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1.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal ; 07:07, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a postinfectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related complication that has disproportionately affected racial/ethnic minority children. We conducted a pilot study to investigate risk factors for MIS-C aiming to understand MIS-C disparities. METHODS: This case-control study included MIS-C cases and SARS-CoV-2-positive outpatient controls aged less than 18 years frequency-matched 4:1 to cases by age group and site. Patients hospitalized with MIS-C were admitted between March 16 and October 2, 2020, across 17 pediatric hospitals. We evaluated race, ethnicity, social vulnerability index (SVI), insurance status, weight-for-age and underlying medical conditions as risk factors using mixed effects multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We compared 241 MIS-C cases to 817 outpatient SARS-CoV-2-positive at-risk controls. Cases and controls had similar sex, age and U.S. census region distribution. MIS-C patients were more frequently previously healthy, non-Hispanic Black, residing in higher SVI areas, and in the 95th percentile or higher for weight-for-age. In the multivariable analysis, the likelihood of MIS-C was higher among non-Hispanic Black children [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.07;95% CI: 1.23-3.48]. Additionally, SVI in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles (aOR: 1.88;95% CI: 1.18-2.97 and aOR: 2.03;95% CI: 1.19-3.47, respectively) were independent factors along with being previously healthy (aOR: 1.64;95% CI: 1.18-2.28). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, non-Hispanic Black children were more likely to develop MIS-C after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, underlying medical conditions, and weight-for-age. Investigation of the potential contribution of immunologic, environmental, and other factors is warranted.

3.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 17(8):e0273691, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is spreading rapidly worldwide, and the population is generally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, especially those with cancer. Hence, our study aims to design a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical characteristics and prognoses of lung cancer patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The protocol is prepared following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The literature will be searched in Embase, Pubmed, the Cochrane Library, LitCovid, and CNKI for potentially eligible articles. The quality of the articles will be used in the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) and Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Statistical analysis will be performed through RevMan 5 software. This review protocol has been registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022306866). DISCUSSION: To clarify whether COVID-19 affects the clinical symptoms and prognoses of lung cancer patients. Further study is needed to establish the best evidence-based for the management of lung cancer patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The definitive conclusion will be important to physicians effectively manage lung cancer patients with COVID-19.

4.
ISME J ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2016660

ABSTRACT

Interspecies transmission of viruses is a well-known phenomenon in animals and plants whether via contacts or vectors. In fungi, interspecies transmission between distantly related fungi is often suspected but rarely experimentally documented and may have practical implications. A newly described double-strand RNA (dsRNA) virus found asymptomatic in the phytopathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria biglobosa of cruciferous crops was successfully transmitted to an evolutionarily distant, broad-host range pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Leptosphaeria biglobosa botybirnavirus 1 (LbBV1) was characterized in L. biglobosa strain GZJS-19. Its infection in L. biglobosa was asymptomatic, as no significant differences in radial mycelial growth and pathogenicity were observed between LbBV1-infected and LbBV1-free strains. However, cross-species transmission of LbBV1 from L. biglobosa to infection in B. cinerea resulted in the hypovirulence of the recipient B. cinerea strain t-459-V. The cross-species transmission was succeeded only by inoculation of mixed spores of L. biglobosa and B. cinerea on PDA or on stems of oilseed rape with the efficiency of 4.6% and 18.8%, respectively. To investigate viral cross-species transmission between L. biglobosa and B. cinerea in nature, RNA sequencing was carried out on L. biglobosa and B. cinerea isolates obtained from Brassica samples co-infected by these two pathogens and showed that at least two mycoviruses were detected in both fungal groups. These results indicate that cross-species transmission of mycoviruses may occur frequently in nature and result in the phenotypical changes of newly invaded phytopathogenic fungi. This study also provides new insights for using asymptomatic mycoviruses as biocontrol agent.

