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1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 400, 2022 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the effectiveness of inactivated and Ad5-nCoV COVID-19 vaccines in real-world use-especially against Omicron variants in SARS-CoV-2 infection-naïve population. METHODS: A matched case-control study was conducted among people aged ≥ 3 years between 2 December 2021 and 13 May 2022. Cases were SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, individuals with severe/critical COVID-19, or COVID-19-related deaths. Controls were selected from consecutively test-negative individuals at the same time as cases were diagnosed and were exact-matched on year-of-age, gender, birthplace, illness onset date, and residential district in ratios of 1:1 with infected individuals and 4:1 with severe/critical COVID-19 and COVID-19-related death. Additionally, two subsets were constructed to analyze separate vaccine effectiveness (VE) of inactivated vaccines (subset 1) and Ad5-vectored vaccine (subset 2) against each of the three outcomes. RESULTS: Our study included 612,597 documented SARS-CoV-2 infections, among which 1485 progressed to severe or critical illness and 568 died. Administering COVID-19 vaccines provided limited protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection across all age groups (overall VE: 16.0%, 95% CI: 15.1-17.0%) but high protection against severe/critical illness (88.6%, 85.8-90.8%) and COVID-19-related death (91.6%, 86.8-94.6%). In subset 1, inactivated vaccine showed 16.3% (15.4-17.2%) effective against infection, 88.6% (85.8-90.9%) effective against severe/critical COVIID-19, and 91.7% (86.9-94.7%) against COVID-19 death. Booster vaccination with inactivated vaccines enhanced protection against severe COVID-19 (92.7%, 90.1-94.6%) and COVID-19 death (95.9%, 91.4-98.1%). Inactivated VE against infection began to wane 12 weeks after the last dose, but two and three doses sustained high protection levels (> 80%) against severe/critical illness and death, while subset 2 showed Ad5-vectored vaccine was 13.2% (10.9-15.5%) effective against infection and 77.9% (15.6-94.2%) effective against severe/critical COVIID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our real-world study found high and durable two- and three-dose inactivated VE against Omicron-associated severe/critical illness and death across all age groups, but lower effectiveness against Omicron infection, which reinforces the critical importance of full-series vaccination and timely booster dose administration for all eligible individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Critical Illness , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated , Severity of Illness Index
2.
J Comb Optim ; 44(5): 3735-3777, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059960

ABSTRACT

In the post-COVID-19 period, the regional economic development gap in Guangdong has expanded and the risk has increased. This is not conducive to building a well-off society in Guangdong in an all-round way. Optimizing the industrial structure, changing the mode of economic growth, preventing regional economic risks, and narrowing the regional economic development gap are the focus of Guangdong governments at all levels. Based on a two-sector economic growth model, the paper uses descriptive statistics and Deng's grey correlation method to analyze the economic development panel data of 21 prefecture-level cities of Guangdong Province from 2011 to 2018, analyzes the characteristics of regional economic development in Guangdong, and makes experimental research of the effect of industrial structure optimization and economic development factors on economic growth in Guangzhou, Zhongshan, Shantou, Maoming and Meizhou at different stages of development. The results show that: there are differences in the industrial structure and the level of economic development in different regions; the rationalization of industrial structure and upgrading of the industrial structure has an impact on economic growth and show different features during different stages; in different stages of economic development, foreign trade, scientific and technological innovation are the main factors affecting regional economic growth. This paper holds that the northwest of Guangdong Province and the Pearl River Delta should formulate industrial structure adjustment policies to promote the rationalization of regional industrial structure, expand foreign trade channels and innovate financing mechanisms, and restrain regional economic risks in combination with regional characteristics. The new development pattern of domestic and international dual circulation and mutual promotion, further expands the level of opening up, effectively playing the role of free trade pilot areas, free trade ports, special economic zones, development zones, bonded areas, and other frontier highlands, improve the level and capacity of foreign trade.

