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1.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):381, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1881032

ABSTRACT

Background: China implemented strict lockdowns to contain COVID-19 at the early stage. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on HIV care continuum in China. Methods: Anonymized programmatic data on HIV care continuum between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2020 were collected from seven provincial and municipal centers for disease control and prevention and eight major infectious disease hospitals specialized in HIV care in various regions in China. We performed interrupted time series analysis to characterize temporal trend in monthly numbers of HIV tests, HIV diagnosis, HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiations, ART collections, and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) prescriptions before, during and after the national lockdown period (23 January to 7 April 2020). We used Poisson segmented regression models to estimate the immediate impact of the lockdown on these outcomes, as well as post-lockdown trends. Results: During the study period, we recorded 1,101,686 HIV tests, 69,659 HIV diagnoses, 63,458 ART initiations, 1,593,490 ART collections, and 16,780 PEP prescriptions. A median of 789 (IQR 367-975), 409 (278-626), and 1045 (524-1262) HIV tests per day were recorded before, during and after lockdown. Lockdown was associated with 32.8% decrease in HIV testing in January 2020, the first month after lockdown (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.672;95% confidence interval [CI] 0.585-0.772). Daily HIV diagnoses decreased from a median of 50 (7-76) before lockdown, to 23 (6-46) during lockdown, and back to 48 (12-74) after lockdown, with an estimated 27.1% decrease in January 2020 (0.729, 0.599-0.887). There was no marked change in the number of ART initiation and ART collection during the lockdown, but the number of ART collection was lower than the expected level by the end of December 2020 (0.761, 0.659-0.879). The number of monthly PEP prescriptions decreased significantly during the lockdown (0.362, 0.220-0.595) and still had not recovered to the expected level by the end of December 2020 (0.456, 0.362-0.574). With the ease of restrictions, HIV testing (slope change 1.067/month, 1.048-1.086) and PEP prescriptions (1.077/month, 1.016-1.142) showed a significant increasing trend. Conclusion: ART initiation and ART collection generally remained stable during the lockdown, but HIV testing, HIV diagnosis and PEP prescription were affected. ART collection and PEP prescriptions have not recovered to expected levels in the eighth month after the suspension of lockdown.

2.
Diabetes research and clinical practice ; 186:109370-109370, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877127
3.
Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy ; 43:S255, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1859623

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Cilta-cel is a CAR-T cell therapy that expresses 2 BCMA-targeting single-domain antibodies, designed to confer avidity. In the multicohort, phase 2 CARTITUDE-2 study (NCT04133636), the safety and efficacy of cilta-cel in various clinical settings and suitability of outpatient administration was explored in patients with multiple myeloma. Material and methods: Patients enrolled in Cohort A had progressive MM after 1–3 prior lines of therapy (LOT), including a proteasome inhibitor (PI) and immunomodulatory drug (IMiD), were lenalidomide refractory, and were naïve to BCMA-targeting agents. A single cilta-cel infusion (target dose: 0.75 × 106 CAR+ viable T cells/kg) was given 5–7 days after start of lymphodepletion (daily cyclophosphamide [300 mg/m2] and fludarabine [30 mg/m2] for 3 days). The primary outcome was minimal residual disease (MRD) 10-5 negativity. Secondary outcomes were response rates (per IMWG criteria) and safety (per CTCAE;CRS and ICANS by ASTCT). Results: As of the February 2021 data cutoff (median follow-up: 5.8 months [2.5–9.8]), 20 patients (65% male;median age 60 years [38–75]) received cilta-cel;1 patient was treated in an outpatient setting. Patients (n = 12: <3 prior LOT;n = 8: 3 prior LOT) received a median of 2 (1–3) prior LOT. All patients were exposed to PI, IMiD, and dexamethasone, 95% to alkylating agents, and 65% to daratumumab. The majority (95%) were refractory to the last LOT;40% were triple-class refractory. Overall response rate was 95% (95% CI: 75–100), 75% (95% CI: 51–91) achieved stringent CR/CR, and 85% (95% CI: 62–97) achieved ≥VGPR. Median time to first response was 1.0 month (0.7–3.3);median time to best response was 1.9 month (0.9–5.1). Median duration of response was not reached. All patients (n = 4) with MRD-evaluable samples at 10-5 at data cutoff were MRD-negative. Hematologic AEs ≥20% were neutropenia (95%;grade 3/4: 90%), thrombocytopenia (80%;grade 3/4: 35%), anemia (65%;grade 3/4: 40%), lymphopenia (60%;grade 3/4: 55%), and leukopenia (55%;all grade 3/4). 85% of patients had CRS;10% were grade 3/4. Median time to CRS onset was 7 days (5–9), with a median duration of 3.5 days (2–11). CAR-T cell neurotoxicity occurred in 20% of patients (all grade 1/2). Three patients had ICANS (n = 1: grade 1;n = 2: grade 2);median time to onset was 8 days (7–11) and median duration was 2 days (1–2). One patient had grade 2 facial paralysis;time to onset was 29 days with a duration of 51 days. One death occurred due to Covid-19 (assessed as treatment-related by investigator). The safety profile was manageable in the patient who was treated in an outpatient setting. Discussion: Updated efficacy and safety findings will inform suitability of outpatient treatment in this and other cohorts of CARTITUDE-2 as well as the CARTITUDE-4 study. Conclusion: A single cilta-cel infusion at the recommended phase 2 dose led to early and deep responses with a manageable safety profile in patients with MM who had 1–3 prior LOT.