5.
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare ; 15:1901-1908, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009780

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Air pollution is a novel environmental risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Air quality improved during COVID-19 lockdowns;however, the effects of these lockdowns on PM2.5 concentrations and renal function remain unclear. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare air pollution and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline in patients with stage 5 CKD between a year-long period of lockdown (2020;n = 724) and a similar period before lockdown (2019, n = 758). Results: Compared with 2019, a 17.5% reduction in the average PM2.5 concentration (from 17.36% to 14.32%;P < 0.001) and a 45.1% reduction (from 20.56% to 11.25%;P < 0.001) in cumulative days with PM2.5 concentration >35 μg/m3 were noted in 2020. Moreover, a 93% reduction in PM2.5 air quality index >150 per station-day (from 0.43% to 0.03%) was observed in 2020. From 2019 to 2020, the yearly incidence of eGFR decline ≥5 mL/min/1.73 m2 decreased by 33.7% (24.6% vs 16.3%;P < 0.001). Similarly, the proportion of patients who started undergoing regular dialysis also decreased by 32.7% in 2020 (from 20.8% to 14.0%;P = 0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that fewer events of renal function decline during the COVID-19 pandemic may be associated with a decline in PM2.5 concentrations, supporting the global strategy of reducing air pollution to prevent CKD progression.

6.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009585

ABSTRACT

Background: Research has shown that the COVID-19 pandemic has reduced access to cancer treatment and care for patients, especially for COVID-19 patients. Methods: We investigated the impact of COVID-19 testing on access to cancer care. A US based cross sectional study was conducted on 2,393 cancer patients using data from the 2020 National Health Interview Survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between COVID-19 testing and likelihood of receiving cancer treatment or other cancer care during the pandemic. Results: Patients who reported ever being tested for COVID were on average younger (66.9 vs 69.3, p<0.001). Patients with professional school education reported higher rates of being tested than lower education levels (40.0%, p=0.032). Tested patients reported higher rates of not receiving medical care due to COVID-19 (23.3% vs. 19.1%, p=0.026). On multivariable analysis, patients who reported ever being tested for COVID-19 were less likely to receive cancer treatment (OR 0.639, 95% CI 0.489-0.834, p=0.001) or receive any other cancer medical care (OR 0.657, 95% CI 0.523-0.825, p<0.001) (Table). Conclusions: These data suggest COVID testing itself is associated with increased likelihood of cancer care disruption. As the pandemic persists, awareness of cancer care disruption, even by testing alone, should be raised.

7.
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005850

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a challenge of world. The latest research has proved that Xuanfei Baidu granule (XFBD) significantly improved patient’s clinical symptoms, the compound drug improves immunity by increasing the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes, and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, the analysis of the effective monomer components of XFBD and its mechanism of action in the treatment of COVID-19 is currently lacking. Therefore, this study used computer simulation to study the effective monomer components of XFBD and its therapeutic mechanism. Methods: We screened out the key active ingredients in XFBD through TCMSP database. Besides GeneCards database was used to search disease gene targets and screen intersection gene targets. The intersection gene targets were analyzed by GO and KEGG. The disease-core gene target-drug network was analyzed and molecular docking was used for verification. Molecular dynamics simulation verification was carried out to combine the active ingredient and the target with a stable combination. The supercomputer platform was used to measure and analyze the number of hydrogen bonds, the binding free energy, the stability of protein target at the residue level, the solvent accessible surface area, and the radius of gyration. Results: XFBD had 1308 gene targets, COVID-19 had 4600 gene targets, the intersection gene targets were 548. GO and KEGG analysis showed that XFBD played a vital role by the signaling pathways of immune response and inflammation. Molecular docking showed that I-SPD, Pachypodol and Vestitol in XFBD played a role in treating COVID-19 by acting on NLRP3, CSF2, and relieve the clinical symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Molecular dynamics was used to prove the binding stability of active ingredients and protein targets, CSF2/I-SPD combination has the strongest binding energy. Conclusion: For the first time, it was found that the important active chemical components in XFBD, such as I-SPD, Pachypodol and Vestitol, reduce inflammatory response and apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of NLRP3, and reduce the production of inflammatory factors and chemotaxis of inflammatory cells by inhibiting the activation of CSF2. Therefore, XFBD can effectively alleviate the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 through NLRP3 and CSF2.

