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2.
Infect Drug Resist ; 16: 1849-1863, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288586

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of vaginal flora and drug resistance in bacterial vaginitis among girls. Methods: A total of 3099 girls (0-10 years old) with vaginitis who visited the Beijing Children's Hospital from January 2020 to December 2021 were included in the present study. The clinical data, results of bacterial culture of vaginal secretions, and drug sensitivity reports of the subjects were collected and analyzed. Results: Of the 3099 girls with vaginitis, 399 girls had a positive bacterial culture of vaginal secretions. Nineteen types of bacteria were cultured from the vaginal secretions of these 399 girls, with a total of 419 strains. The top three infective bacteria were Haemophilus influenzae (127 strains, 30.31%), Staphylococcus aureus (66 strains, 15.75%), and Streptococcus agalactiae (32 strains, 7.64%). Additionally, 20 girls were simultaneously infected with two types of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus, Group G Streptococcus, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa more frequently occurred in mixed infections. The number and bacterial detection rate among school-age girls were higher than those of preschool-age girls. We found seasonal variation in infection rates, and vaginitis among girls was higher in summer. Recurrence of vaginitis in girls was not related to the type of pathogenic bacteria in the infection. Drug sensitivity analyses showed that the resistance rates of clindamycin and erythromycin were generally high, 70-100%. After the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, the resistance rates of some antibiotics had decreased to varying degrees. Conclusion: Improving the understanding of vaginal flora and drug resistance in girls with vaginitis will facilitate the selection of highly effective and sensitive antibacterial drugs and reduce the production of drug-resistant strains.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 10(10): e2206120, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264801

ABSTRACT

Microplastic (MP) pollution is one of the greatest threats to marine ecosystems. Cold seeps are characterized by methane-rich fluid seepage fueling one of the richest ecosystems on the seafloor, and there are approximately more than 900 cold seeps globally. While the long-term evolution of MPs in cold seeps remains unclear. Here, how MPs have been deposited in the Haima cold seep since the invention of plastics is demonstrated. It is found that the burial rates of MPs in the non-seepage areas significantly increased since the massive global use of plastics in the 1930s, nevertheless, the burial rates and abundance of MPs in the methane seepage areas are much lower than the non-seepage area of the cold seep, suggesting the degradation potential of MPs in cold seeps. More MP-degrading microorganism populations and functional genes are discovered in methane seepage areas to support this discovery. It is further investigated that the upwelling fluid seepage facilitated the fragmentation and degradation behaviors of MPs. Risk assessment indicated that long-term transport and transformation of MPs in the deeper sediments can reduce the potential environmental and ecological risks. The findings illuminated the need to determine fundamental strategies for sustainable marine plastic pollution mitigation in the natural deep-sea environments.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Geologic Sediments , Plastics , Microplastics , Methane/metabolism
4.
Soc Psychol Educ ; : 1-15, 2023 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286017

ABSTRACT

The changes that COVID-19 pandemic has brought upon the world are unprecedented. Its impact on students' learning is equally profound, making it critical to heed students' academic achievement effects that may derive from these alterations. Therefore, the present study explored an integrative model of mental health, self-regulated learning and academic achievement among adolescents during the pandemic. Participants were 1001 senior high school students (Mage = 17.00, SDage = 0.78, 48.7% female) from China. Results showed that the degree to which students were mentally healthy was not significantly related to academic achievement, whereas academic achievement and mental health were positively associated with self-regulated learning. Following structural equation modelling analysis, the effect of mental health on academic achievement was fully mediated by self-regulated learning. Taken together, the findings emphasised the necessity of developing self-regulated learning strategies during public health emergencies and have clinical and educational implications for planning psychological interventions in order to improve mental health and academic performance as well.

