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1.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 14(18), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2066369

ABSTRACT

As a critical pattern to promote industrial growth and recover the economy, China has widely applied an electricity price-cutting policy, especially after the global spread of COVID-19. However, the current insufficient research indicates a noticeable knowledge gap around the actual outcome of this policy measure. This paper, therefore, aimed at filling this gap by focusing on the case of Zhejiang province. Recently, there have been three main kinds of price-cutting policies employed in Zhejiang, decreasing the general industrial electricity price, temporary electricity price-cutting, and targeted price reduction for large industries. Using a computable general equilibrium model that incorporates the Zhejiang electricity system’s operating characteristics, we simulated the economic impact of these electricity price adjustment policies. The results indicate that it was practical to promote the economy by reducing electricity prices, but the specific arrangements of policy have led to differences in economic stimulus consequences. This paper further obtained the multiplier effect in each industry. If electricity price adjustment policies were introduced only for industries with a higher comprehensive multiplier effect, the policy effectiveness would be further optimized. © 2022 by the authors.

2.
Journal of Ceramics ; 43(1):158-162, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056467

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 has forced global museums to face unprecedented challenges. During the epidemic period, many museums took the initiative to seek change and flexibly use digital technology to cope with the crisis. In addition to its outstanding role in the protection of cultural heritage, Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum also gives full play to the role of cultural communication and cultural leading in the development of cultural industry and the city itself, which has played an important role in Jingdezhen cultural and tourism industry. Starting from the current situation of Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum and combined with the development trend of global museums in the digital era, the future development direction of Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum in the dual background of the digital era and COVID-19 is discussed. © 2022 Editorial Office of Journal of Ceramics. All rights reserved.

3.
Journal of Medical Pest Control ; 38(2):160-163, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056260

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the transmission characteristics of family clustering of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a town in Tianjin, and to study new epidemiological investigation method applied for the epidemic. Methods The field epidemiological method was applied to investigate confirmed, suspected cases and close contacts of COVID-19, and this clustering epidemic was analyze;and real-time fluorescence PCR (RT-PCR) assay was used for 2019-nCoV nucleic acid testing. Results A total of 11 confirmed cases and 1 suspected case, with three generations of transmission and median generation interval of 6 (2-26) days were involved in current clustering epidemic, the confirmed cases were infectious at the end of the incubation period, the recurrence rate within the families was 33. 33% (19/57), and the epidemiological investigation information acquired through case narration were deviated compared with the trace investigated by police force and the information provided by close contacts. Conclusion The COVID-19 can cause the family clustering spread, and it may infectious at the end of the incubation period. It is necessary to strengthen the trace and management of close contacts during clustering epidemics, and multiple methods adopted making for acquiring epidemiological investigation information. © 2022, Editorial Department of Medical Pest Control. All rights reserved.

4.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2047055

ABSTRACT

This paper presents several non-traditional exam methods that serve both introductory analog electronics and advanced electronics courses in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) department at the University of Evansville (UE). The study is focused on classes from Fall 2019 - Fall 2020. Despite the COVID disruption in 2020, students' outcomes and final course survey indicated that these methods enhanced their understanding, promoted their interest and motivation in transistor topics. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022.

5.
Frontiers in Microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043499

ABSTRACT

Although the FDA has given emergency use authorization (EUA) for some antiviral drugs for the treatment of COVID-19, no direct antiviral drugs have been identified for the treatment of critically ill patients, the most important treatment is suppression of the hyperinflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of corticosteroids in hospitalized severe or critical patients positive for COVID-19. This is a retrospective single-center descriptive study. Patients classified as having severe or critical COVID-19 infections with acute respiratory dysfunction syndrome in Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital were enrolled from January 11th to March 30th, 2020. Ninety patients were classified as having severe or critical COVID-19 infections. The patients were treated with methylprednisolone with a low-to-moderate dosage and short duration. The days from the symptom onset to methylprednisolone were about 8 days. Eighteen patients were treated with invasive ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) care. All the patients in the severe group and ten in the critical group recovered and were discharged. Three critical cases with invasive ventilation died. Although cases were much more severe in the corticosteroid-treated group, the mortality was not significantly increased. Early use of low-to-moderate dosage and short duration of corticosteroid may be the more accurate immune-modulatory treatment and brings more benefits to severe patients with COVID-19.