8.
Frontiers in Chemistry ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005848

ABSTRACT

Cytokine-mediated inflammatory response is considered a cause of skin lesion in COVID-19 patients. Complanatuside is a flavonol glycoside isolated from Astragalus complanatus. Flavonoids from Astragalus complanatus were reported to have anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities but the potential protective effect of complanatuside on cytokine-induced inflammatory damage in skin keratinocytes is not known. The aim of this study is to explore the inhibitory effect of complanatuside on inflammation and its underlying mechanisms in skin epithelial HaCaT cells treated with inflammatory cytokines. The combination of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 decreased cell viability, increased cell death, and pyroptosis in HaCaT cells. Treatment with complanatuside alleviated the effects of the cytokine combination on HaCaT cells. Complanatuside down-regulated pyroptosis related to NLRP3, GSDMD, and ASC. The effects of complanatuside were related to vast reductions in the levels of iNOS, COX-2, and ROS. Results of the present study indicate that complanatuside inhibited inflammation and protected the cells from inflammatory cell damage in HaCaT cells treated with the combination of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-6. Complanatuside may be a promising candidate for inhibiting COVID-19 related skin inflammatory damage.

9.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S269, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 continues to be an ongoing problem worldwide, especially for those who are disproportionately affected due to their social determinants of health, as they are often at a socioeconomic disadvantage. We are primarily interested in evaluating how education level, income, race, ethnicity, and obesity are correlated with acute COVID-19 severity, and anxiety, depression, and quality of life ≥ 6 months post-infection. Specifically, obesity (BMI > 30), has been previously identified as a risk factor for COVID- 19 regarding severity and mortality. We found it imperative to further investigate these demographic variables, as they are vital in understanding how social determinants of health are impacting COVID-19 outcomes. Insights from this study can assist with identifying gaps in care for those with poor social determinants of health, as well as help shape care for those who have been disproportionately affected. METHODS: We examined records of COVID-19 patients through the COVID-19 Recovery Clinic at George Washington University in Washington, D.C. that has been collecting data on patient short and long-term COVID-19 outcomes in various domains along with demographic information since November 2020. Using RStudio with calculations of descriptive data, odds ratios, and p-values using Fisher's exact test, we assessed education level, income, race, ethnicity, and obesity and looked at how they correlated with COVID-19 severity at diagnosis, presence of anxiety, depression and quality of life ≥ 6 months after acute infection. RESULTS: From our sample (n=150), we found African Americans had greater acute COVID-19 severity (OR=7.56, 95% CI 2.22, 25.68, p=0.0015) relative to white individuals. We also found that obesity was associated with higher levels of acute COVID-19 severity (OR=4.89, 95% CI 1.36, 17.60, p=0.022).Additionally, during acute COVID-19 infection, 7/32 (21.9%) obese patients compared to 9/112 (8.0%) non-obese patients were hospitalized (OR=3.79, 95%CI=1.23, 11.68, p=0.03).No significant association was found between anxiety, depression, quality of life or COVID- 19 severity and persistent symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: We observed associations between the African American race and more severe acute COVID-19 infection. Further, in the acute phase, we observed that obese patients were more likely than non-obsese patients to have more severe infection and be hospitalized. These findings highlight preexisting gaps in healthcare outcomes regarding social determinants of health. It is essential to analyze many of the potential longer-term effects of COVID-19 infection, as they remain poorly understood. We conclude that larger studies are necessary to better understand the effects of social determinants of health on both short and long-term outcomes of COVID-19.

