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1.
Journal of Internal Medicine of Taiwan ; 33(3):218-226, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2025284

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 is associated with a higher risk of thrombotic complications, and prophylactic dose anticoagulants are recommended for hospitalized nonpregnant patients by international treatment guidelines. Whether the benefit and efficacy of using anticoagulants among Taiwanese patients remains uncertain, we aimed to evaluate the use of anticoagulants and to investigate the risk factors of the patients. 144 patients with confirmed SARSCoV-2 infection were admitted to a regional teaching hospital in Taipei, Taiwan between May, 2021 and July, 2021. We retrospectively collected these patients' data from electronic medical records. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test and Chi-square were applied for patients' characteristics and important factors. Medication use evaluation was performed through SOAP format for every patient by dedicated pharmacists. There were 29% patients receiving anticoagulants, 90% of the use were for Covid-19 thromboprophylaxis. Among these patients, old age, hypertension and diabetes have a high correlation with mortality and the use of anticoagulants. There was no medication related problem that remains unresolved, all patients were completely assessed. © 2022 Society of Internal Medicine of Taiwan. All rights reserved.

2.
J Telemed Telecare ; : 1357633X221124175, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2020652

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Isolated spaces impair communication and teamwork during tracheal intubation (TI) in suspected coronavirus disease 2019 patients. We thus aimed to evaluate the telemedicine-assisted airway model (TAM) to improve communication and teamwork during the pandemic. METHODS: This two-stage prospective study included adult patients intubated in the emergency department of the National Taiwan University Hospital between 1 August 2020 and 31 July 2021. First, we randomised patients receiving TI in the standard setting into the conventional group (Con-G) and the isolation area into the isolation group (Iso-G). We evaluated the obstacles to communication and teamwork in an isolation scenario. Second, we developed the TAM to facilitate communication and teamwork between staff in separate spaces during TI and assigned patients to the TAM group (TAM-G). Communication and teamwork were evaluated using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM). Subjective evaluations were conducted using a questionnaire administered to medical staff. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients were enrolled: 17, 34, and 38 in the Con-G, Iso-G, and TAM-G, respectively. The communication frequency (CF) of the Con-G and Iso-G was the highest and lowest, respectively. The CF of the TAM-G increased and approached that of the Con-G. The overall TEAM score was the highest in the Con-G and the lowest in the Iso-G, while the overall score in the TAM-G was comparable to that of the Con-G. DISCUSSION: The TAM may improve communication and teamwork for TIs without compromising efficacy during the pandemic. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov;registration numbers: NCT04479332 and NCT04591873.

3.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2014365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccine is recommended in Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, but a paucity of data is available regarding vaccine-related adverse effects among PD patients. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a single center between October and November 2021. PD patients were provided with the online survey link to participate in the study. RESULTS: A total of 107 PD patients responded to the survey (55%: male, 79%: Chinese, 40%: > 65 years old). Of these, 95% received the COVID-19 vaccine (77% received two doses and 22% received three doses). Most participants (91%) received Pfizer vaccine. The main source of vaccine information was from the government (48%). The most common reason to receive and refuse vaccines were the perception of the seriousness of COVID-19 infection (63%) and concern about vaccine safety (60%), respectively. After the first dose, 25% of patients developed one or more vaccine-related adverse effects. Common local adverse effect was pain at the injection site (21%), and systemic adverse effects were muscle pain (15%), fatigue (13%). Similar adverse effects were observed with subsequent doses. None of them required hospitalization for vaccine-related adverse effects. Female patients had a higher risk of developing adverse effects than male patients after the first dose (odds ratio: 3.37;95% confidence interval: 1.25 - 9.08). No such difference was observed in the subsequent dose. Age, race, employment status and history of drug allergy were not associated with the risk of adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 vaccine was well-tolerated by most PD patients, but few experienced non-severe adverse effects. All PD patients should be vaccinated against SAR-COV-2 infection.

4.
International Social Work ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005553

ABSTRACT

As the first review to systematically explore the scope and application of Chinese social work research ethics, this study incorporated web-crawling technology in the scoping review process and identified 18 eligible studies from 1168 publications from January 2020 to July 2021. Findings suggest that social work scholars are aware of research ethics when conducting human subjects research in the Chinese population. Yet, many failed to fully demonstrate practical considerations of internationally accepted ethical principles (e.g. respect for persons). We discuss education on research ethics, new challenges of the digital age, and considerations of Chinese culture in developing ethical protocols for social work research in China.