3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2069427, 2022 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895720

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to understand the willingness of and affecting factors of non-national immunization program (non-NIP) vaccines among children's parents during the COVID-19 era in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with parents who attended vaccination clinics in four out of 16 districts in Shanghai, China. Data was obtained using a self-administered structured questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze factors associated with vaccination acceptability. In total, 1691 valid questionnaires were obtained. Of the participants, 69.5% (1,176/1,691) reported being interested in non-NIP vaccines for their children. Further, respondents were more likely to be willing to get non-NIP vaccines for their children if they had an income of 10,000-20,000CNY or more, an educational level of college or above, and if getting the vaccination was moderately convenient or convenient. Respondents were less likely to be willing to get the vaccines if they were in the 30-39 age group and had moderate or low satisfaction with the vaccine. Many parents are willing to get non-NIP vaccines for their children. However, some demographic factors, perceived convenience and satisfaction of vaccination, perceived necessity, safety and price barrier of non- NIP influenced the acceptability of non-NIP vaccines in Shanghai. Our findings can help guide future efforts to increase non-NIP vaccines acceptability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunization Programs , Pandemics , Parents , Vaccination
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older individuals have a high risk of morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19, and one of the most effective ways to prevent COVID-19 is vaccination. Little is known about older people's willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the acceptance of and factors influencing the intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccination among older adults in Shanghai, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among older adults (≥60 years old) in Shanghai. Face-to-face interviews with a questionnaire were conducted in community health service centers, recording several parameters: demographic information, health-related factors; perceived likelihood, severity, and burden of COVID-19; perceived safety, effectiveness, necessity, and benefit of the COVID-19 vaccine, as well as their trust in the vaccine delivery system and doctors; willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. Bivariate analysis between several survey items and the willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination was conducted using a chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to assess to what degree each variable affected the willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: Of the 1067 participants, 90.91% (970/1067) confirmed that they were willing to receive a COVID-19 vaccination. The participants were more likely to be willing to be vaccinated if they were immigrants (OR = 1.988, 95%CI = 1.062-3.717), had an education level of junior high school (OR = 2.724, 95%CI = 1.000-7.423) or high school or above (OR = 3.993, 95%CI = 1.576-10.119), and had a monthly income of CNY 3000-5000 (OR = 32.770, 95%CI = 1.144-6.711) or CNY >5000 (OR = 2.309, 95%CI = 1.003-5.319). The participants were also more likely to be willing to be vaccinated if they had received a pneumonia vaccination previously (OR = 2.138, 95%CI = 1.016-4.500), perceived the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine (OR = 1.508, 95%CI = 1.073-2.119), perceived the necessity of the COVID-19 vaccine (OR = 2.604, 95%CI = 1.946-3.484), or trusted the suggestions of doctors (OR = 1.706, 95%CI = 1.115-2.618). The participants were less likely to be willing to be vaccinated if they were aged ≥76 years (OR = 0.498, 95%CI = 0.264-0.939), reported a physical health condition of bad or below (OR = 0.229, 95% CI = 0.095-0.549), or were worried about the adverse effects of a COVID-19 vaccination (OR = 0.503, 95%CI = 0.364-0.695). CONCLUSIONS: Under the free vaccination policy for COVID-19, older adults have a high intention to be vaccinated to prevent COVID-19 in Shanghai, China. Widely publicizing the safety and necessity of COVID-19 vaccination is necessary.

5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 4038-4042, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331527

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is still an enormous threat to global health and the economy. Although China has adopted effective measures to control the outbreak, there is still a risk of local transmission from imported cases. Meanwhile, considering the high mortality rate and rapid spread of the disease, a safe and effective vaccine is urgently needed to control the pandemic. With COVID-19 vaccines becoming available to the population, it has become important to know about their acceptance in the population. This is important to enable high vaccination coverage rates and reflects the demand within the general population. An cross-sectional survey was conducted during October 2020 in Shanghai using a well-designed questionnaire, which aimed to evaluate the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines and to identify the factors affecting its acceptability among working-age adults in Shanghai, China. We found that the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines was high in work-age adults in Shanghai, China. The factors affecting the acceptability of vaccination identified in this study can provide guides to increase COVID-19 vaccine acceptability in future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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