10.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S320, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, most attention has been focused on the acute phase of the disease, but lingering symptoms from the postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) merit concern. The George Washington University COVID-19 Recovery Clinic is documenting these presentations to better understand PASC and its precipitating factors. The group implemented definitions for six phenotype categories: pulmonary, cardiac, connective tissue, vascular, central nervous system (CNS), and other. This research seeks to identify pre-existing factors that could affect disease severity, understand their effect on PASC symptoms at 6-15 months post-infection, and determine associations between patient history and PASC phenotypes. METHODS: An IRB-approved, retrospective cohort study was performed from charts of adult patients with persistent symptoms after acute COVID-19. Data were ed from clinical history prior to COVID-19 diagnosis, during acute COVID-19, and during the post-acute phase, including laboratory results and responses from mental health assessment tools. PASC phenotypes were determined clinically and hospitalization was used as a proxy for disease severity. Descriptive statistics, unadjusted odds ratios, and significance tests (Fisher's exact test, Chi-square test, and Mann-Whitney U test) were calculated using RStudio (4.1.1). RESULTS: Study participants with persistent symptoms at 6-15 months postinfection (n=116) had a mean age of 45.16 (SD 13.23), of which 70% were female, 60% were Caucasian, 12% were African-American, 9% were Asian, and 3% were Hispanic/Latino. When including all patients who had persistent symptoms at 1-15 months post-infection, those with obesity (BMI ≥30) or type 2 diabetes were much more likely to undergo a severe acute phase of COVID19 (OR 12.75;95% CI 1.91-84.95;p=0.02;n=61 and OR 34.67;95% CI 4.43-271.46;p<0.001;n=61 respectively). At 6-15 months post-infection, those suffering from a pulmonary PASC phenotype were more likely to have smoked (OR 3.27;95% CI 1.18-9.11;p=0.02;n=91). At the same period, those presenting with at least one CNS phenotype had a significantly higher level of C-reactive protein (CRP) than those without a CNS phenotype presentation (Mean 3.70 mg/L, SD 5.19 vs. Mean 1.26 mg/L, SD 2.36;p=0.009;n=53). Additionally, acute phase severity was not significantly associated with the presence of PASC. CONCLUSIONS: Our research further demonstrates the increased risk of severe acute COVID-19 among patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we show that those with a smoking history were more likely to continue to have pulmonary symptoms of COVID-19 at 6-15 months postinfection. Additionally, our study suggests that there may be a relationship between CRP and persistent CNS symptoms. A better understanding of these associations can help predict the full burden of COVID-19 and improve clinical guidance.

11.
3rd International Conference on Computer Vision, Image and Deep Learning and International Conference on Computer Engineering and Applications, CVIDL and ICCEA 2022 ; : 1147-1151, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1992586

ABSTRACT

With the spread of the epidemic, the development of digital industry will be rapidly enhanced in the new situation and opportunities. The combination of mathematical model and graph makes it possible to predict the trend of infectious diseases according to the different transmission speed, spatial scope, transmission route diversity, dynamic mechanism and other factors. The visualization technology of infectious disease model data also plays an important role in epidemic data detection. In this paper, real-time monitoring, quantitative analysis, dynamic prediction and assessment of the current severe situation of the COVID-19 epidemic were conducted to obtain relevant information on the development of the epidemic, objectively estimate the current situation of the COVID-19 epidemic, and predict the development trend in the future. The innovative drag-and-drop recalculation, data viewing, distance roaming and other functions in this paper have greatly improved user experience and enabled users to have the ability of data mining and integration. It provides a one-stop solution, which is from the template, ORM, Session and the Authentication background. It is very convenient to use. The monitoring and trend prediction platform has also naturally become a powerful helper for the government to realize comprehensive monitoring and decision-making on COVID-19. © 2022 IEEE.