5.
The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease ; 26(9):888-890, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2002637
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(8):1230-1236, 2022.
Article in Chinese | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1994238

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the source and the transmission chain of a cold-chain product associated COVID-19 epidemic caused by 2019-nCoV Delta variant in Beijing. Methods: Epidemiological investigation were used to verify the exposure points of the cases. Close contacts were traced from the exposure points, and human and environmental samples were collected for nucleic acid tests. Positive samples were analyzed by gene sequencing. Results: A total of 112 cases of COVID-19 were reported in the epidemic from January 18 to February 6, 2022 in Beijing. Except for 1 case was uncertain, there were epidemiological links among 111 cases. The source of infection was the packages of imported cold-chain products from Southeast Asia, which were harvested and stored in a local cold-storage in January 2021, and packaged and sent to the cold-storage A in A district in June 2021, and then sold in batches in cold-storage B in B district from January 2022. The first case was infected in the handling of positive frozen products, and then 77 cases occurred due to working, eating and living together with the index case in the cold-storage B, cold-storage C and restaurant D. Besides the cold-storage B, C and the restaurant D, there were 16 sub-transmission chains, resulting in additional 35 cases. Conclusion: The epidemic indicated that the risk of 2019-nCoV infection from imported cold-chain products contaminated by package and highlighted the importance to strengthen the management of cold-chain industry in future.

7.
16th CCF Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, ChineseCSCW 2021 ; 1492 CCIS:458-470, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1971643

ABSTRACT

By intervening in people’s behavior, governments in several nations have established a variety of strategies to slow down the spread of COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, it has a different impact on everyone. Data from the Steam platform online games between January 2018 and February 2021 was used for this project’s analysis. Through the difference-in-difference model in Synthetic Control Methods to quantify and analyze, crucial positive effect on Steam’s online players during COVID-19 and the increase of the number of online players and the released games of the platform in 2020 had been found. The machine learning prediction model was created using the daily totals of the online gaming players of the most popular games on the site. The Ridge regression, whose R squared reached 0.805, had been demonstrated by the experimental results that it got the best performance. Simultaneously, this work found the features of the COVID-19 pandemic and the features of the human mobility, which helps to build a great majority of the predictive models. © 2022, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

8.
Library Hi Tech ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1961348

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The objective of this study was to analyse the influencing factors of citizens' dissatisfaction with government services during the COVID-19 pandemic to help government departments identify problems in the service process and possible countermeasures. Design/methodology/approach: The authors first used cosine interesting pattern mining (CIPM) to analyse citizens' complaints in different periods of the pandemic. Second, the potential evaluation indices of customer satisfaction were extracted from the hotline business system through a hypothesis analysis and modelled using multiple regression analysis. During the index transformation and standardization process, a machine-learning algorithm of clustering and emotion analysis was adopted. Finally, the authors used the random forest algorithm to evaluate the importance of the indicators and obtain the indicators more important to citizen satisfaction. Findings: The authors found that the complaint topic, appeal time, urgency of citizens' complaints, citizens' emotions, level of detail in the case record, and processing timeliness and efficiency significantly influenced citizens' satisfaction. When the government addresses complaints in a more standardized and efficient manner, citizens are more satisfied. Originality/value: During the pandemic, government departments should be more patient with citizens, increase the speed of the case circulation and shorten the processing period of appeals. Staff should record appeals in a more standardized manner, highlighting themes and prioritizing urgent cases to appease citizens and relieve their anxiety. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

9.
2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Engineering, ICAICE 2021 ; : 784-789, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948776

ABSTRACT

To achieve high prediction accuracy of human body keeps an open issue for decades of years, especially when COVID comes and online retail becomes the major consumption channels. The body measurement is the key to solve cloth matching and recommendation in clothing e-commerce. This paper proposes a practical framework of image-based body measurement, by only taking the user's front and side photos. This framework does not require pure background or precise standing position, and supports manual modification of the measurement results. The framework takes people's height, weight and gender as params to initialize a common body size set, and corrects each part of the set by analyzing the body proportion via the front and side images. The prediction accuracy was tested with the 50 digital models and 10 real people. Results showed that the circumference sizes such as chest, waist, hips, have errors less then 5%, while the length sizes such as arm, leg approach to actual length on net body models. For real people, the errors depend on the wearing clothes. In addition to high accuracy, the method has a rapid process speed, reaching 19QPS on a NVIDIA RTX5000 GPU server. © 2021 IEEE.