5.
Lab Med ; 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246690

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid detection "re-positive" phenomenon is encountered clinically. The accuracy of a viral nucleic acid test is crucial to prevent reintroduction of the virus into the community. This study evaluated the effect of virus culturing on increasing the sensitivity and specificity of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection and viral genomic sequencing. METHODS: A series of tenfold dilutions of a SARS-CoV-2 viral stock were conducted and cultured for either 24 or 48 hours. The viral load of cultured samples was determined by RT-PCR. The cultured and non-cultured samples of 1x 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) were sequenced using metagenomic next-generation sequencing. The depth and coverage of SARS-CoV-2 genome were measured. RESULTS: The lowest viral load detectable in a sample with RT-PCR was 0.01 TCID50. After a 24-h culture, the viral ORF 1ab and N-gene cycle threshold (CT) values were reduced by 4.4 points and 1 point, respectively. One TCID50 viral load of post 24-h culture revealed the sequence depth reached an average of 752 reads, compared with 0.15 in the nonculture; furthermore, the coverage was 99.99% while 6.42% in the nonculture. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that virus culturing can significantly increase the viral load, which can increase the certainty of true-positive detection of the viral nucleic acids, and improve the quality of virus genomic sequencing.

6.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The average life expectancy of older people is increasing, and most seniors desire to age at home and are capable of living independently. Occupational therapy (OT) is client-centered and uses patients' meaningful activities, or occupations, as treatment methods, thus playing an important role in later adulthood. Telemedicine removes the constraints of time and space, and the combination of OT and telemedicine can greatly improve medical efficiency and clinical effectiveness. AIMS: The purpose of this scoping review was to examine the scope and effectiveness of telehealth OT for older people. METHODS: This scoping review was conducted following the methodological framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley. We searched the literature in five databases following the PICOS (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Study design) guideline, from inception to April 2022. Two trained reviewers independently retrieved, screened, and extracted data, and used a descriptive synthesizing approach to summarize the results. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 1249 studies from databases and manual searches, of which 20 were eligible and were included in the final review. A thematic analysis revealed five main themes related to telehealth OT: occupational assessment, occupational intervention, rehabilitation counseling, caregiver support, and activity monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth OT has been used widely for older people, focusing primarily on occupational assessment and intervention provided conveniently for occupational therapists and older clients. In addition, telehealth OT can monitor patients' activities and provide rehabilitation counseling and health education for the elderly and their caregivers, thus improving the security of their home life and the efficacy of OT. During the COVID-19 pandemic, telehealth will be an effective alternative to face-to-face modalities.

7.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 131, 2022 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160195

ABSTRACT

The immunity of patients who recover from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be long lasting but persist at a lower level. Thus, recovered patients still need to be vaccinated to prevent reinfection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or its mutated variants. Here, we report that the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine can stimulate immunity in recovered patients to maintain high levels of anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) and anti-nucleocapsid protein (NP) antibody titers within 9 months, and high neutralizing activity against the prototype, Delta, and Omicron strains was observed. Nevertheless, the antibody response decreased over time, and the Omicron variant exhibited more pronounced resistance to neutralization than the prototype and Delta strains. Moreover, the intensity of the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell response was also increased in recovered patients who received COVID-19 vaccines. Overall, the repeated antigen exposure provided by inactivated COVID-19 vaccination greatly boosted both the potency and breadth of the humoral and cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, effectively protecting recovered individuals from reinfection by circulating SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.

8.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(9): 1011-1015, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological variables are associated with daily COVID-19 incidence. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort from January 25 to February 29, 2020. SETTING: Cities of Wuhan, Xiaogan, and Huanggang, China. PATIENTS: The COVID-19 cases detected each day. METHODS: We collected daily data of COVID-19 incidence, 8 ambient air pollutants (particulate matter of ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5], particulate matter ≤10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and maximum 8-h moving average concentrations for ozone [O3-8h]) and 3 meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, and wind) in China's 3 worst COVID-19-stricken cities during the study period. The multivariate Poisson regression was performed to understand their correlation. RESULTS: Daily COVID-19 incidence was positively associated with PM2.5 and humidity in all cities. Specifically, the relative risk (RR) of PM2.5 for daily COVID-19 incidences were 1.036 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.032-1.039) in Wuhan, 1.059 (95% CI, 1.046-1.072) in Xiaogan, and 1.144 (95% CI, 1.12-1.169) in Huanggang. The RR of humidity for daily COVID-19 incidence was consistently lower than that of PM2.5, and this difference ranged from 0.027 to 0.111. Moreover, PM10 and temperature also exhibited a notable correlation with daily COVID-19 incidence, but in a negative pattern The RR of PM10 for daily COVID-19 incidence ranged from 0.915 (95% CI, 0.896-0.934) to 0.961 (95% CI, 0.95-0.972, while that of temperature ranged from 0.738 (95% CI, 0.717-0.759) to 0.969 (95% CI, 0.966-0.973). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that PM2.5 and humidity are substantially associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 and that PM10 and temperature are substantially associated with a decreased risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Weather , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Poisson Distribution , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Mol Immunol ; 152: 215-223, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095806

