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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1890-1899, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915484

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of many coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines has been shown to decrease to varying extents against new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants, which are responsible for the continuing COVID-19 pandemic. Combining intramuscular and intranasal vaccination routes is a promising approach for achieving more potent immune responses. We evaluated the immunogenicity of prime-boost protocols with a chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 68 vector-based vaccine, ChAdTS-S, administered via both intranasal and intramuscular routes in BALB/c mice. Intramuscular priming followed by an intranasal booster elicited the highest levels of IgG, IgA, and pseudovirus neutralizing antibody titres among all the protocols tested at day 42 after prime immunization compared with the intranasal priming/intramuscular booster and prime-boost protocols using only one route. In addition, intramuscular priming followed by an intranasal booster induced high T-cell responses, measured using the IFN-γ ELISpot assay, that were similar to those observed upon intramuscular vaccination. All ChAdTS-S vaccination groups induced Th1-skewing of the T-cell response according to intracellular cytokine staining and Meso Scale Discovery cytokine profiling assays on day 56 after priming. This study provides reference data for assessing vaccination schemes of adenovirus-based COVID-19 vaccines with high immune efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokines , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Secondary , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pan troglodytes , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
Endocrine ; 2022 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906520

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a significant health threat globally. Timely and appropriate vaccination is a key step to reduce the morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. The clinical course of COVID-19 infection and the effects of COVID-19 vaccination are influenced by patients' health situations and involve a systemic physiological reaction. Just like an "endocrine phenotype" of COVID-19 infection, endocrine dysfunction after COVID-19 vaccination also acquired clinical concerns. In the present review, we briefly introduce the commonly available vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, summarize the influence of COVID-19 vaccines on the endocrine system, and explore the underlying pathogenic mechanisms.

3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 94, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758181

ABSTRACT

To date, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has determined 399,600,607 cases and 5,757,562 deaths worldwide. COVID-19 is a serious threat to human health globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared COVID-19 pandemic a major public health emergency. Vaccination is the most effective and economical intervention for controlling the spread of epidemics, and consequently saving lives and protecting the health of the population. Various techniques have been employed in the development of COVID-19 vaccines. Among these, the COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine has been drawing increasing attention owing to its great application prospects and advantages, which include short development cycle, easy industrialization, simple production process, flexibility to respond to new variants, and the capacity to induce better immune response. This review summarizes current knowledge on the structural characteristics, antigen design strategies, delivery systems, industrialization potential, quality control, latest clinical trials and real-world data of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines as well as mRNA technology. Current challenges and future directions in the development of preventive mRNA vaccines for major infectious diseases are also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic
4.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(3): e193-e202, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective vaccines are urgently needed to end the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to assess the preliminary safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). METHODS: This single centre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, phase 1 trial of ARCoV was conducted at Shulan (Hangzhou) hospital in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Healthy adults aged 18-59 years negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled and randomly assigned using block randomisation to receive an intramuscular injection of vaccine or placebo. Vaccine doses were 5 µg, 10 µg, 15 µg, 20 µg, and 25 µg. The first six participants in each block were sentinels and along with the remaining 18 participants, were randomly assigned to groups (5:1). In block 1 sentinels were given the lowest vaccine dose and after a 4-day observation with confirmed safety analyses, the remaining 18 participants in the same dose group proceeded and sentinels in block 2 were given their first administration on a two-dose schedule, 28 days apart. All participants, investigators, and staff doing laboratory analyses were masked to treatment allocation. Humoral responses were assessed by measuring anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG using a standardised ELISA and neutralising antibodies using pseudovirus-based and live SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation assays. SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific T-cell responses, including IFN-γ and IL-2 production, were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay. The primary outcome for safety was incidence of adverse events or adverse reactions within 60 min, and at days 7, 14, and 28 after each vaccine dose. The secondary safety outcome was abnormal changes detected by laboratory tests at days 1, 4, 7, and 28 after each vaccine dose. For immunogenicity, the secondary outcome was humoral immune responses: titres of neutralising antibodies to live SARS-CoV-2, neutralising antibodies to pseudovirus, and RBD-specific IgG at baseline and 28 days after first vaccination and at days 7, 15, and 28 after second vaccination. The exploratory outcome was SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses at 7 days after the first vaccination and at days 7 and 15 after the second vaccination. This trial is registered with www.chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR2000039212). FINDINGS: Between Oct 30 and Dec 2, 2020, 230 individuals were screened and 120 eligible participants were randomly assigned to receive five-dose levels of ARCoV or a placebo (20 per group). All participants received the first vaccination and 118 received the second dose. No serious adverse events were reported within 56 days after vaccination and the majority of adverse events were mild or moderate. Fever was the most common systemic adverse reaction (one [5%] of 20 in the 5 µg group, 13 [65%] of 20 in the 10 µg group, 17 [85%] of 20 in the 15 µg group, 19 [95%] of 20 in the 20 µg group, 16 [100%] of 16 in the 25 µg group; p<0·0001). The incidence of grade 3 systemic adverse events were none (0%) of 20 in the 5 µg group, three (15%) of 20 in the 10 µg group, six (30%) of 20 in the 15 µg group, seven (35%) of 20 in the 20 µg group, five (31%) of 16 in the 25 µg group, and none (0%) of 20 in the placebo group (p=0·0013). As expected, the majority of fever resolved in the first 2 days after vaccination for all groups. The incidence of solicited systemic adverse events was similar after administration of ARCoV as a first or second vaccination. Humoral immune responses including anti-RBD IgG and neutralising antibodies increased significantly 7 days after the second dose and peaked between 14 and 28 days thereafter. Specific T-cell response peaked between 7 and 14 days after full vaccination. 15 µg induced the highest titre of neutralising antibodies, which was about twofold more than the antibody titre of convalescent patients with COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: ARCoV was safe and well tolerated at all five doses. The acceptable safety profile, together with the induction of strong humoral and cellular immune responses, support further clinical testing of ARCoV at a large scale. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Project of China, Academy of Medical Sciences China, National Natural Science Foundation China, and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
6.
Vaccine ; 39(28): 3724-3730, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233631