6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(9): 1370-1375, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040007

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the transmission characteristics and risk factors of household COVID-19 clusters caused by 2019-nCoV Omicron variant in Tianjin and provide evidence for COVID-19 prevention and control. Methods: Field epidemiological method was used to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 cases, and descriptive analysis was used to describe the epidemiological information. Results: A total of 430 cases were reported in this epidemic in Tianjin, in which 409 cases were included in this study. Among these cases, 70.90% (290/409) occurred in families. The family secondary attack rate was 33.64% The family secondary attack rate in age group 12-17 years (13.79%) was significantly lower than that in age group 18-49 years (36.48%), the OR was 0.378 (95%CI: 0.170-0.840). The logistic regression analysis showed that compared with centralized quarantine, the OR of the index cases found in closed-off/controlled areas and in home quarantine were 2.951 (95%CI:1.322-6.586) and 2.287 (95%CI:1.164-4.495), respectively, compared with the cases without sore throat, the OR of the index cases with sore throat was 3.003 (95%CI: 1.576-5.720), and compared with cases in families without completed COVID-19 vaccinations in all members, the OR of the cases in families with completed COVID-19 vaccinations in all members was 0.268 (95%CI: 0.132-0.552). Conclusions: The risk of household transmission of infection with Omicron variant was high. Detecting the index case in closed-off/controlled areas or in home quarantine and sore throat in index cases were the risk factors of the household transmission, completed COVID-19 vaccination was the protective factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pharyngitis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology ; 27(1):181-189, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010466

ABSTRACT

In order to solve the problem of high energy consumption caused by unable to extract color space parameters in multimedia resource compression and transmission algorithm, the application of virtual reality technology in multimedia resource compression and transmission algorithm is studied. The pixels are classified according to labeled and unlabeled, the multimedia resource allocation strategy is established, the resource target area is extracted by virtual reality technology, and the over segmentation is controlled to a small extent, so as to control the quality of resources. In order to reduce the number of data transmission and reception in the process of data aggregation in the network, a transmission signal reconstruction model is constructed, and the data is compressed and encoded. A compression transmission algorithm is designed, which uses compressed sensing and network coding to reduce the amount of data transmission. The experimental results demonstrate that the energy consumption of the compression transmission algorithm proposed in this work increases the single hop distance with the slowest rate and is also the least energy-intensive. Taking the bit rate of 0.25bpp as an example, the maximum energy consumption of the algorithm is 3.89J, which is 4.97J and 2.45J less than the direct transmission algorithm and the centralized compression transmission algorithm, respectively. Therefore, the algorithm can reduce energy consumption and prolong the life cycle of transmission network.

9.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(8):1050-1054, 2022.
Article in Chinese | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1974962

ABSTRACT

In the current stage of prevention and control of the Omicron variant of the pandemic, makeshift hospitals played a key role in isolating and treating mild and asymptomatic patient, which helped to completely and quickly block the spread of the epidemic in the society. In order to reduce the risk of the spread of COVID-19 in makeshift hospital, prevent occupational exposure and nosocomial infections, it is necessary for all levels to actively identify risk sources, carry the risk assessment, implement comprehensive infection control risk treat, and supervise in a timely manner.