10.
2nd International Conference on IoT and Big Data Technologies for HealthCare, IoTCare 2021 ; 415 LNICST:508-521, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1930264

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading all over the world. In order to reduce the workload of doctors, chest X-ray (CXR) and chest computed tomography (CT) scans are playing a major role in the detection and following-up of COVID-19 symptoms. Artificial intelligence (AI) technology based on machine learning and deep learning has significantly upgraded recently medical image screening tools, therefore, medical specialists can make clinical decisions more efficiently on COVID-19 infection cases, providing the best protection to patients as soon as possible. This paper tries to cover the latest progress of automated medical imaging diagnosis techniques involved with COVID-19, including image acquisition, segmentation, diagnosis, and follow-up. This paper focuses on the combination of X-ray, CT scan with AI, especially the deep-learning technique, all of which can be widely used in the frontline hospitals to fight against COVID-19. © 2022, ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.

11.
Movement Disorders Clinical Practice ; 9(SUPPL 1):S70-S72, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925974

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the tic phenomenology portrayed in videos about Tourette syndrome (TS) posted on TikTok, a popular social media platform. Background: An increase in functional tic-like disorder (FTLD) has been seen during the COVID-19 pandemic. These patients often report increased viewing of TS videos and posting videos of their movements in TikTok.1 Methods: The 100 most viewed videos under #tourettes in TikTok up to 03/27/21 were reviewed. All reviewers were pediatric movement disorder specialists. Three primary reviewers (<2 years independent practice) and 4 senior reviewers participated. Atypical or rare tic phenomenology was predefined and videos were randomly assigned to 2 primary reviewers. Disagreements between primary reviewers were solved by consensus. If not resolved, a senior reviewer was the tiebreaker. In addition, 2 primary and 1 senior reviewer rated each video on a Likert scale from 1= All of the tics portrayed are typical of TS to 5= None of the tics portrayed are typical of TS. Spearman correlation between primary and senior reviewers was calculated. Results: Of the reviewed videos, 6 did not portray tics and 2 were removed from TikTok before all reviewers could assign a score. Coprolalia and copropraxia were depicted in 53.2% and 20.2% of the videos, respectively. Coprophenomena often had atypical characteristics. Frequently, tics appeared to be strongly influenced by the environment, for both motor (54.3% of videos) and phonic tics (54.3%). Aggression was seen in 19.1%, throwing objects in 22.3%, self-injurious behaviors in 27.7%, and long phrases (>3 words) in 45.7% of videos. [table1] The primary reviewers' median Likert score was 4.5 (IQR:4-5) and senior reviewers' median score was 5 (IQR: 3-5). Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.46 (p < 0.001). [figure1]. Conclusion: We found a high frequency of atypical or rare tic phenomenology portrayed in TikTok videos. Most of the videos were rated as poorly consistent with TS. Recent FTLD patients present with similar events to those in the videos. 'Social contagion' has been postulated as a mechanism for the recent increase in FTLD.1 This modeling has been previously described in mass functional illness.2 Alternatively, echophenomena in susceptible patients has also been suggested. More research is needed to define the relationship between social media and FTLD.