ABSTRACT

Identification of immunologic epitopes against SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for the discovery of diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive targets. In this study, we used a pan-coronavirus peptide microarray to screen for potential B-cell epitopes and validated the results with peptide-based ELISA. Specifically, we identified three linear B-cell epitopes on the SARS-CoV-2 proteome, which were recognized by convalescent plasma from COVID-19 patients. Interestingly, two epitopes (S 809-823 and R1ab 909-923) strongly reacted to convalescent plasma collected at the early phase (< 90 days) of COVID-19 symptom onset, whereas one epitope (M 5-19) reacted to convalescent plasma collected > 90 days after COVID-19 symptom onset. Neutralization assays using antibody depletion with the identified spike (S) peptides revealed that three S epitopes (S 557-571, S 789-803, and S 809-823) elicited neutralizing antibodies in COVID-19 patients. However, the levels of virus-specific antibody targeting S 789-803 only positively correlated with the neutralizing rates at the early phase (<60 days) after disease onset, and the antibody titers diminished quickly with no correlation to the neutralizing activity beyond two months after recovery from COVID-19. Importantly, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from COVID-19-recovered patients with these SARS-CoV-2 S peptides resulted in poor virus-specific B cell activation, proliferation, differentiation into memory B cells, and production of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, despite the B-cells being functionally competent as demonstrated by their response to non-specific stimulation. Taken together, these findings indicate that these newly identified SARS-CoV-2-specific B-cell epitopes can elicit neutralizing antibodies, with titers and/or neutralizing activities declining significantly within 2-3 months in the convalescent plasma of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Serotherapy
10.
Microb Pathog ; 173(Pt A): 105828, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069488

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global pandemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 has a significant impact on global health and economy system. In this context, there have been some landmark advances in vaccine development. Over 100 new coronavirus vaccine candidates have been approved for clinical trials, with ten WHO-approved vaccines including four inactivated virus vaccines, two mRNA vaccines, three recombinant viral vectored vaccines and one protein subunit vaccine on the "Emergency Use Listing". Although the SARS-CoV-2 has an internal proofreading mechanism, there have been a number of mutations emerged in the pandemic affecting its transmissibility, pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Of these, mutations in the spike (S) protein and the resultant mutant variants have posed new challenges for vaccine development and application. In this review article, we present an overview of vaccine development, the prevalence of new coronavirus variants and their impact on protective efficacy of existing vaccines and possible immunization strategies coping with the viral mutation and diversity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Development , Antibodies, Viral , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Vaccines, Inactivated , Mutation
11.
Microb Biotechnol ; 15(9): 2401-2410, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019055

ABSTRACT

The natural flavonoids luteolin and luteoloside have anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tumour, hypolipidemic, cholesterol lowering and neuroprotective effects, but their poor water solubility limits their application in industrial production and the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, luteolin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-d-glucoside, a new compound that was prepared by succinyl glycosylation of luteolin by the organic solvent tolerant bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FJ18 in an 8.0% DMSO (v/v) system, was obtained and identified. Its greater water solubility (2293 times that of luteolin and 12 232 times that of luteoloside) provides the solution to the application problems of luteolin and luteoloside. The conversion rate of luteolin (1.0 g l-1 ) was almost 100% at 24 h, while the yield of luteolin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-d-glucoside reached 76.2%. In experiments involving the oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation injury model of mouse hippocampal neuron cells, the cell viability was significantly improved with luteolin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-d-glucoside dosing, and the expressions of the anti-oxidant enzyme HO-1 in the nucleus increased, providing a neuroprotective effect for ischemic cerebral cells. The availability of biosynthetic luteolin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-d-glucoside, which is expected to replace luteolin and luteoloside, would effectively expand the clinical application value of luteolin derivatives.