10.
2022 Systems and Information Engineering Design Symposium, SIEDS 2022 ; : 282-287, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1961421

ABSTRACT

Many patient throughput inefficiencies result from poor communication practices, inadequate understanding of optimizing healthcare systems to maximize efficiency, and longterm complications caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The challenges precipitated by the pandemic, combined with the need to provide safe, high-quality care to patients, have further exacerbated existing patient flow and throughput issues. The overarching goal of this project is to improve the patient experience in primary care clinics and reduce the stress placed on providers, nurses, and staff. The authors implemented a two-phased approach that combined qualitative observations with quantitative data analysis, developed a robust methodology for understanding the University Physicians of Charlottesville (UPC) Clinic's processes, and produced structured insights for stakeholders. We established what components comprised a typical patient's journey through system intake through qualitative clinic observations: pre-registration, check-in, and rooming. In contrast to the qualitative observations, the quantitative analysis encompassed the complete patient experience, outs coping to include appointment durations and check-out. All quantitative analyses relied on data from the University of Virginia (UVA) Health's electronic medical record (EMR) system, Epic. In addition to the qualitative analyses, the authors utilized Cadence reports and appointment scheduling data to understand patient flow through the UPC Clinic. Primarily, the data are utilized to understand the distributions between the different patient flow milestones of registration, clinic check-in, rooming, and check-out and what factors, if any, were statistically significant. This approach enabled us to model the distribution of patient arrival times, wait times between arrival and rooming, and other relevant bottlenecks in the flow process. © 2022 IEEE.

11.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research ; 46:120A, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1937899

ABSTRACT

Individuals in recovery from substance use disorders (SUD) faced increased barriers to integral supports during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The goal of this project is to determine if reported barriers and coping strategies moderated the relationship between substance cravings during early stages of the pandemic and subsequent alcohol use frequency. Participants were 48 adults (40.5% female;90.2% White) between 26 and 60 years old (M = 42.66, SD = 8.44) who were part of a larger, multi-year longitudinal study of individuals in recovery from SUD. Individuals completed two interviews: one during the first six weeks of stay-at-home orders, where participants reported pandemic- related barriers, coping mechanisms, and cravings, and the second within twelve months of the initial interview, where they reported their alcohol use frequency and quantity. At baseline, substance cravings were reported as a mean of 2.28/5 (SD = 1.41) and participants averaged 2.84 (SD = 5.93) drinks per drinking day. Reported barriers included cancelled support meetings, changes in job format (i.e., being fired or furloughed), and lack of social support. Reported coping strategies included self-care (e.g., mindfulness), leisure activities/hobbies, taking caution against exposure (e.g., social distancing), and strengthening personal relationships. At follow-up, substance cravings were reported as a mean of 1.56/5 (SD = 0.75) and participants averaged 0.23 (SD = 0.64) drinks per drinking day. There was a significant interaction between baseline cravings and being cautious against exposure (B = 0.49, p = 0.008), such that the relationship between baseline cravings and drinks/drinking day at follow-up was stronger among those who endorsed caution (B = 0.51, p = 0.001) than those who did not (B = 0.18, p = 0.85). There was also a significant interaction between baseline cravings and self-care (B = 0.49, p = 0.008), such that there was a positive relationship between baseline cravings and alcohol use at follow-up for those who did not endorse self care (B = 0.35, p = 0.004) and no relationship for those who did (B = 0.00, p = 1.00). Though caution against exposure kept individuals physically safe, inadvertent effects of social isolation on mental health may have strengthened the relationship between craving and subsequent alcohol use. Additionally, the effectiveness of self-care as a coping mechanism stresses the importance of such forms of coping for those with SUD as a protective factor against the influence of substance cravings.