12.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925346

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine whether background frequency on encephalogram (EEG) was associated with hospital discharge disposition in COVID-19 patients. Background: Neurological complications, including encephalopathy, have been reported up to 80% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. It is unclear how encephalopathy during acute illness is related to clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Design/Methods: Subjects were drawn from hospitalized patients who received an EEG at single tertiary center between March 2020 and February 2021. Included were adult subjects with confirmed COVID-19 during hospitalization who were not in the intensive care unit at the time of EEG evaluation. Clinical outcome measured was disposition upon discharge, graded as variables: 0-home, 1-acute rehabilitation, 2-subacute rehabilitation, 3-long term acute care hospital, and 4-death. Background frequency on EEG was used as a measure of encephalopathy severity and was assessed in occipital channels. EEG and medical records were reviewed retrospectively. We used two-independent t test for univariate analysis. Significant variables were then analyzed with multivariate linear regression in SPSS. Study was approved by the University of Chicago IRB. Results: A total of 50 subjects were included. Reasons for EEG were concern for seizure (n=14, 28.0%), altered mental status (n=33, 66.0%), and others (n=3, 6.0%). According to WHO COVID-19 severity scale, on admission 37 (74%) patients had ambulatory disease, 11 (22%) had moderate disease, and 2 (4.0%) severe disease. Thirteen (26.0%) patients received COVID-19 treatment, 4 (8.0%) with steroid. Sodium upon admission, history of epilepsy, cefepime use, intubation, and EEG background frequency were all significant predictors of disposition with univariate analysis (p <0.05). Multivariate analysis showed only intubation (B 1.347, p=0.03) and background frequency on EEG (B -0.282, p <0.001) as independent predictors of disposition. Conclusions: EEG background frequency was a predictor of discharge disposition in COVID-19 patients, and patient with low background frequencies were less likely to be discharged home.

13.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925342

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate differences in Mini-Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale (Mini-CTIM) scores rated by parents and patients with functional tics versus primary tic disorders. Background: The mini-CTIM is a validated clinical tool for assessing tic and non-tic related impairment in children with tic disorders. Recently, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of patients presenting with new onset functional tic-like behaviors. There is limited clinical data on how quality of life is impaired in these patients. Design/Methods: We reviewed parent and patient mini-CTIM scores in patients with a final diagnosis of functional tics for new patient encounters between 3/24/2021 and 6/29/2021, identifying 18 patients. Mini-CTIM scores are completed by both the parent and patient as part of a standard pre-visit intake in our Tourette's clinics. The mini-CTIM has two parts: motor/vocal tic impairment(mini-CTIM motor/vocal) and impairment related to ADHD/OCD/anxiety/rages/other(mini-CTIM other). The maximum score of each part is 42;higher scores suggest more impairment. Twenty patients with initial visits for primary tic disorders, matched for age and sex, were randomly selected during the same corresponding time period for comparison. Parametric(unpaired t-test) and non-parametric(Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test) statistical analysis were performed when appropriate. Results: The average age of patients with functional tics was 15.8 years at initial visit and 94% were female. Average(median) mini-CTIM tic scores in functional tic disorders families were: patient 6.5(5.5);parent 6.9(5.0). In primary tic disorder families, scores were: patient 7.6(5.0);parent 7.4(5.0). Mini-CTIM other scores in functional tic disorders families were: patient 10.1(9.5);parent 11.4(10.0). In primary tic disorder families, scores were: patient 10.7(13.0) and parent 10.3(10.0). No differences in mini-CTIM measures rose to the level of statistical significance Conclusions: Despite dramatic symptoms, impairment ratings at home, school and social environment do not appear to be elevated compared with primary tic disorders.

14.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 26(7): 636-640, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912010

ABSTRACT

SETTING: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruption worldwide to economies and healthcare systems, even those with well-developed infrastructure.OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of COVID-19 on TB diagnosis in Singapore, and to identify any factors that could facilitate early detection of TB among persons screened.DESIGN: To assess the impact of testing and diagnosis of the pandemic on TB, the number of TB-related tests from January 2018 to December 2020 were collected. We also conducted a retrospective case-control study of all adult patients admitted for COVID-19, TB or coinfection from 23 January to 31 May 2020.RESULTS: Nationwide testing for TB from 2018 to 2020 increased by 24.2%. We analysed 253 adult inpatients, of whom 107 (42.3%) were diagnosed with COVID-19, 134 (53.0%) had TB, while 12 (4.7%) had co-infection. Patients with TB were more likely to have chest X-ray abnormalities than those with COVID-19 (89.9% vs. 76.0%; P < 0.01). Patients with TB were more likely to have prolonged cough vs. those with COVID-19 infection (28 vs. 5 days; P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Early screening for TB, even among patients with COVID-19, could lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment, thereby breaking the chain of transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
15.
Journal of Hand and Microsurgery ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1900717