12.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 145:715-728, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1971543

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 broke out and spread rapidly, posing a great challenge to the emergency management capacity of various regions in China, especially in rural areas. This paper takes three communities in ShiYang town, Dujiangyan City, Sichuan Province as cases, to analyze the specific practice of rural response to public health emergencies, summarize different stages in epidemic prevention and control, and explore the difficulties and solutions in rural emergency management. Through the case analysis, it is found that the rural epidemic prevention and control in ShiYang Town have experienced four stages including exploration period, development period, improvement period, and maturity period. At the same time, there are some dilemmas in rural emergency management, such as the imperfect emergency management mechanism, insufficient resources guarantee, and villagers’ weak awareness of health and epidemic prevention. Therefore, the paper proposes such countermeasures suggestions as improving the emergency management mechanism of rural public health, optimizing the resources guarantee system for rural emergency management, strengthening the popularization of health education, providing theoretical and practical guidance for improving the level of rural emergency management, and then promoting the modernization of rural emergency management system and capacity. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

13.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences) ; 43(4):489-495, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969735

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the emotion and sleep state of youths and adolescents who returned to school during the mild period of COVID-19. Methods: A total of 1621 subjects were investigated using the self-made information questionnaire, SAS, SDS and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Nvivo12.0 and SPSS23.0 were used to analyze the data. Results: The subjects reported boredom, worry, nervousness. There were significant differences in sleep quality index in terms of gender, residence status, time of reading news of COVID-19, and time of communicating with parents (P<0.01). The sleep quality index (4.67±3.12) of college students was lower than the norm (5.8±2.4) (P<0.001), the SAS score (42.87±9.94) of teenagers was higher than the norm (29.78±10.07) (P<0.001), and the SDS score (47.64±11.34) of youths and teenagers was higher than the norm (33.46±8.55) (P<0.001). During this period, PSQI was significantly positively correlated with SAS score and SDS score, and effectively predicted SAS score and SDS score. Conclusion: During the stage of work and school resumption, the emotional state of youths and teenagers was still affected, but presented positive characteristics, with a variety of positive emotions. Compared with the general state, youths and teenagers showed higher depression and anxiety, but sleep quality of college students was better than that in the general state.

14.
Current Women's Health Reviews ; 19(1), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1963209
15.
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering ; : 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948851

ABSTRACT

The wide spread of fake news is increasingly threatening both individuals and society. Great efforts have been made for automatic fake news detection on a single domain (e.g., politics). However, correlations exist commonly across multiple news domains, and thus it is promising to simultaneously detect fake news of multiple domains. Based on our analysis, we pose two challenges in multi-domain fake news detection: 1) <bold/>domain shift<bold/>, caused by the discrepancy among domains in terms of words, emotions, styles, etc. 2) <bold/>domain labeling incompleteness<bold/>, stemming from the real-world categorization that only outputs one single domain label, regardless of topic diversity of a news piece. In this paper, we propose a Memory-guided Multi-view Multi-domain Fake News Detection Framework (M <inline-formula><tex-math notation="LaTeX">$

16.
11th International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, DUXU 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 ; 13322 LNCS:337-347, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919656

ABSTRACT

Due to the influence of COVID-19, mixed teaching has been widely carried out in various universities in China. Mixed teaching has the characteristics of convenience, exploration, interaction and individuation, which can enhance the learning effect and enhance the learning experience of students. Based on the relevant theories of learning experience and mixed teaching, this paper will sort out and analyze the research results of scholars in this field, take a human resource management tool course as an example, use the method of mixed teaching and make full use of the online teaching platform to design the teaching scheme of mixed courses in the three links before, during and after class. After the course, collect relevant data, analyze the changes of students’ academic performance and students’ teaching evaluation, quantitatively analyze the changes of mixed teaching design to learning experience, summarize the advantages of hybrid curriculum design of human resource management tool courses based on learning experience, and analyze the existing problems. This paper provides suggestions for further improving the learning experience from the aspects of the construction of curriculum database, the optimal design of teaching content and the transformation of students’ learning concept. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

17.
7th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Signal Processing, ICSP 2022 ; : 474-477, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1901467

ABSTRACT

For detecting COVID-19 and checking the severity of the patient's condition, CT examination of the lungs is significant. However, the current manual viewing of CT images requires professionalism. In order to improve the inspection efficiency of the huge number of CT images, it is necessary to develop an intelligent detection algorithm to perform CT inspections. This paper proposes a COVID-19 detection algorithm based on EfficientDet. EfficientDet leverages a faster and easier multi-scale fusion approach, which is more suitable for COVID-19 detection tasks with finer feature granularity. In addition, data augmentation is also significant in COVID-19 detection tasks. This paper verifies the effectiveness of EfficientDet on the SIIMFISABIO-RSNA COVID-19 Detection dataset provided by Kaggle platform. Experimental results show that EfficientDet has achieved better performance than other detection algorithms. Taking MAP@0.5 as an indicator, EfficientDet reaches 0.545, which is 7.9% and 3.3% higher than the Faster RCNN algorithm and YOLO-V5. © 2022 IEEE.