12.
14th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design, CCD 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 ; 13312 LNCS:109-119, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919662

ABSTRACT

Objectives: With the COVID-19 epidemic, more and more schools are choosing online education and electronic devices for learning. Due to the uniqueness of the VR model, many teachers are introducing the use of VR in educational teaching activities. Generally speaking, virtual reality is widely used in the field of education and training because of its potential to promote interactivity and motivation. It also offers a new approach to teaching and learning due to the increasing number of online learners sharing and presenting educational content, and the technological possibilities of spreading knowledge over the global web and allowing students to participate in educational courses remotely. Therefore, this study focuses on relevant design factors through the study of teaching scenarios such as VR experience teaching training in the field of product design. In the preliminary questionnaire survey, we concluded that the three key words that students care most about VR teaching tools are user interface, usability and interaction design, but from the questionnaire survey we cannot accurately understand the specific preferences of students for these three factors. Therefore, we want to understand specifically whether students care more about user interface, usability, or interaction design for VR teaching tools, that is, which of these three factors will be more preferred and valued by students, in order to consider how to weigh the three factors in the VR design and production process. By studying the design factors of VR teaching and learning experiences, VR educational content developers can better understand the factors to be considered in this field. It can also guide VR content producers to produce more content that meets students’ needs. Methods: In this study, firstly, 80 questionnaires were mainly used to organize and collect the key words of relevant factors, and after the key words were obtained, the AHP tool was used to obtain the hierarchical model, and then according to the 1–9 scale method, 10 experts in the design field and 10 students were invited to score the three design factors of VR teaching tools in a two-by-two comparison, and finally the weight values were analyzed and organized according to the AHP calculation formula. Finally, the weight values were analyzed and sorted according to the AHP formula to determine the ranking of the weight values of the design factors of VR teaching tools. Results: The AHP method is used to study the factors that influence students in the design and production of VR courses and software, and to form a hierarchy in which different factors are sequentially generated. Designers and content producers can determine the relative importance of each factor in the hierarchy through pairwise comparisons. Based on the results, we can find that user interface is the most important VR design factor that students are concerned about, followed by interactivity. The findings can be used as a framework tool to design VR content according to students’ needs and make the product a better experience. Conclusions: According to the results, we can find that the user interface is the VR design factor that students are most concerned about, followed by interactivity, which also gives us a hint that when we are making VR teaching tools, we should pay more attention to the design and presentation of VR content, choosing appropriate VR materials, materials that are closer to the real world, and at the same time designing more beautiful, simpler, and more obvious buttons or The interface should be designed with more beautiful, simple and obvious buttons or prompts. The user interface is also important, when students enter the virtual reality, they want to be as in the real world in general scenes, rather than poor quality 3D production of animation graphics, virtual reality to provide students with a realistic reproduction of the world, where they can operate, learn, practice and even experiment, and designers to do is to provide them with as much as possible to meet the needs of the VR tools. Similarly, interactivity is also important in this process. If you can only watch, but not effectively interact with VR as if it were reality, then VR is obviously inappropriate. Therefore, the weighting of these three factors will hopefully provide some meaningful inspiration to the designers of VR teaching tools. When students use VR educational products, it is very important for VR content providers and VR designers to improve the actual value of the product content, as it can help them design VR educational products that better meet the market demand. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

13.
4th International Conference on HCI in Games, HCI in Games 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 ; 13334 LNCS:569-585, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919641

ABSTRACT

37 years after its original launch, it is proposed a study comparing the Augmented Reality (AR) prototype of the game “Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?” with this classic edutainment game. The main goal of the experiment is to determine if there is a significant difference between the 13th mission (last level) of the game, and it was done with a sample of 20 individuals aged between 5 and 7 years. The results could be a promising future for both, gaming and education areas. The author used 3 investigation tools to reach the answer: Perceived Understanding, Perceived Usability and a version of the PSSUQ (Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire). A big constraint for this study was the COVID-19 pandemic that the world is living at the time it was completed, however, the use of technology played a big role to make it possible. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

14.
11th International Conference on Frontier Computing, FC 2021 ; 827 LNEE:143-151, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1899032