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aims to compare outcomes between Novosorb Biodegradable Temporizing Matrix (BTM) and Integra collagen-chondroitin silicone for upper-extremity wound reconstruction. Methods This retrospective study analyzed adult patients who underwent wound reconstruction with either BTM or Integra at our institution between 2015 and 2020. Results Forty-eight patients were included: 31 (64.6%) BTM and 17 (35.4%) Integra. Mean age was 44.0 (range: 18-68) years. Age, race, sex, smoking, comorbidities, and defect size were similar between groups. Wound etiologies included 12 (25.0%) burn, 22 (45.8%) trauma, and others. Median template size was 133 cm 2for BTM and 104 cm 2for Integra (p = 0.526). Skin grafting was performed after 14 (45.2%) and 14 (82.4%) wounds treated with BTM and Integra, respectively (p = 0.028). Template complications of infection and dehiscence were comparable. Skin-graft complications occurred in five (35.7%) and three (21.4%) wounds in BTM and Integra, respectively (p = 0.031). Skin-graft failure rates were comparable (p = 0.121). Mean number of secondary procedures required after template placement was higher in the Integra group (BTM, 1.0;Integra, 1.9;p = 0.090). Final healing was achieved in 17 (54.8%) BTM and 11 (64.7%) Integra wounds (p = 0.694). Median time to healing was 4.1 months after BTM and 2.6 months after Integra placement (p = 0.014). Conclusion Compared with Integra, BTM achieved comparable wound healing and complication rates. Fewer secondary procedures and skin grafts were observed in BTM wounds, likely as a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. At our institution, 100 cm 2of product costs $850 for BTM and $3,150 for Integra, suggesting BTM as an economical alternative to fulfill the high functional and aesthetic requirements of upper-extremity wounds. © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

16.
Journal of Long-Term Care ; 2021:230-244, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876493

ABSTRACT

Context: Mealtimes in residential care homes are important for social engagement and can encourage resident relationships. Yet, training programs to improve mealtime care practices in residential care settings remain limited in learning approaches and scope. Objectives: To determine whether a one-day Champion Training session would improve participants’ knowledge, skills, and confidence to implement a relationship-centred mealtime program (CHOICE+) in their homes. Methods: The study employed a pre-/post-test design to evaluate a train-the-trainer model using paper-based questionnaires. Thirty-four participants attended the training session;25 participants completed pre/post training questionnaires based on Kirkpatrick’s evaluation model. Training included: 1) program implementation manual, 2) best-practices document, 3) educational resources and evaluation tools, 4) presentation on theory-based implementation strategies and behaviour change techniques, and 5) group discussion on applying strategies and techniques, problem-solving for implementation facilitators and bar-riers. Findings: More than half of attendees worked as Food Service Managers or Registered Dietitians. Participants identified several organizational factors that could impact their home’s readiness to implement CHOICE+, though they felt training to be acceptable and feasible for their homes. Participants reported increase in knowledge (8.4 ± 1.1), confidence (8.3 ± 1.4), and commitment (8.8 ± 1.4) to implement the relationship-centred mealtime program. There was no association with pre-training readiness, leadership, or home characteristics. Limitations: Generalizability is limited due to small sample size. Follow-up interviews on results of training could not be conducted due COVID-19 pandemic research restrictions. Implications: Champion Leader training is an effective and feasible learning approach to up-skill staff on change management and relationship-centred mealtime practices in residential care. © 2021 The Author(s).

17.
2nd Workshop Reducing Online Misinformation through Credible Information Retrieval, ROMCIR 2022 ; 3138:11-26, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1871081

ABSTRACT

The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a lot of changes in people's life. It also emerges as a new challenge to information search services. This is because up to now our understanding about the virus is still limited, and there is a lot of misinformation online. In such a situation, how to provide useful and correct information to the public is not straightforward. Responsibility of search engines is crucial because many people make decisions based on the information available to them. In this piece of work, we try to improve retrieval quality via the data fusion technique. Especially, a clustering-based approach is proposed for selecting a subset of systems from all available ones for finding relevant, credible, and correct documents. Experimented with a group of runs submitted to the 2020 TREC Health Misinformation Track, we demonstrate that data fusion is a very beneficial approach for this task, whether measured by some traditional metrics such as MAP or some task specific metrics such as CAM. When choosing 17 runs, which is one third of all component retrieval systems available, the linear combination method is better than the best component retrieval system by 31.42% in MAP and 21.72% in CAM. The proposed methods are also better than the state-of-the-art subset selection method by a clear margin. © 2022 Copyright @Anonymous for this paper by its authors.