ABSTRACT

In order to meet the domestic urgent needs of evaluating the immunogenicity of vaccines and the potency testing of therapeutic antibody products against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the first Chinese national standards for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody were established. The potency and stability of the candidate standards were determined by neutralization assay and accelerated degradation study. The stability studies showed that the standards were stable in the short-term. The collaborative study showed that the candidate standards could reduce the variations in neutralization titers between labs and thus improve comparability of neutralizing antibody measurements. Sample 22 has been approved by the Biological Product Reference Standards Sub-Committee of the National Drug Reference Standards Committee as the first Chinese National Standard for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibody, with an assigned potency of 1,000 units per milliliter (U/ml). This standard will contribute to the standardized assessment of the quality and efficacy of vaccines and therapeutics for COVID-19 in China.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , China , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Reference Standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 574562, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993408

ABSTRACT

Objective: This research aims to analyze the application regularity of Chinese patent medicine during the COVID-19 epidemic by collecting the names of the top three Chinese patent medicines used by 24 hospitals in 14 provinces of China in four time periods (January 20-22, February 16-18, March 01-03, April 01-03, 2020), and explore its contribution to combating the disease. Methods: 1) We built a database of the top three Chinese patent medicines used by 24 hospitals. 2) The frequency and efficacy distribution of Chinese patent medicine were analyzed with risk areas, regions, and hospitals of different properties as three factors. 3) Finally, we analyzed the differences in the use of heat-clearing and non-heat-clearing medicines among the three factors (χ2 test) and the correlation between the Chinese patent medicine and COVID-19 epidemic (correlation analysis) with SPSS 23.0 statistical software. Results: 1) The heat-clearing medicine was the main use category nationwide during January 20-22, 2020. Meanwhile, there was a significant difference in the utilization rate of heat-clearing and non-heat-clearing medicine in different risk areas (p < 0.01). 2) The variety of Chinese patent medicine was increased nationwide during February 16-18, 2020, mainly including tonics, blood-activating and resolving-stasis, and heat-clearing medicines. Meanwhile, there was a significant difference in the utilization rate of heat-clearing and non-heat-clearing medicine in the southern and northern regions (p < 0.05). 3) Tonics, and blood-activating and resolving-stasis medicines became the primary use categories nationwide during March 01-03, 2020. 4) The tonics class, and blood-activating and resolving-stasis medicine were still the primary categories nationwide during April 01-03, 2020. Meanwhile, there was a significant difference in the utilization rate of heat-clearing and non-heat-clearing medicine in different risk areas (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Chinese patent medicine has a certain degree of participation in fighting against the COVID-19. The efficacy distribution is related to the risk area, region, and hospital of different properties, among which the risk area is the main influencing factor. It is hoped that future research can further collect the application amount of Chinese patent medicine used in hospitals all over the country, so as to perfectly reflect the relationship between Chinese patent medicine and the epidemic situation.