ABSTRACT

Due to rapid change in influenza viruses, a prediction model for outbreaks of influenza-like illnesses helps to find out the spread of the illnesses in real time. In addition to using traditional hydrological and atmospheric data, popular search keywords on Google Trends are used as features in this research. Google Trends are popular keyword searches on the Google search engine. Popular keywords used in discussions of influenza-like symptoms at specific regions within specific periods are used in this research. Public holiday information in Taiwan, the population density, air quality indices, and the numbers of COVID-19 confirmed cases are also used as features in this research. An Ensemble Learning model, combining Random Forest and XGBoost, is used in this research. It can be confirmed from the actual experimental results in this research that the use of the ensemble learning prediction model proposed in this research can accurately predict the trend of influenza-like cases. The evaluation results show that the mean RMSLE of our proposed model is 0.2 in comparison with the actual number of influenza-like cases. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

15.
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum ; 65(5):184, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1893928

ABSTRACT

Purpose/Background: Evaluate telemedicine usage in the care of colorectal surgical patients a single regional integrated health care delivery system before and after COVID-19 related shelter in place (SIP) orders. Hypothesis/Aim: Telemedicine can bridge gaps in care delivery for colorectal patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods/Interventions: All new consultations to colorectal surgery from January 1, 2019 to June 13, 2020 were queried to assess trends in appointments generated from the consultation, defining the onset of SIP as March 16, 2020. Appointment types were defined as office visits (in person), video visits or telephone visits. Telemedicine includes both video and telephone encounters. Further analysis using patient and surgeon characteristics as well as diagnosis type (benign, urgent, cancer) were used to perform multifactorial analysis to assess any factors associated with implementation trends. Data was analyzed from January 1, 2019 to Aug 19, 2020. Results/Outcome(s): A total of 5,349 of new consultations occurred within the study period, with 4,727 before and 622 after SIP orders, respectively. Prior to SIP orders, in-person office visits were the most prevalent type of encounter (4,485/94.9%), followed by telephone (240/5.1%) and video (2/0%). After SIP orders the absolute number of new consultations per week decreased significantly, and telephone visits were the most prevalent type of encounter (231/37.1%), followed by video visits (214/34.4%) and in-person office visits (177/28.5%). The time from placement of new consultation request to first surgeon encounter was 10 days prior to SIP orders, and 6 days after(p< 0.0001). The use of telemedicine was statistically significantly associated with shorter time to first encounter comparing to in-person office visits (10 days vs 5 days, (p<0.0001). Those patients who underwent surgery having been evaluated only using telemedicine were 106 (6.3%) prior to SIP orders, and 139 (68.8%) afterwards. Evaluating the time period after SIP orders, the average time to an operation for patients whose first surgeon encounter was telemedicine based was 28 days vs 31 days for those whose first encounter was an in-person visit (p=0.3383). When demographical data was evaluated, patients aged 65 years and over (OR=0.81) or low socioeconomic status (OR=0.56), or surgeons who were aged over 60 (OR=0.62) were less likely to use telemedicine. However, over time from SIP order onset, all patients and surgeon groups had a trend of increasing telemedicine use. Limitations: This was a single-center study. Conclusions/Discussion: The COVID pandemic increased uptake of telemedicine. Efficiency of processing new consultations improved after SIP orders, and use of telemedicine was associated with shorter time to first encounter. Differences in trends of telemedicine implementation existed, and we found that there were vulnerable patient and provider populations, which would be an area to focus resources to improve accessibility to telemedicine.