Subject(s)
Luteolin , Neuroprotective Agents , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants , Glucosides , Luteolin/pharmacology , Mice , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Solubility , Water
12.
Proteomics Clin Appl ; 16(5): e2200031, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While the majority of COVID-19 patients fully recover from the infection and become asymptomatic, a significant proportion of COVID-19 survivors experience a broad spectrum of symptoms lasting weeks to months post-infection, a phenomenon termed "post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC)." The aim of this study is to determine whether inflammatory proteins are dysregulated and can serve as potential biomarkers for systemic inflammation in COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: We determined the levels of inflammatory proteins in plasma from 22 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) long haulers (COV-LH), 22 COVID-19 asymptomatic survivors (COV-AS), and 22 healthy subjects (HS) using an Olink proteomics assay and assessed the results by a beads-based multiplex immunoassay. RESULTS: Compared to HS, we found that COVID-19 survivors still exhibited systemic inflammation, as evidenced by significant changes in the levels of multiple inflammatory proteins in plasma from both COV-LH and COV-AS. CXCL10 was the only protein that significantly upregulated in COV-LH compared with COV-AS and HS. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that several inflammatory proteins remain aberrantly dysregulated in COVID-19 survivors and CXCL10 might serve as a potential biomarker to typify COV-LH. Further characterization of these signature inflammatory molecules might improve the understanding of the long-term impacts of COVID-19 and provide new targets for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 survivors with PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
13.
Environ Adv ; 8: 100250, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944930

ABSTRACT

This narrative review paper is aimed to critically evaluate recent studies of the associations between air pollution and the outcomes in the COVID-19 pandemic. The main air pollutants we have considered are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ground-level ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). We, specifically, evaluated the influences of these pollutants, both individually and collaboratively, across various geographic areas and exposure windows. We further reviewed the proposed biological mechanisms underlying the association between air pollution and COVID-19. Ultimately, we aim to inform policy and public health practice regarding the implications of COVID-19 and air pollution.

14.
Information Processing & Management ; 59(4):102998, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1907215

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 crisis has been accompanied by copious hate speeches widespread on social media. It reinforces the fragmentation of the world, resulting in more significant racial discrimination and distrust between people, leading to crimes, and injuring individuals spiritually or physically. Hate speech is hard to crack for a global recovery in the post-epidemic era. Conducting with Twitter datasets, this paper aims to find the key indicators that influence the trend of hate speech, then builds a Gaussian Spatio-Temporal Mixture (GSTM) model for trends prediction based on the pre-analysis. Findings show that in the early period, the participation of influential users is closely related to the emergence of sentiment peaks, and the interval time is around one week. After hate speech waves up, the indicator of total exposure becomes more critical, suggesting that grass-root release influences at this stage. Compared with three classical time-series predicting models, the GSTM model shows better peak prediction ability and lower residual mean. This work enriches the approaches of predicting unknown but foreseeable hate speeches accompanied by future pandemics.

15.
Molecular Frontiers Journal ; 5(1n02), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1752914

ABSTRACT

Dry air alters salt and water balance in the upper airways and increases the risks of COVID-19 among other respiratory diseases. We explored whether such upper airway variations in salt and water balance might alter respiratory droplet generation and potentially contribute to observed impacts of airway hydration on respiratory disease. In a randomized 4-arm study of 21 healthy human subjects we found that the breathing of humid air, the wearing of cotton masks, and the delivery of (sodium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) salt droplets sized to deposit in the nose, trachea, and main bronchi similarly reduce the exhalation of respiratory droplets by approximately 50% (P < 0.05) within 10 minutes following hydration. Respiratory droplet generation returns to relatively high baseline levels within 60–90 minutes on return to dry air in all cases other than on exposure to divalent (calcium and magnesium) salts, where suppression continues for 4–5 hours. We also found via a preliminary ecological regression analysis of COVID-19 cases in the United States between January 2020 and March 2021 that exposure to elevated airborne salt on (Gulf and Pacific) US coastlines appears to suppress by approximately 25%–30% (P < 0.05) COVID-19 incidence and deaths per capita relative to inland counties — accounting for ten potential confounding environmental, physiological, and behavioral variables including humidity. We conclude that the hydration of the upper airways by exposure to humidity, the wearing of masks, or the breathing of airborne salts that deposit in the upper airways diminish respiratory droplet generation and may reduce the risks of COVID-19 incidence and symptoms.