8.
J Vasc Access ; 22(5): 814-821, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, some studies have shown that prolonging flush interval is safe and feasible for patients who complete chemotherapy. However, there is no consensus about the optimal flush interval for those patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to evaluate whether the flush interval could be prolonged based on monthly interval for regular maintenance and to explore the optimal flush interval. DATA SOURCES: We searched the following databases for articles published between 1 January 1982 and 21 February 2020: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Ovid. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials, retrospective and prospective cohort studies of flush interval less than 4 weeks versus longer than 4 weeks for patients who completed chemotherapy, were included. RESULTS: Two reviewers extracted information and assessed the quality of the articles independently. In total, 389 articles were retrieved, and 4 studies including 862 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There was no statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 0, p > 0.05) among the included studies. Hence, the fixed-effects model was used for the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that the total complication rate associated with longer than 4-week interval was higher than that associated with less than 4-week interval. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference between the two groups (7.2% vs 7.6%, p = 0.83). Moreover, the meta-analysis showed that the total complication and catheter occlusion rates associated with the 4-week interval were higher than those associated with the 8-week interval. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (total complications: 11.4% vs 9.5%, p = 0.68; catheter occlusions: 4.9% vs 4.1%, p = 0.89). LIMITATIONS: Only four non-randomized controlled studies were included, and the outcomes of the included studies were reported incompletely. CONCLUSION: Extending the flush interval to longer than 4 weeks is safe and feasible. Based on previous studies, extending the flush interval to 8 weeks might not increase the incidence of total complications and catheter occlusions. However, there is no conclusion on whether the flush interval could be extended to 3 months or longer.


Subject(s)
Catheterization, Central Venous , Neoplasms , Catheter Obstruction/etiology , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
9.
Lancet ; 396(10249): 479-488, 2020 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-666142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This is the first randomised controlled trial for assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of a candidate non-replicating adenovirus type-5 (Ad5)-vectored COVID-19 vaccine, aiming to determine an appropriate dose of the candidate vaccine for an efficacy study. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial of the Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine was done in a single centre in Wuhan, China. Healthy adults aged 18 years or older, who were HIV-negative and previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-free, were eligible to participate and were randomly assigned to receive the vaccine at a dose of 1 × 1011 viral particles per mL or 5 × 1010 viral particles per mL, or placebo. Investigators allocated participants at a ratio of 2:1:1 to receive a single injection intramuscularly in the arm. The randomisation list (block size 4) was generated by an independent statistician. Participants, investigators, and staff undertaking laboratory analyses were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoints for immunogenicity were the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of specific ELISA antibody responses to the receptor binding domain (RBD) and neutralising antibody responses at day 28. The primary endpoint for safety evaluation was the incidence of adverse reactions within 14 days. All recruited participants who received at least one dose were included in the primary and safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04341389. FINDINGS: 603 volunteers were recruited and screened for eligibility between April 11 and 16, 2020. 508 eligible participants (50% male; mean age 39·7 years, SD 12·5) consented to participate in the trial and were randomly assigned to receive the vaccine (1 × 1011 viral particles n=253; 5 × 1010 viral particles n=129) or placebo (n=126). In the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, the RBD-specific ELISA antibodies peaked at 656·5 (95% CI 575·2-749·2) and 571·0 (467·6-697·3), with seroconversion rates at 96% (95% CI 93-98) and 97% (92-99), respectively, at day 28. Both doses of the vaccine induced significant neutralising antibody responses to live SARS-CoV-2, with GMTs of 19·5 (95% CI 16·8-22·7) and 18·3 (14·4-23·3) in participants receiving 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles, respectively. Specific interferon γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay responses post vaccination were observed in 227 (90%, 95% CI 85-93) of 253 and 113 (88%, 81-92) of 129 participants in the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, respectively. Solicited adverse reactions were reported by 183 (72%) of 253 and 96 (74%) of 129 participants in the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, respectively. Severe adverse reactions were reported by 24 (9%) participants in the 1 × 1011 viral particles dose group and one (1%) participant in the 5 × 1010 viral particles dose group. No serious adverse reactions were documented. INTERPRETATION: The Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine at 5 × 1010 viral particles is safe, and induced significant immune responses in the majority of recipients after a single immunisation. FUNDING: National Key R&D Programme of China, National Science and Technology Major Project, and CanSino Biologics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adenoviridae , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Young Adult
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