18.
Environ. Sci.-Wat. Res. Technol. ; : 14, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1795655

ABSTRACT

As a class of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), corticosteroids (CSs) have attracted increasing attention due to their large excretion masses and toxic effects. However, compared to the very well-studied estrogens and androgens, few studies have been made dealing with the removal of CSs at environmentally relevant concentrations using advanced water and wastewater treatment processes. In this study, degradation performances of 26 natural and synthetic CSs in secondary effluent at environmentally relevant concentrations were comparatively investigated during UV/free chlorine (UV/Cl-2), UV/monochloramine (UV/NH2Cl) and UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) treatments. The 26 CSs could be divided into two groups: UV sensitive CSs, which have two double bonds in ring A (Delta(1,4)), and UV insensitive CSs, which have only one double bond in ring A (Delta(4)). The UV sensitive CSs could be effectively removed (removal efficiency >60%) by a UV dose of 100 mJ cm(-2) while the UV insensitive CSs could be removed (removal efficiency >40%) by a UV dose of 800 mJ cm(-2). The removal efficiencies of UV insensitive CSs increased with the increase of UV dose. Most of the CSs were poorly removed by sole Cl-2, NH2Cl, or H2O2 treatment (removal efficiency <40%). However, the addition of Cl-2, NH2Cl, and H2O2 promoted the UV degradation of CSs, especially for UV-insensitive CSs. UV photolysis would be the predominant mechanism in the UV/Cl-2, UV/NH2Cl, and UV/H2O2 processes for removing CSs in water. Besides the UV photolysis, HO radicals also functioned for CS removal. Compared with the insignificant effects of reactive chlorine species (RCS), the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) showed obvious selectivity in CS degradation. This study expanded the UV induced oxidation performances of CSs, which lays a foundation for exploring degradation mechanisms and eliminating the pollution from CSs.

19.
2021 3rd International Conference on E-Business and E-Commerce Engineering, EBEE 2021 ; : 108-118, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789024

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 becoming a global epidemic, owing to the interventions' operation limited efficacy and virus' super transmission ability, the vaccine is considered the most potent method left to cease the COVID-19 effectively. At the beginning of the vaccine distribution policy design, there were many real concerns: vaccine priority, budget control, vaccine inventory limitation, and expected objectives making the problem complex. The research optimised the vaccine distribution policy (VDP) in an explicit form incorporated in an age-stratified SEIR model based on the proposed policy optimisation methodology. The VDP could explain when and how many vaccines to take for each age group. The designed evaluation system consisted of direct policy cost, indirect healthcare cost, and extra financial budget during the pandemic, combined as a weighted sum equalling one to suit flexible scenarios and decision-makers' requirements. A case study with ground truth data in the U.K was implemented, where the optimised VDP could decrease the comprehensive cost and suppress the virus transmission. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis demonstrated the effect of some critical parameters for optimised VDP. The vaccination priority and policy objectives' weight combination play a significant role in impacting the VDP optimisation. The research could be a framework for flexible vaccination policy design in different scenarios by changing weights, vaccine limitations, and other initial parameter configurations. © 2021 ACM.

20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(3): 305-309, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765985

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and the transmission chain of a family clustering of COVID-19 cases caused by severe acute respiratory 2019-nCoV Delta variant in Changping district of Beijing. Methods: Epidemiological investigation was conducted and big data were used to reveal the exposure history of the cases. Close contacts were screened according to the investigation results, and human and environmental samples were collected for nucleic acid tests. Positive samples were analyzed by gene sequencing. Results: On November 1, 2021, a total of 5 COVID-19 cases caused by 2019-nCoV Delta variant were reported in a family detected through active screening. The infection source was a person in the same designated isolation hotel where the first case of the family cluster was isolated from 22 to 27, October. The first case was possibly infected through aerosol particles in the ventilation duct system of the isolation hotel. After the isolation discharge on October 27, and the first case caused secondary infections of four family members while living together from October 27 to November 1, 2021. Conclusion: 2019-nCoV Delta variant is prone to cause family cluster, and close attention needs to be paid to virus transmission through ventilation duct system in isolation hotels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Aerosols , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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