-CoV-2 , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chiroptera/genetics , Chiroptera/metabolism , Chiroptera/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mutation, Missense , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Species Specificity
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(49): e23401, 2020 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an epidemic respiratory infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 infection. Now it is popular all over the world on a large scale. COVID-19 has the characteristics of rapid transmission, atypical clinical symptoms, easy missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis, and so on. which has seriously affected social and economic development and people's health. Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus type 2 infection may lead to systemic cytokine storm, which leads to a sharp deterioration of the condition of ordinary patients. At present, no specific drug has been found in the clinical treatment of covid-19, while Xuebijing injection has been widely used in severe patients in China as a traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study is to assess the effificacy and safety of Xuebijing injection for COVID-19. METHODS: Before the research, we conducted a comprehensive search on relevant websites. Two professional researchers will gradually screen, read the title, abstract and full text if necessary, and independently select qualified documents according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We will conduct a meta-analysis of the results related to COVID-19 to assess the risks of bias and data extraction. The heterogeneity of data will be studied by Cochrane X and I tests. The evaluation of publication bias will be carried out by funnel chart analysis and Eger test. RESULTS: This review will be disseminated in print by peer-review. CONCLUSION: Our research is to scientifically analyze the clinical evidence of Xuebijing injection in treating severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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