18.
Revista Conrado ; 18(85):355-362, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1894316

ABSTRACT

The pandemic generated by COVID-19 has promoted the need for competencies that allow the teacher a successful performance in virtual education, based on this, this study is carried out with the aim of identifying theoretical-methodological guidelines that positively impact on teaching digital skills. The theoretical research method that had three procedures was used. The main results made it possible to systematize the theoretical trends (systematization of established knowledge) to integrate a hypothetical-methodological construction on digital competences based on the following aspects: increased reflective practice, enriched learning environments, orientation to social commitment, link with the student's environment , generation and management of emerging pedagogical practices and management of digital pedagogical content, to finally establish the guidelines of an epistemological resignification that revealed the potentialities of self-regulated learning to stimulate digital teaching skills. It concludes with the identification of components of self-regulated learning that allow the establishment of future didactic and training proposals for the development of teaching digital competencies both in the initial training of this professional and in their continuous training, counting the importance of contextual andragogic curricular designs. This study will also make it possible to propose a praxeological route of educational intervention that has a favorable impact on the development of digital skills in and for virtual teaching-learning environments.

19.
Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing ; 16(2):197-207, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883130

ABSTRACT

Blood oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) is an important indicator forpulmonary and respiratory functionalities. Clinical findings on COVID-19 show that many patients had dangerously low blood oxygen levels not long before conditions worsened. It is therefore recommended, especially for the vulnerable population, to regularly monitor the blood oxygen level for precaution. Recent works have investigated how ubiquitous smartphone cameras can be used to infer SpO(2). Most of these works are contact-based, requiring users to cover a phone's camera and its nearby light source with a finger to capture reemitted light from the illuminated tissue. Contact-based methods may lead to skin irritation and sanitary concerns, especially during a pandemic. In this paper, we propose a noncontact method for SpO(2) monitoring using hand videos acquired by smartphones. Considering the optical broadband nature of the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) color channels of the smartphone cameras, we exploit all three channels of RGB sensing to distill the SpO(2) information beyond the traditional ratio-of-ratios (RoR) method that uses only two wavelengths. To further facilitate an accurate SpO(2) prediction, we design adaptive narrow bandpass filters based on accurately estimated heart rate to obtain the most cardiac-related AC component for each color channel. Experimental results show that our proposed blood oxygen estimation method can reach a mean absolute error of 1.26% when a pulse oximeter is used as a reference, outperforming the traditional RoR method by 25%.

20.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337382

ABSTRACT

Children typically experience more mild symptoms of COVID-19 when compared to adults. There is a strong body of evidence that children are also less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection with the ancestral viral isolate. However, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) has been associated with an increased number of pediatric infections. Whether this is the result of widespread adult vaccination or fundamental changes in the biology of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be determined. Here, we use primary nasal epithelial cells from children and adults, differentiated at an air-liquid interface to show that the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 replicates to significantly lower titers in the nasal epithelial cells of children compared to those of adults. This was associated with a heightened antiviral response to SARS-CoV-2 in the nasal epithelial cells of children. Importantly, the Delta variant also replicated to significantly lower titres in the nasal epithelial cells of children. This trend was markedly less pronounced in the case of Omicron. It is also striking to note that, at least in terms of viral RNA, Omicron replicated better in pediatric NECs compared to both Delta and the ancestral virus. Taken together, these data show that the nasal epithelium of children supports lower infection and replication of ancestral SARS-CoV-2, although this may be changing as the virus evolves.

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