4.
6th IEEE International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace, DSC 2021 ; : 635-639, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831756

ABSTRACT

Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) attack activities with the theme of COVID-19 and vaccine are also growing rapidly. The target of APT attack has gradually expanded from government agencies to vaccine manufacturers, medical industry and so on. What's more, APT groups have a strict organizational structure and professional division of labor and malware delivered by the same APT groups are similar. Classifying malware samples into known APT groups in time can minimize losses as soon as possible and keep relevant industries vigilant. In our paper, we proposed a multi-classification method of APT malware based on Adaboost and LightGBM. We collect real APT malware samples that have been delivered by 12 known APT groups. The API call sequence of each APT malware is obtained through the sandbox. For the relationship between adjacent APIs, we use TF-IDF algorithm combined with bi-gram. Then, Adaboost algorithm is used to select out the important API features, which form the target feature subset. Finally, we use the above subset combined with LightGBM ensemble algorithm to train multiple classifiers, named Ada-LightGBM. The experimental results show that our method is superior to the single Adaboost and LightGBM method. The classifier has good recognition performance for the test samples. © 2021 IEEE.

6.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute and chronic alcohol abuse have adverse impacts on both the innate and adaptive immune response, which may result in reduced resistance to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and promote the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are no large population-based data evaluating potential causal associations between alcohol consumption and COVID-19. METHOD: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study using data from UK Biobank to explore the association between alcohol consumption and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and serious clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. A total of 12,937 participants aged 50-83 who tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 16 March to 27 July 2020 (12.1% tested positive) were included in the analysis. The exposure factor was alcohol consumption. Main outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 positivity and death in COVID-19 patients. We generated weighted and unweighted allele scores using three genetic variants (rs1229984, rs1260326, and rs13107325) and applied the allele scores as the instrumental variables to assess the effect of alcohol consumption on outcomes. Analyses were conducted separately for white participates with and without obesity. RESULTS: Of the 12,937 participants, 4,496 were never or infrequent drinkers and 8,441 were frequent drinkers. (including 1,156 light drinkers, 3,795 moderate drinkers, and 3,490 heavy drinkers). Both logistic regression and Mendelian randomization analyses found no evidence that alcohol consumption was associated with risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in participants either with (OR=0.963, 95%CI 0.800-1.159;q =1.000) or without obesity (OR=0.891, 95%CI 0.755-1.053;q =.319). However, frequent drinking (HR=1.565, 95%CI 1.012-2.419;q =.079), especially heavy drinking (HR=2.071, 95%CI 1.235-3.472;q =.054), was associated with higher risk of death in patients with obesity and COVID-19, but not in patients without obesity. Notably, the risk of death in frequent drinkers with obesity increased slightly with the average amount of alcohol consumed weekly (HR=1.480, 95%CI 1.059-2.069;q =.099). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested alcohol consumption may had adverse effects on the progression of COVID-19 in white participants with obesity, but was not associate with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