16.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(3): e193-e202, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective vaccines are urgently needed to end the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to assess the preliminary safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). METHODS: This single centre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, phase 1 trial of ARCoV was conducted at Shulan (Hangzhou) hospital in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Healthy adults aged 18-59 years negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled and randomly assigned using block randomisation to receive an intramuscular injection of vaccine or placebo. Vaccine doses were 5 µg, 10 µg, 15 µg, 20 µg, and 25 µg. The first six participants in each block were sentinels and along with the remaining 18 participants, were randomly assigned to groups (5:1). In block 1 sentinels were given the lowest vaccine dose and after a 4-day observation with confirmed safety analyses, the remaining 18 participants in the same dose group proceeded and sentinels in block 2 were given their first administration on a two-dose schedule, 28 days apart. All participants, investigators, and staff doing laboratory analyses were masked to treatment allocation. Humoral responses were assessed by measuring anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG using a standardised ELISA and neutralising antibodies using pseudovirus-based and live SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation assays. SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific T-cell responses, including IFN-γ and IL-2 production, were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay. The primary outcome for safety was incidence of adverse events or adverse reactions within 60 min, and at days 7, 14, and 28 after each vaccine dose. The secondary safety outcome was abnormal changes detected by laboratory tests at days 1, 4, 7, and 28 after each vaccine dose. For immunogenicity, the secondary outcome was humoral immune responses: titres of neutralising antibodies to live SARS-CoV-2, neutralising antibodies to pseudovirus, and RBD-specific IgG at baseline and 28 days after first vaccination and at days 7, 15, and 28 after second vaccination. The exploratory outcome was SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses at 7 days after the first vaccination and at days 7 and 15 after the second vaccination. This trial is registered with www.chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR2000039212). FINDINGS: Between Oct 30 and Dec 2, 2020, 230 individuals were screened and 120 eligible participants were randomly assigned to receive five-dose levels of ARCoV or a placebo (20 per group). All participants received the first vaccination and 118 received the second dose. No serious adverse events were reported within 56 days after vaccination and the majority of adverse events were mild or moderate. Fever was the most common systemic adverse reaction (one [5%] of 20 in the 5 µg group, 13 [65%] of 20 in the 10 µg group, 17 [85%] of 20 in the 15 µg group, 19 [95%] of 20 in the 20 µg group, 16 [100%] of 16 in the 25 µg group; p<0·0001). The incidence of grade 3 systemic adverse events were none (0%) of 20 in the 5 µg group, three (15%) of 20 in the 10 µg group, six (30%) of 20 in the 15 µg group, seven (35%) of 20 in the 20 µg group, five (31%) of 16 in the 25 µg group, and none (0%) of 20 in the placebo group (p=0·0013). As expected, the majority of fever resolved in the first 2 days after vaccination for all groups. The incidence of solicited systemic adverse events was similar after administration of ARCoV as a first or second vaccination. Humoral immune responses including anti-RBD IgG and neutralising antibodies increased significantly 7 days after the second dose and peaked between 14 and 28 days thereafter. Specific T-cell response peaked between 7 and 14 days after full vaccination. 15 µg induced the highest titre of neutralising antibodies, which was about twofold more than the antibody titre of convalescent patients with COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: ARCoV was safe and well tolerated at all five doses. The acceptable safety profile, together with the induction of strong humoral and cellular immune responses, support further clinical testing of ARCoV at a large scale. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Project of China, Academy of Medical Sciences China, National Natural Science Foundation China, and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 829273, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715010

ABSTRACT

Detection of serum-specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody has become a complementary means for the identification of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As we already know, the neutralizing antibody titers in patients with COVID-19 decrease during the course of time after convalescence, whereas the duration of antibody responses in the convalescent patients has not been defined clearly. In the current study, we collected 148 serum samples from 37 confirmed COVID-19 cases with different disease severities. The neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), IgM and IgG against COVID-19 were determined by CLIA Microparticle and microneutralization assay, respectively. The time duration of serum titers of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were recorded. Our results indicate that IgG (94.44%) and Nabs (89.19%) can be detected at low levels within 190-266 days of disease onset. The findings can advance knowledge regarding the antibody detection results for COVID-19 patients and provide a method for evaluating the immune response after vaccination.