16.
Journal of Public Health and Emergency ; 6, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1893539

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is spread mainly through respiratory droplets. With the development of COVID-19 worldwide, international airports are facing unprecedented imported risks, becoming the forefront of overseas epidemic prevention. The transmission mechanism of the disease is easy to implement due to the general human susceptibility. Despite the ongoing development of COVID-19 vaccines, the public health community still needs to establish nonpharmaceutical interventions to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in the population, especially among individuals in close contact with confirmed cases. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, relevant authorities in China have taken active prevention and control measures, strictly tracked down and isolated those involved, and effectively contained the spread of the epidemic. Medical workers have played an important role in epidemic prevention and control. Medical workers are putting their lives and health at risk because of a lack of knowledge about COVID-19. This review summarizes the work of preventing cross-infection in the transport of high-risk groups by ambulance in primary hospitals in Jiangsu province during the COVID-19 outbreak. Through standardized management, the cross infection caused by ambulance has been effectively prevented. Therefore, during the COVID-19 outbreak, establishing a safe disinfection management system, strengthening the disinfection management of ambulance transport, and training personnel in personal protection, work requirements and emergency response skills can effectively prevent the spread of the COVID-19. © 2022 Journal of Innovation Management. All rights reserved.

17.
Applied biochemistry and microbiology ; 57(Suppl 1):S11-S26, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871964

ABSTRACT

Naphthoquinones harboring 1,4-naphthoquinone pharmacophore are considered as privileged structures in medicinal chemistry. In pharmaceutical industry and fundamental research, polyketide naphthoquinones were widely produced by heterologous expression of polyketide synthases in microbial chassis cells, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Nevertheless, these cell factories still remain, to a great degree, black boxes that often exceed engineers’ expectations. In this work, the biotransformation of juglone or 1,4-naphthoquinone was conducted to generate novel derivatives and it was revealed that these two naphthoquinones can indeed be modified by the chassis cells. Seventeen derivatives, including 6 novel compounds, were isolated and their structural characterizations indicated the attachment of certain metabolites of chassis cells to naphthoquinones. Some of these biosynthesized derivatives were reported as potent antimicrobial agents with reduced cytotoxic activities. Additionally, molecular docking as simple and quick in silico approach was performed to screen the biosynthesized compounds for their potential antiviral activity. It was found that compound 11 and 17 showed the most promising binding affinities against Nsp9 of SARS-CoV-2, demonstrating their potential antiviral activities. Overall, this work provides a new approach to generate novel molecules in the commonly used chassis cells, which would expand the chemical diversity for the drug development pipeline. It also reveals a novel insight into the potential of the catalytic power of the most widely used chassis cells. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1134/S0003683821100124.

18.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337453

ABSTRACT

Background: On January 30, 2020 the COVID-19 pandemic was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization. Almost a month later on February 29, 2020, the first case in New York City (NYC) was diagnosed. Methods: Three-hundred-sixty persons with COVID-like illness was reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) before February 29, but 37 of these tested negative and 237 were never tested for SARS-COV-2. Records of 86 persons with confirmed COVID-19 and symptom onset prior to February 29, 2020 were reviewed by four physician-epidemiologists. Case-patients were classified as likely early onset COVID-19, or insufficient evidence to determine onset. Clinical and epidemiological factors collected by DOHMH and supplemented with emergency department records were analyzed. Results: Thirty-nine likely early onset COVID-19 cases were identified. The majority had severe disease with 69% presenting to an ED visit within 2 weeks of symptom onset. The first likely COVID-19 case on record had symptom onset on January 28, 2020. Only 7 of the 39 cases (18%) had traveled internationally within 14 days of onset (none to China). Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 was in NYC before being classified as a PHEIC, and eluded surveillance for another month. The delay in recognition limited mitigation effort and by the time that city and state-wide mandates were enacted 16 and 22 days later there was already community transmission.

19.
Emerging Markets Finance and Trade ; : 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1852673

ABSTRACT

Income inequality is rising due to the risks and uncertainties related to the COVID-19 pandemic and other risks. This paper examines the effects of country risks (measured by economic/financial and political risks) and geopolitical risks on the income inequality in the panel dataset of 19 emerging market economies from 1985 to 2020. It is observed that all risk measures are positively related to income inequality. This evidence is also valid when different empirical models and estimation procedures are considered. The results are also robust for including various controls, excluding the extreme observations in the dataset, and considering the countries at the different income levels and regions.

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