7.
Traditional Medicine Research ; 7(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1791218

ABSTRACT

Network pharmacology is an emerging technology based on systems biology and computer information technology, with the help of databases and related auxiliary software, to carry out new drug development and the screening analysis of drug active ingredients and targets. At present, the network pharmacology has been used widely in the research of prevention and treatment drugs for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This paper reviews the research methods of network pharmacology in the field of prevention and treatment of COVID-19 by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the development of its specific drugs and further explores the concrete application ideas of this technology. The necessary databases and tools of necessary for screening the active components and targets to molecular docking are summarized. In addition, the practical application of network pharmacology in the study of several potential TCM and active components against COVID-19 is reviewed, mainly including the screening of active components, the discovery of target, and the elucidation of action mechanism. The diversification of research ideas of network pharmacology in the field of TCM was realized, in particular, with two specific ideas in the study of active ingredients of TCM. Finally, the difference of control effect among several TCM and Western medicines on COVID-19 and the limitation and challenge of network pharmacology in TCM, i.e., the insufficient integrity and accuracy of the database, the uncertain complexity of components analysis, the unclear mechanism of component-target action, and some new challenges due to the characteristics of TCM, are discussed. In view of the importance of TCM in the field of control of COVID-19, the combination of TCM and network pharmacology will continue to play an important role in the development of specific drugs of COVID-19 in the future, in particular, to save time and reduce the workload of drug developers, which is also a direction of TCM development. This study provides theoretical reference and methodological basis for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 by TCM.

8.
Web of Science; 2021.
Preprint in English | Web of Science | ID: ppcovidwho-331129

ABSTRACT

Background The worldwide surge in coronavirus cases has led to the COVID-19 testing demand surge. Rapid, accurate, and cost-effective COVID-19 screening tests working at a population level are in imperative demand globally. Methods Based on the eye symptoms of COVID-19, we developed and tested a COVID-19 rapid prescreening model using the eye-region images captured in China and Spain with cellphone cameras. The convolutional neural networks (CNNs)-based model was trained on these eye images to complete binary classification task of identifying the COVID-19 cases. The performance was measured using area under receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and F1. The application programming interface was open access. Findings The multicenter study included 2436 pictures corresponding to 657 subjects (155 COVID-19 infection, 23·6%) in development dataset (train and validation) and 2138 pictures corresponding to 478 subjects (64 COVID-19 infections, 13·4%) in test dataset. The image-level performance of COVID-19 prescreening model in the China-Spain multicenter study achieved an AUC of 0·913 (95% CI, 0·898-0·927), with a sensitivity of 0·695 (95% CI, 0·643-0·748), a specificity of 0·904 (95% CI, 0·891 -0·919), an accuracy of 0·875(0·861-0·889), and a F1 of 0·611(0·568-0·655). Interpretation The CNN-based model for COVID-19 rapid prescreening has reliable specificity and sensitivity. This system provides a low-cost, fully self-performed, non-invasive, real-time feedback solution for continuous surveillance and large-scale rapid prescreening for COVID-19.

9.
Discovery Medicine ; 31(162):7-14, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1762440

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, COVID-19 was first identified in Wuhan, China and resulted in a formidable outbreak in provinces and cities in China that became a pandemic. The outbreak likely began as several cases caused by probable zoonotic transmission, followed by human-to-human transmission via droplets or contact with infected bodily fluids or contaminated items. COVID-19 mainly affects the lower respiratory tract and manifests as pneumonia in human, and severely affected patients may have multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Despite recent progress in vaccine development, the management of multiple organ failure caused by immune injury is mainly supportive. COVID-19 is more contagious than SARS and MERS, although it has a lower mortality rate. The 2019 outbreak of COVID-19 has been classified by the WHO as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, which has drawn attention to the challenge of the disease and caused questioning of scientific strategies for preventing infection and improving clinical outcomes. This article reviews the latest developments on transmission and clinical management and control of COVID-19 infection.

10.
AMIA ... Annual Symposium Proceedings/AMIA Symposium ; 2021:1198-1207, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1749821

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease with vast impact, yet much remains unclear about patient outcomes. Most approaches to risk prediction of COVID-19 focus on binary or tertiary severity outcomes, despite the heterogeneity of the disease. In this work, we identify heterogeneous subtypes of COVID-19 outcomes by considering 'axes' of prognosis. We propose two innovative clustering approaches - 'Layered Axes' and 'Prognosis Space' - to apply on patients' outcome data. We then show how these clusters can help predict a patient's deterioration pathway on their hospital admission, using random forest classification. We illustrate this methodology on a cohort from Wuhan in early 2020. We discover interesting subgroups of poor prognosis, particularly within respiratory patients, and predict respiratory subgroup membership with high accuracy. This work could assist clinicians in identifying appropriate treatments at patients' hospital admission. Moreover, our method could be used to explore subtypes of 'long COVID' and other diseases with heterogeneous outcomes.