18.
Environ Res ; 210: 113016, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699535

ABSTRACT

Exposure to particulate matter (PM) could increase both susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity of COVID-19 disease. Prior studies investigating associations between PM and COVID-19 morbidity have only considered PM2.5 or PM10, rather than PM1. We investigated the associations between daily-diagnosed COVID-19 morbidity and average exposures to ambient PM1 starting at 0 through 21 days before the day of diagnosis in 12 cities in China using a two-step analysis: a time-series quasi-Poisson analysis to analyze the associations in each city; and then a meta-analysis to estimate the overall association. Diagnosed morbidities and PM1 data were obtained from National Health Commission in China and China Meteorological Administration, respectively. We found association between short-term exposures to ambient PM1 with COVID-19 morbidity was significantly positive, and larger than the associations with PM2.5 and PM10. Percent increases in daily-diagnosed COVID-19 morbidity per IQR/10 PM1 for different moving averages ranged from 1.50% (-1.20%, 4.30%) to 241% (95%CI: 80.7%, 545%), with largest values for exposure windows starting at 17 days before diagnosis. Our results indicate that smaller particles are more highly associated with COVID-19 morbidity, and most of the effects from PM2.5 and PM10 on COVID-19 may be primarily due to the PM1. This study will be helpful for implementing measures and policies to control the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Humans , Morbidity , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5513868, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467753

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a widespread global pandemic with nearly 185 million confirmed cases and about four million deaths. It is caused by an infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which primarily affects the alveolar type II pneumocytes. The infection induces pathological responses including increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. This situation results in impaired gas exchange, hypoxia, and other sequelae that lead to multisystem organ failure and death. As summarized in this article, many interventions and therapeutics have been proposed and investigated to combat the viral infection-induced inflammation and oxidative stress that contributes to the etiology and pathogenesis of COVID-19. However, these methods have not significantly improved treatment outcomes. This may partly be attributable to their inability at restoring redox and inflammatory homeostasis, for which molecular hydrogen (H2), an emerging novel medical gas, may complement. Herein, we systematically review the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic mechanisms of H2. Its small molecular size and nonpolarity allow H2 to rapidly diffuse through cell membranes and penetrate cellular organelles. H2 has been demonstrated to suppress NF-κB inflammatory signaling and induce the Nrf2/Keap1 antioxidant pathway, as well as to improve mitochondrial function and enhance cellular bioenergetics. Many preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of H2 in varying diseases, including COVID-19. However, the exact mechanisms, primary modes of action, and its true clinical effects remain to be delineated and verified. Accordingly, additional mechanistic and clinical research into this novel medical gas to combat COVID-19 complications is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Hydrogen/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism
20.
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications ; : 126445, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1433730

ABSTRACT

Stock networks, which are constructed from stock price time series, are useful tools for analyzing complex behaviors in stock markets. Following former researches, the epidemic model has been usually used to detect dynamic characteristics in a stock price complex systems. Recently, multilayer networks have been demonstrated well when working on heterogenous nodes rather than integrated networks. In this paper, we proposed a two-layer SIR propagation model with an infective medium to analyze the spread of financial shocks. In consideration of strict financial regulation in the A shares, the model assumed that capital cannot flow directly between layers but through the Hong Kong stock market. By applying the model to constituent stocks included in three prominent indices, Standard & Poor 500, Shanghai and Shenzhen 300, and Hang Seng(medium), we established a two-layer Granger networks. Betweenness showed that the Hong Kong stock market had a promoting transition function of financial shocks between the US stock markets and the mainland China stock markets. In addition, with a big basic reproduction number, stock markets system appeared to be vulnerable during extreme financial shock such as the outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic and the meltdown of stock markets. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis and the spreading simulation indicated that the US stock markets were much more robust to financial shocks than the mainland China stock markets.

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