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1.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 48: 101600, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has posed an unprecedented threat to public health and remains a critical challenge for medical staff, especially those who have been fighting against the virus in Wuhan, China. Limited data have been reported regarding the psychological status of these medical staff members. Therefore, we conducted this study to explore the mental health status of medical staff and the efficacy of brief mindfulness meditation (BMM) in improving their mental health. METHODS: A survey was conducted between April 18 and May 3, 2020. Upon completing the pre-test, participants in the treatment group received a 15-min BMM intervention every day at 8 p.m. Post-test questionnaires were completed after 16 days of therapy. The questionnaire comprised demographic data and psychological measurement scales. The levels of pre and post-test depression, anxiety, stress, and insomnia were assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Athens Insomnia Scale, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 134 completed questionnaires were received. Of the medical staff, 6.7%, 1.5%, and 26.7% reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, and insomnia, respectively. Public officials from military hospitals reported experiencing greater pressure than private officials (t = 2.39, p = 0.018, d = 0.50). Additionally, BMM treatment appeared to effectively alleviate insomnia (t = 2.27, p = 0.027, d = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: The medical staff suffered negative psychological effects during the COVID-19 pandemic. BMM interventions are advantageous in supporting the mental health of medical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meditation , Mindfulness , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression/therapy , Humans , Medical Staff , Pandemics
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323571

ABSTRACT

An unexpected observation among the COVID-19 pandemic is that smokers constituted only 1.4-18.5% of hospitalized adults, calling for an urgent investigation to determine the role of smoking in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we show that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) increase ACE2 mRNA but trigger ACE2 protein catabolism. BaP induces an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent upregulation of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Skp2 for ACE2 ubiquitination. ACE2 in lung tissues of non-smokers is higher than in smokers, consistent with the findings that tobacco carcinogens downregulate ACE2 in mice. Tobacco carcinogens inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein pseudovirions infection of the cells. These data indicate that recommendation of cessation of tobacco smoking remains valid because it is the carcinogens that are responsible for ACE2 degradation.

3.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(8): 924-930, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349618

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Hubei Province, China. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention. PARTICIPANTS: The participants in this study are cases identified by epidemiological investigation in Hubei Province, as of February 27, 2020, and were followed until March 7, 2020. In total, 1,989 HCWs and 41,137 other occupational cases were included for analysis. METHODS: We used descriptive statistics to summarize patient characteristics. RESULTS: Of 1,989 laboratory-confirmed HCWs, 297 (14.93%) had severe or critical cases, 73 (3.67%) had asymptomatic infections, and 18 died of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The case fatality rate was 0.9%. The proportion of severe or critical cases decreased from the beginning to the end of the outbreak (from 21.29% to 3.52%), and the proportion of asymptomatic cases increased from 0.0% to 47.18%. Nearly half of HCWs with confirmed COVID-19 reported no known contact with COVID-19 patients (969, 48.72%). Fever and cough were the most common symptoms at disease onset in both HCWs and other occupational cases; however, HCWs had higher rates of fatigue (30.90% vs 25.02%; P < .001) and myalgia (19.15% vs 13.43%; P < .001). Additionally, compared with other occupational groups, HCWs were associated with a lower risk of death after adjustment for potential confounders (odd ratio [OR], 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.79). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with COVID-19 cases in other occupational groups, HCWs with COVID-19 have half the risk of death, although they have been shown to have higher rates of fatigue and myalgia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asymptomatic Infections , China/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Med ; 15(2): 252-263, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053070

ABSTRACT

An unexpected observation among the COVID-19 pandemic is that smokers constituted only 1.4%-18.5% of hospitalized adults, calling for an urgent investigation to determine the role of smoking in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we show that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) increase ACE2 mRNA but trigger ACE2 protein catabolism. BaP induces an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent upregulation of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Skp2 for ACE2 ubiquitination. ACE2 in lung tissues of non-smokers is higher than in smokers, consistent with the findings that tobacco carcinogens downregulate ACE2 in mice. Tobacco carcinogens inhibit SARS-CoV-2 spike protein pseudovirions infection of the cells. Given that tobacco smoke accounts for 8 million deaths including 2.1 million cancer deaths annually and Skp2 is an oncoprotein, tobacco use should not be recommended and cessation plan should be prepared for smokers in COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Animals , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Lung , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
6.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(2): 100022, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692819

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of patients are being killed by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), however, risk factors for the fatality of COVID-19 remain unclear. A total of 21,392 COVID-19 cases were recruited in the Hubei Province of China between December 2019 and February 2020, and followed up until March 18, 2020. We adopted Cox regression models to investigate the risk factors for case fatality and predicted the death probability under specific combinations of key predictors. Among the 21,392 patients, 1,020 (4.77%) died of COVID-19. Multivariable analyses showed that factors, including age (≥60 versus <45 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 7.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.42, 9.89), sex (male versus female, HR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.15, 1.50), severity of the disease (critical versus mild, HR = 39.98; 95% CI, 29.52, 48.86), comorbidity (HR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.23, 1.60), highest body temperature (>39°C versus <39°C, HR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09, 1.49), white blood cell counts (>10 × 109/L versus (4-10) × 109/L, HR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.35, 2.13), and lymphocyte counts (<0.8 × 109/L versus (0.8-4) × 109/L, HR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.50) were significantly associated with case fatality of COVID-19 patients. Individuals of an older age, who were male, with comorbidities, and had a critical illness had the highest death probability, with 21%, 36%, 46%, and 54% within 1-4 weeks after the symptom onset. Risk factors, including demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, and laboratory factors were confirmed to be important determinants of fatality of COVID-19. Our predictive model can provide scientific evidence for a more rational, evidence-driven allocation of scarce medical resources to reduce the fatality of COVID-19.

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