11.
SAGE Open ; 12(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1741894

ABSTRACT

Metaphors in public service advertisements, or PSAs, have played an important role in promoting the knowledge of COVID-19 and China’s anti-epidemic activities. Based primarily on Feng and O’Halloran’s visual representation of multimodal metaphor, this article examines visual and multimodal metaphors created in the online PSAs that were produced in early 2020 to publicize China’s epidemic prevention and control activities. It is found that those metaphors fall into three general groups, namely “coronavirus” metaphor, “anti-epidemic worker” metaphor, and “medical instrument” metaphor. Nearly all of them were created to serve an overarching metaphor, namely ANTI-EPIDEMIC WORK IS WAR, of which coronaviruses were depicted as enemies, anti-epidemic workers as warriors, and medical instruments as weapons. Most of the metaphors were constructed through visual or multimodal anomaly realized through strategies such as participant substitution, verbal/visual superimposition, and verbo-visual integration/fusion in the representational structure, while their metaphorical meanings became supplemented or reinforced by the deployment of compositional and interactive resources such as spatial position, color contrast, gaze, and size. Finally, the causes and implications of the findings are discussed from three aspects: social background, genre, and audience. © The Author(s) 2022.

12.
Policy and Society ; 41(1):129-142, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1713725

ABSTRACT

In an era of digitalization, governments often turn to digital solutions for pressing policy issues, and the use of digital contact tracing and quarantine enforcement for COVID-19 is no exception. The long-term impacts of the digital solutions, however, cannot be taken for granted. The development and use of data tools for pandemic control, for example, may have potentially detrimental and irreversible impacts on data governance and, more broadly, society, in the long run. In this paper, we aim to explore the extent to which COVID-19 and digital contact tracing have led to policy change in data governance, if at all, and what the implications of such change would be for a post-COVID world. We compare the use of contact tracing and monitoring applications across mainland China, Hong Kong, and Singapore to illustrate both the enormous benefits and potential risks arising from the design of contact tracing applications and the involvement of stakeholders in the various stages of the policy cycle to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. We argue that, while COVID-19 has not changed the nature of issues, such as public trust in data governance, the increasing involvement of big tech in data policies, and data privacy risks, it has exacerbated those issues through the accelerated adoption of data technologies.

13.
Biocell ; 46(6):1425-1433, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1707943

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has posed a potential threat to infant health. The World Health Organization recommended that the benefits of breastfeeding far outweigh the potential risk of transmission, but there is no denying that the current evidence is insufficient. Moreover, although the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine has played an effective role in protection against infection, individuals have increasing concerns about the safety of breastfeeding after vaccination, and which have caused some breastfeeding women to postpone vaccination or stop breastfeeding early. Thus, in this review, we provide an in-depth discussion of whether SARS-CoV-2 and the vaccine will affect babies through breast milk. On one hand, only a very small number of milk samples were identified positive for viral RNA and almost impossible to be live virus particles. The milk of most lactating women after vaccination did not contain vaccine-related mRNA and polyethylene glycol. On the other hand, the antibodies and biologically active molecules like lactoferrin are abundant in the milk of lactating women who have been infected or vaccinated, which can provide potential protection against infants' respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. Therefore, in terms of implications for clinical practice, the results of our study support that lactating women who have been infected or vaccinated should be encouraged to breastfeed their infants under the premise of taking appropriate sanitary measures. © 2022 Centro Regional de Invest. Cientif. y Tecn.. All rights reserved.

14.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(1):1-11, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1699574

ABSTRACT

Objective: To systematically evaluate the incidence of adverse reactions to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI, WanFang Data, and VIP Database from the inception of each database to August 31, 2021. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) on the safety of different types of COVID-19 vaccines were retrieved and analyzed. A random or fixed-effects model was used with an odds ratio as the effect size. The quality of each reference was evaluated. The incidence of the adverse reactions of the placebo group and the vaccination group was compared. Heterogeneity and publication bias were taken care of by meta-regression and sub-group analyses. Results: A total of 13 articles were included, with 81 287 subjects. Compared with the placebo group, the vaccination group showed a higher combined risk ratio (RR) of total adverse reactions (RR=1.67, 95% CI: 1.46-1.91, P<0.01), local adverse reactions (RR=2.86, 95% CI: 2.11-3.87, P<0.01), systemic adverse reactions (RR=1.25, 95% CI: 0.92-1.72, P=0.16), pain (RR=2.55, 95% CI: 1.75-3.70, P<0.01), swelling (RR=4.16, 95% CI: 1.71-10.17, P=0.002, fever (RR=2.34, 95% CI: 1.84-2.97, P<0.01), fatigue (RR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.32-1.41, P<0.01) and headache (RR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.18-1.26, P<0.01). The subgroup analysis showed the incidence of adverse reactions of the vaccination group after injection of the three COVID-19 vaccines (inactivated viral vaccines, mRNA vaccines and adenovirus vector vaccines) was higher than that of the placebo group, and the difference between the placebo group and the vaccination group in the mRNA vaccine subgroup and the adenovirus vector vaccine subgroup was statistically significant (P<0.01). The incidence of adverse reactions after injection of COVID-19 vaccine in subgroups of different ages was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (P<0.01). Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccines have a good safety, among which adenovirus vector vaccine has the highest incidence of adverse reactions. Both adolescents and adults vaccinated with novel coronavirus vaccine have a certain proportion of adverse reactions, but the symptoms are mild and can be relieved by themselves. Our meta-analysis can help boost global awareness of vaccine safety, promote mass vaccination, help build regional and global immune barriers and effectively curb the recurrency of COVID-19.

15.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326937

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 continued to spread globally along with different variants. Here, we systemically analyzed viral infectivity and immune-resistance of SARS-CoV-2 variants to explore the underlying rationale of viral mutagenesis. We found that the Beta variant harbors both high infectivity and strong immune resistance, while the Delta variant is the most infectious with only a mild immune-escape ability. Remarkably, the Omicron variant is even more immune-resistant than the Beta variant, but its infectivity increases only in Vero E6 cells implying a probable preference for the endocytic pathway. A comprehensive analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein evolved into distinct evolutionary paths of either high infectivity plus low immune resistance or low infectivity plus high immune resistance, resulting in a narrow spectrum of the current single-strain vaccine. In light of these findings and the phylogenetic analysis of 2674 SARS-CoV-2 S-protein sequences, we generated a consensus antigen (S6) taking the most frequent mutations as a pan-vaccine against heterogeneous variants. As compared to the ancestry SWT vaccine with significantly declined neutralizations to emerging variants, the S6 vaccine elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies and full protections to a wide range of variants. Our work highlights the importance and feasibility of a universal vaccine strategy to fight against antigen drift of SARS-CoV-2.

16.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326743

ABSTRACT

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses pose heavy burdens on public-health systems. Synthetic biology holds great potential for artificially controlling their replication, a strategy that could be used to attenuate infectious viruses but is still in the exploratory stage. Herein, we used the genetic-code expansion technique to convert Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a model of RNA virus, into a controllable EV71 strain carrying the unnatural amino acid (UAA) Nε-2-azidoethyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine (NAEK), which we termed an EV71-NAEK virus. EV71-NAEK could recapitulate an authentic NAEK time- and dose-dependent infection in vitro and in vivo, which could serve as a novel method to manipulate virulent viruses in conventional laboratories. We further validated the prophylactic effect of EV71-NAEK in two mouse models. In susceptible parent mice, vaccination with EV71-NAEK elicited a strong immune response and potentially protected their neonatal offspring from lethal challenge similar to that of commercial vaccines. Meanwhile, in transgenic mice harboring a PylRS-tRNAPylCUA pair, substantial elements of genetic-code expansion technology, EV71-NAEK evoked an adjustable neutralizing-antibody response in a strictly external NAEK dose-dependent manner. These findings suggested that EV71-NAEK could be the basis of a feasible immunization program for populations with different levels of immunity. Moreover, we expanded the strategy to generate controllable coxsackieviruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for conceptual verification. In combination, these results could underlie a competent strategy for attenuating viruses and priming the immune system via artificial control, which might be a promising direction for the development of amenable vaccine candidates and be broadly applied to other RNA viruses.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325279

ABSTRACT

Recent study reported that an aerosolised virus (COVID-19) can survive in the air for a few hours. It is highly possible that people get infected with the disease by breathing and contact with items contaminated by the aerosolised virus. However, the aerosolised virus transmission and trajectories in various meteorological environments remain unclear. This paper has investigated the movement of aerosolised viruses from a high concentration source across a dense urban area. The case study looks at the highly air polluted areas of London: University College Hospital (UCH) and King Cross and St Pancras International Station (KCSPI). We explored the spread and decay of COVID-19 released from the hospital and railway stations with the prescribed meteorological conditions. The study has three key findings: the primary result is that it is possible for the virus to travel from meters up to hundred meters from the source location. The secondary finding shows viruses released into the atmosphere from entry and exit points at KCSPI remain trapped within a small radial distance of < 50m. This strengthens the case for the use of face coverings to reduce the infection rate. The final finding shows that there are different levels of risk at various door locations for UCH, depending on which door is used there can be a higher concentration of COVID-19. Although our results are based on London, since the fundamental knowledge processes are the same, our study can be further extended to other locations (especially the highly air polluted areas) in the world.

18.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324170

ABSTRACT

Since COVID-19 is extremely menacing human’s health, it is a significant to expose on its fator’s impacts for curbing the virus spreading. To tackle the complexity of COVID-19 expansion in spatial-temporal scale, This research is approriatedly analyzed the spatial-temporal heterogeneity at county-level in Texas. First,factors impacts of COVID-19 are captured on social, economic, and environmental multiple-facets and the Communality is extracted through Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Second, this research is used COVID-19 CC as the dependent variable and the common factors as the independent variable. According to the virus prevailing hierarchy, spatial-temporal disparity is are categorized four quarters in the modeling GWR analysis according to the virus prevailing hierarchy. The findings are exibited that GWR models provided higher fitness, more geodata-oriented information than OLS models. In Texas El Paso, Odessa, Midland, Randall and Potter County areas, population, hospitalization, and age structure presented static, positive influences on COVID-19 cumulative casesm, indicating they should be adopt stringent stratgies in curbing COVID-19. Winter is the most sensitive season for the virus spreading, implying the last quarter should be pay more attention to prevent the virus and take pracutions. This research are expected to provide references for preventing and controlling COVID-19 and related infectious dieseaces, evidences for disease surveillance and response systems to facilitate the appropriate uptake and reuse of geographical data.

19.
Journal of Asian Public Policy ; : 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1665822

ABSTRACT

Resilience is of paramount importance in dealing with a prolonged pandemic such as COVID-19, in which all countries inevitable suffer through multiple stages of adversity. Many Asian countries were initially hard hit by the pandemic, but some of them displayed the remarkable ability to withstand these shocks, overcome despair, and bounce back quickly. This special issue examines two aspects of resilience building in policy responses to crises such as COVID-19 - capacity development and governance innovation. Capacity can be a key factor in determining the effectiveness of health emergency preparedness, surveillance, response, and recovery systems for unprecedented public health crises like COVID-19, and governance innovation also plays a key role in resilience building by strengthening the roles of non-government actors in public health crises, the efficacy of science-policymaking interactions, and the uses of disruptive technologies.

20.
Journal of Geo-Information Science ; 23(2):246-258, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1639156

ABSTRACT

The spatio-temporal evolution of major public infectious epidemics during government's strict control period in prefecture-level city can effectively reflect china's comprehensive emergency prevention and control capabilities. Based on statistical data including number of active cases, total confirmed, deaths of COVID-19 in 312 cities in China from January 24 to March 5, 2020, this paper uses methods including exploratory spatial data analysis, optimized hot spot analysis, spatial Markov chain, spatial panel data model to analyze spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of COVID-19 epidemic in China under government's strict control.The study found that: (1) The number of active cases of COVID-19 in China experienced characteristics of "rapid growth and diffusion, basic control, gradual decline, and complete control in some areas" and reached its peak on February 17, with an average daily growth rate of 17.5% during rising period and an average daily decline rate of 5.1% during falling period, and the epidemic change characteristics of most cities are similar to Nationwide's situation;(2) The high population mobility during Spring Festival transportation period is main reason for rapid expansion of epidemic. The Baidu's migration scale index for the 14 days prior to Wuhan closure was significantly correlated with total confirmed cases of COVID-19 in some cities;(3) The method called optimized hot spot analysis has identified that spatial distribution of hot spots of epidemic is stable and mainly distributed in 36 cities with Wuhan as the center and a radius of about 350 kilometers, while no statistically significant cold spot cities were identified;(4) The results of Markov chain transfer probability matrix analysis of active cased of COVID-19 in 312 cities show that various types are more stable and the probability of maintaining original type is greater than 0.85. The average probability of downward transfer is significantly higher than the probability of upward transfer. The probability of each type of transition changes significantly under the influence of different spatial lag types;(5) The estimation results of the spatial panel data model show that the number of active cases of COVID-19 in cites has spatial-temporal autocorrelation. This paper analyzed spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of COVID-19 epidemic during government's strict control period at prefecture-level city level from multiple perspectives, the focus of COVID-19 prevention and control is to reduce its spatio-temporal autocorrelation effects, this study provides a decision-making reference for government's current and future response to major public infectious epidemics. 2021, Science Press. All right reserved.

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