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PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259706, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526685


BACKGROUND: China is vulnerable to zoonotic disease transmission due to a large agricultural work force, sizable domestic livestock population, and a highly biodiverse ecology. To better address this threat, representatives from the human, animal, and environmental health sectors in China held a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization (OHZDP) workshop in May 2019 to develop a list of priority zoonotic diseases for multisectoral, One Health collaboration. METHODS: Representatives used the OHZDP Process, developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US CDC), to prioritize zoonotic diseases for China. Representatives defined the criteria used for prioritization and determined questions and weights for each individual criterion. A review of English and Chinese literature was conducted prior to the workshop to collect disease specific information on prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) from China and the Western Pacific Region for zoonotic diseases considered for prioritization. RESULTS: Thirty zoonotic diseases were evaluated for prioritization. Criteria selected included: 1) disease hazard/severity (case fatality rate) in humans, 2) epidemic scale and intensity (in humans and animals) in China, 3) economic impact, 4) prevention and control, and 5) social impact. Disease specific information was obtained from 792 articles (637 in English and 155 in Chinese) and subject matter experts for the prioritization process. Following discussion of the OHZDP Tool output among disease experts, five priority zoonotic diseases were identified for China: avian influenza, echinococcosis, rabies, plague, and brucellosis. CONCLUSION: Representatives agreed on a list of five priority zoonotic diseases that can serve as a foundation to strengthen One Health collaboration for disease prevention and control in China; this list was developed prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic. Next steps focused on establishing a multisectoral, One Health coordination mechanism, improving multisectoral linkages in laboratory testing and surveillance platforms, creating multisectoral preparedness and response plans, and increasing workforce capacity.

Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , China , Humans , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 25(6): 1864-1872, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142842


Chest computed tomography (CT) image data is necessary for early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Artificial intelligence has been tried to help clinicians in improving the diagnostic accuracy and working efficiency of CT. Whereas, existing supervised approaches on CT image of COVID-19 pneumonia require voxel-based annotations for training, which take a lot of time and effort. This paper proposed a weakly-supervised method for COVID-19 lesion localization based on generative adversarial network (GAN) with image-level labels only. We first introduced a GAN-based framework to generate normal-looking CT slices from CT slices with COVID-19 lesions. We then developed a novel feature match strategy to improve the reality of generated images by guiding the generator to capture the complex texture of chest CT images. Finally, the localization map of lesions can be easily obtained by subtracting the output image from its corresponding input image. By adding a classifier branch to the GAN-based framework to classify localization maps, we can further develop a diagnosis system with improved classification accuracy. Three CT datasets from hospitals of Sao Paulo, Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology, and China Medical University about COVID-19 were collected in this article for evaluation. Our weakly supervised learning method obtained AUC of 0.883, dice coefficient of 0.575, accuracy of 0.884, sensitivity of 0.647, specificity of 0.929, and F1-score of 0.640, which exceeded other widely used weakly supervised object localization methods by a significant margin. We also compared the proposed method with fully supervised learning methods in COVID-19 lesion segmentation task, the proposed weakly supervised method still leads to a competitive result with dice coefficient of 0.575. Furthermore, we also analyzed the association between illness severity and visual score, we found that the common severity cohort had the largest sample size as well as the highest visual score which suggests our method can help rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 patients, especially in massive common severity cohort. In conclusion, we proposed this novel method can serve as an accurate and efficient tool to alleviate the bottleneck of expert annotation cost and advance the progress of computer-aided COVID-19 diagnosis.

COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Supervised Machine Learning , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19/virology , Datasets as Topic , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification