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1.
Urolithiasis ; 50(4): 431-437, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958974

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients undergoing prophylactic intervention or active surveillance for asymptomatic kidney stones and identify factors influencing the outcomes. In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the medical records of patients with asymptomatic kidney stones in two institutes between November 2014 and November 2019. Standardized questions were asked via phone calls to supplement the outcomes. Pain, hydronephrosis, stone growth, serious infection, gross hematuria, and spontaneous passage were defined as stone-related events. Future intervention was also recorded to evaluate management. A total of 101 patients with 120 kidney units were enrolled in this study. The median follow-up time was 63 months. The patients were classified into the control group (79 cases) or exposure group (41 cases) according to whether they underwent prophylactic intervention before any stone-related events. Generally, the rates of stone-related events and future intervention were significantly different between the two groups (57.0 vs. 12.2%, p < 0.001; and 31.6 vs. 4.9%, p = 0.002, respectively). After applying stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighted, Cox regression suggested that patients who underwent prophylactic intervention were less likely to experience stone-related events and future intervention (HR = 0.175, and HR = 0.028, respectively). In conclusion, patients who underwent prophylactic intervention had a lower risk of stone-related events and future intervention, although they had some slight complications.


Subject(s)
Kidney Calculi , Lithotripsy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Kidney , Kidney Calculi/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
2.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(13)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934181

ABSTRACT

The studies on microplastics are significant in the world. According to the literature, microplastics have greatly specific surface areas, indicating high adsorption capacities for highly toxic pollutants in aquatic and soil environments, and these could be used as adsorbents. The influencing factors of microplastic adsorption, classification of microplastics, and adsorption mechanisms using microplastics for adsorbing organic, inorganic, and mixed pollutants are summarized in the paper. Furthermore, the influence of pH, temperature, functional groups, aging, and other factors related to the adsorption performances of plastics are discussed in detail. We found that microplastics have greater advantages in efficient adsorption performance and cost-effectiveness. In this paper, the adsorptions of pollutants by microplastics and their performance is proposed, which provides significant guidance for future research in this field.

3.
Sustainability ; 14(6):3357, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1742696

ABSTRACT

The River Chief Policy (RCP), an institutional innovation in China by which top party and government officials assume responsibility for water management, shapes the incentive structure of local governments and may have a huge influence on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Using a staggered difference-in-difference approach and panel data from 91 cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, we estimate the impact of the RCP on an SDG index with eight local-specific indicators. The estimation results show that the RCP has improved the overall SDG index and significantly improved the levels of innovation, education, and consumption. Heterogeneity tests show that more affluent regions are more committed to investing in education, raising consumption, and increasing wages under the RCP. These results suggest that local governments in China have responded rationally and strategically to the RCP. In general, economic growth remains the central goal of local governments, while the strengthening of other responsibilities such as environmental protection will lead to more effort being made to achieve the SDGs during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Energies ; 15(5):1936, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1736870

ABSTRACT

The climate crisis is one of the most important problems today. In the process of human building, the use of cement, steel, and other industrial materials in the process of building construction and recycling has brought a huge burden to the natural environment. Earth is one of the oldest building materials, its availability and insulation make it an excellent constructive solution in human history. Among several existing earth construction techniques, rammed earth is one of the most relevant. In this paper, a numerical model of the rammed earth folk house in Mianyang was established, and an experimental device was built to verify it. With the typical meteorological year data of Mianyang in northwest Sichuan, the heat and moisture transfer in rammed earth wall, as well as the indoor thermal and moisture environment were numerically simulated. The results show that the rammed earth wall weakens the temperature fluctuation of the inner surface of the wall and makes the peak temperature of the inner surface of the wall lag the outer surface. The relative humidity in the center of the rammed earth wall can be maintained at about 60%, both in winter and summer. The moisture absorption and desorption capacity of rammed earth walls without inner decorative materials is about three times that of gypsum board, and the use of a waterproof coating will render the rammed earth wall almost unable to adjust the indoor relative humidity. Additionally, the use of decorative materials will increase the fluctuation range of indoor relative humidity and the risk of mold breeding.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308218

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) disease has led to a wide-spread global pandemic. There is no specific antiviral drug proven effective for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 at present. Combination of western and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is recommended, and Lian Hua Qing Wen (LHQW) capsule is a basic prescription and widely used to treat COVID-19 in China. However, the mechanisms of LHQW capsule treating COVID-19 are not clear. The aim of the study is to explore the mechanisms of LHQW capsule treating COVID-19 based on network pharmacy and molecular docking approach. Methods: The active compounds and targets of LHQW capsule were obtained from traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP). COVID-19 related target genes were obtained from GeneCards database and OMIM database. Protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks of LHQW capsule targets and COVID-19-related genes were visualized and merged to identify the candidate targets for LHQW capsule treating COVID-19. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were also performed. The hub genes involved in the gene-related pathways were screened and their corresponding compounds were used for in vitro validation of molecular docking predictions. Results: A total of 185 active compounds of LHQW capsule were screened out, and 263 targets were predicted. Third hundred and fifty-two COVID-19 related target genes were obtained from GeneCards database and OMIM database. GO functional enrichment analysis showed that the biological processes of LHQW capsule treating COVID-19 were closely linked with the regulation of inflammation, immunity, cytokines production, vascular permeability, oxidative stress and apoptosis. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the pathways of LHQW capsule treating COVID-19 were significantly enriched in AGE−RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, Kaposi sarcoma−associated herpesvirus infection, TNF, IL−17, and Toll−like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. The hub targets genes in the gene-related pathways analysis of LHQW capsule treating COVID-19 included MAPK1, MAPK3, RELA, IL-6 and CASP8, which closely associated with inflammation, cytokines storm and apoptosis. Finally, molecular docking showed that top 5 compounds of LHQW capsule also had good binding activities to the important targets in COVID-19. Conclusions: The mechanisms of LHQW capsule treating COVID-19 may involve in inhibiting inflammatory response, cytokine storm and virus infection, and regulating immune reactions, apoptosis and endothelial barrier.

6.
Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine ; 23, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1428640

ABSTRACT

Ebselen is a well-known synthetic compound mimicking glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which catalyses some vital reactions that protect against oxidative damage. Based on a large number of in vivo and in vitro studies, various mechanisms have been proposed to explain its actions on multiple targets. It targets thiol-related compounds, including cysteine, glutathione, and thiol proteins (e.g., thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase). Owing to this, ebselen is a unique multifunctional agent with important effects on inflammation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, cell differentiation, immune regulation and neurodegenerative disease, with anti-microbial, detoxifying and anti-tumour activity. This review summarises the current understanding of the multiple biological processes and molecules targeted by ebselen, and its pharmacological applications.

7.
Front Genet ; 12: 663098, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268247

ABSTRACT

Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) range from asymptomatic to severe pneumonia and death. A deep understanding of the variation of biological characteristics in severe COVID-19 patients is crucial for the detection of individuals at high risk of critical condition for the clinical management of the disease. Herein, by profiling the gene expression spectrum deduced from DNA coverage in regions surrounding transcriptional start site in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of COVID-19 patients, we deciphered the altered biological processes in the severe cases and demonstrated the feasibility of cfDNA in measuring the COVID-19 progression. The up- and downregulated genes in the plasma of severe patient were found to be closely related to the biological processes and functions affected by COVID-19 progression. More importantly, with the analysis of transcriptome data of blood cells and lung cells from control group and cases with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we revealed that the upregulated genes were predominantly involved in the viral and antiviral activity in blood cells, reflecting the intense viral replication and the active reaction of immune system in the severe patients. Pathway analysis of downregulated genes in plasma DNA and lung cells also demonstrated the diminished adenosine triphosphate synthesis function in lung cells, which was evidenced to correlate with the severe COVID-19 symptoms, such as a cytokine storm and acute respiratory distress. Overall, this study revealed tissue involvement, provided insights into the mechanism of COVID-19 progression, and highlighted the utility of cfDNA as a noninvasive biomarker for disease severity inspections.

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167784

ABSTRACT

The highly infectious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated with the pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to become a global pandemic. At present, the world is relying mainly on containment and hygiene-related measures, as well as repurposed drugs to control the outbreak. The development of COVID-19 vaccines is crucial for the world to return to pre-pandemic normalcy, and a collective global effort has been invested into protection against SARS-CoV-2. As of March 2021, thirteen vaccines have been approved for application whilst over 90 vaccine candidates are under clinical trials. This review focuses on the development of COVID-19 vaccines and highlights the efficacy and vaccination reactions of the authorised vaccines. The mechanisms, storage, and dosage specification of vaccine candidates at the advanced stage of development are also critically reviewed together with considerations for potential challenges. Whilst the development of a vaccine is, in general, in its infancy, current progress is promising. However, the world population will have to continue to adapt to the "new normal" and practice social distancing and hygienic measures, at least until effective vaccines are available to the general public.

9.
China Tropical Medicine ; 20(12):1163-1166, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1106541

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the epidemiology, clinical features, auxiliary examinations and prognosis of 69 cases with COVID-19 in Hainan province.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 222(5): 746-754, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990712

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We investigated the serum cytokine and chemokine levels in asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe, and convalescent SARS-CoV-2-infected cases. Proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production induced by SARS-CoV-2 were observed not only in symptomatic patients but also in asymptomatic cases, and returned to normal after recovery. IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-18, G-CSF, M-CSF, MCP-1, MCP-3, IP-10, MIG, and MIP-1α were found to be associated with the severity of COVID-19. Moreover, a set of cytokine and chemokine profiles were significantly higher in SARS-CoV-2-infected male than female patients. The serum levels of MCP-1, G-CSF, and VEGF were weakly and positively correlated with viral titers. We suggest that combinatorial analysis of serum cytokines and chemokines with clinical classification may contribute to evaluation of the severity of COVID-19 and optimize the therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Chemokines/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Cytokines/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Chemokine CCL2/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/blood , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood , Viral Load
11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 143, 2020 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective management of imported cases is an important part of epidemic prevention and control. Hainan Province, China reported 168 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including 112 imported cases on February 19, 2020, but successfully contained the epidemic within 1 month. We described the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in Hainan and compared these features between imported and local cases to provide information for other international epidemic areas. METHODS: We included 91 patients (56 imported and 35 local cases) from two designated hospitals for COVID-19 in Haikou, China, from January 20 to February 19, 2020. Data on the demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics were extracted from medical records. Patients were followed until April 21, 2020, and the levels of antibodies at the follow-ups were also analysed by the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed ranks test. RESULTS: Of the 91 patients, 78 (85.7%) patients were diagnosed within the first three weeks after the first case was identified (Day 1: Jan 22, 2020), while the number of local cases started to increase during the third week. No new cases occurred after Day 29. Fever and cough were two main clinical manifestations. In total, 15 (16.5%) patients were severe, 14 (15.4%) had complicated infections, nine (9.9%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and three died. The median duration of viral shedding in feces was longer than that in nasopharyngeal swabs (19 days vs 16 days, P = 0.007). Compared with local cases, imported cases were older and had a higher incidence of fever and concurrent infections. There was no difference in outcomes between the two groups. IgG was positive in 92.8% patients (77/83) in the follow-up at week 2 after discharge, while 88.4% patients (38/43) had a reduction in IgG levels in the follow-up at week 4 after discharge, and the median level was lower than that in the follow-up at week 2 (10.95 S/Cut Off (S/CO) vs 15.02 S/CO, P <  0.001). CONCLUSION: Imported cases were more severe than local cases but had similar prognoses. The level of IgG antibodies declined from week 6 to week 8 after onset. The short epidemic period in Hainan suggests that the epidemic could be quickly brought under control if proper timely measures were taken.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Imported/therapy , Communicable Diseases, Imported/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Virus Shedding
12.
China Tropical Medicine ; 20(9):904-907, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-860918

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and the negative conversion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid test in pharyngeal swabs, feces and urine after treatment, and we look forward to guide the clinical discharge control of patients with COVID-19.

14.
Journal of Nanobiotechnology ; 18(1):94-94, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Celastrol has been proven effective in anti-inflammatory but was limited in the clinic due to the poor solubility and side effects induced by low bioavailability. Osteoarthritis has acidic and inflammatory environment. Our aim was to load celastrol into HMSNs and capped with chitosan to construct a pH-responsive nanoparticle medicine (CSL@HMSNs-Cs), which is of high solubility for osteoarthritis intra-articular injection treatment. METHODS: The CSL@HMSNs-Cs were assembled and the characteristics were measured. The CSL@HMSNs-Cs was applied in vitro in the chondrocytes collected from rats cartilage tissue and in vivo in the MIA induced knee osteoarthritis rats via intra-articular injection. Cytotoxicity assay, pH-responsive release, pain behavior, MRI, safranin o fast green staining, ELISA and western blot analysis were applied to evaluate the bioavailability and therapeutic effect of CSL@HMSNs-Cs. RESULTS: CSL@HMSNs-Cs was stable due to the protection of the chitosan layers in alkaline environment (pH = 7.7) but revealed good solubility and therapeutic effect in acidic environment (pH = 6.0). The cytotoxicity assay showed no cytotoxicity at relatively low concentration (200 µg/mL) and the cell viability of chondrocytes stimulated by IL-1ß was increased in CSL@HMSNs-Cs group. Paw withdrawal threshold in CSL@HMSNs-Cs group is increased, and MRI and Safranin O Fast Green staining showed improvements in articular surface erosion and joint effusion. The upregulated expression levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-3 and MMP-13 and NF-κB signaling pathway of chondrocytes were inhibited in CSL@HMSNs-Cs group. CONCLUSION: Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles were an ideal carrier for natural drugs with poor solubility and were of high biocompatibility for intra-articular injection. These intra-articular injectable CSL@HMSNs-Cs with improved solubility, present a pH-responsive therapeutic strategy against osteoarthritis.

16.
Virology ; 549: 1-4, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684730

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was reported in China firstly. A rapid, highly sensitive, specific, and simple operational method was needed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we established a real-time reverse-transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay (RT-RAA) to detect SARS-CoV-2 rapidly. The primers and probe were designed based on the nucleocapsid protein gene (N gene) sequence of SARS-CoV-2. The detection limit was 10 copies per reaction in this assay, which could be conducted within 15 min at a constant temperature (39 °C), without any cross-reactions with other respiratory tract pathogens, such as other coronaviruses. Furthermore, compared with commercial real-time RT-PCR assay, it showed a kappa value of 0.959 (p < 0.001) from 150 clinical specimens. These results indicated that this real-time RT-RAA assay may be a valuable tool for detecting SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genes, Viral , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Recombinases , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Front Public Health ; 8: 339, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646611

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has attracted global attention. Verifying the presence of viral RNA is the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, RT-qPCR diagnosis often fails to catch infected patients, because of inconsistent swab sample collection. Here we report a case that showed 5 consecutive negative and 1 low-viral- dose RT-qPCR results during illness spanning over 20 days. Clinical symptoms suggest SARS-CoV-2 infection with typical ground glass like a lung in computed tomography. SARS-CoV-2 infection was serologically confirmed by the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in patients' serum. Finally, a high level of protective IgG was produced after the patient recovered. Surprisingly, as a barber and a housewife staying at home for the first 2 weeks after the onset of illness, none of the close contacts were infected, showing a case of low viral load and low infectivity in this patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests , Viral Load
18.
Virus Res ; 285: 198005, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-261608

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence shows that microbial co-infection increases the risk of disease severity in humans. There have been few studies about SARS-CoV-2 co-infection with other pathogens. In this retrospective study, 257 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients in Jiangsu Province were enrolled from January 22 to February 2, 2020. They were re-confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and tested for 39 respiratory pathogens. In total, 24 respiratory pathogens were found among the patients, and 242 (94.2 %) patients were co-infected with one or more pathogens. Bacterial co-infections were dominant in all COVID-19 patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. The highest and lowest rates of co-infections were found in patients aged 15-44 and below 15, respectively. Most co-infections occurred within 1-4 days of onset of COVID-19 disease. In addition, the proportion of viral co-infections, fungal co-infections and bacterial-fungal co-infections were the highest severe COVID-19 cases. These results will provide a helpful reference for diagnosis and clinical treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/complications , Betacoronavirus , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Mycoses/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Virus Diseases/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult
19.
Virology ; 546: 122-126, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186247

ABSTRACT

Since SARS-CoV-2 spreads rapidly around the world, data have been needed on the natural fluctuation of viral load and clinical indicators associated with it. We measured and compared viral loads of SARS-CoV-2 from pharyngeal swab, IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2, CRP and SAA from serum of 114 COVID-19 patients on admission. Positive rates of IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2, CRP and SAA were 80.7%, 36% and 75.4% respectively. Among IgM-positive patients, viral loads showed different trends among cases with different severity, While viral loads of IgM-negative patients tended to increase along with the time after onset. As the worsening of severity, the positive rates of CRP and SAA also showed trends of increase. Different CRP/SAA type showed associations with viral loads in patients in different severity and different time after onset. Combination of the IgM and CRP/SAA with time after onset and severity may give suggestions on the viral load and condition judgment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Viral Load , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Amyloid A Protein/analysis , Young Adult
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