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2.
Innovation (Camb) ; 3(6): 100328, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042211
3.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869818

ABSTRACT

Over the years, infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality disrupted human healthcare systems and devastated economies globally. Respiratory viruses, especially emerging or re-emerging RNA viruses, including influenza and human coronavirus, are the main pathogens of acute respiratory diseases that cause epidemics or even global pandemics. Importantly, due to the rapid mutation of viruses, there are few effective drugs and vaccines for the treatment and prevention of these RNA virus infections. Of note, a class of antibodies derived from camelid and shark, named nanobody or single-domain antibody (sdAb), was characterized by smaller size, lower production costs, more accessible binding epitopes, and inhalable properties, which have advantages in the treatment of respiratory diseases compared to conventional antibodies. Currently, a number of sdAbs have been developed against various respiratory RNA viruses and demonstrated potent therapeutic efficacy in mouse models. Here, we review the current status of the development of antiviral sdAb and discuss their potential as therapeutics for respiratory RNA viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , RNA Virus Infections , Single-Domain Antibodies , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , RNA Virus Infections/drug therapy , Single-Domain Antibodies/chemistry
4.
Cell ; 185(8): 1389-1401.e18, 2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788017

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapeutic antibodies have been limited by the continuous emergence of viral variants and by the restricted diffusion of antibodies from circulation into the sites of respiratory virus infection. Here, we report the identification of two highly conserved regions on the Omicron variant receptor-binding domain recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, we generated a bispecific single-domain antibody that was able to simultaneously and synergistically bind these two regions on a single Omicron variant receptor-binding domain as revealed by cryo-EM structures. We demonstrated that this bispecific antibody can be effectively delivered to lung via inhalation administration and exhibits exquisite neutralization breadth and therapeutic efficacy in mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Importantly, this study also deciphered an uncommon and highly conserved cryptic epitope within the spike trimeric interface that may have implications for the design of broadly protective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Single-Domain Antibodies , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1186-1190, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774289

ABSTRACT

In the fight against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) serve as key strategies for the rapid prevention and treatment of COVID-19. However, analysis to fully characterize functional SARS-CoV-2 mAbs is still needed. In this study, by interrogating 1,695 published or patented mAbs of human origin and validated SARS-CoV-2-binding potency, we found a highly preferential usage of IGHV3-53/3-66 germline genes that was then revealed as a distinct selectivity of SARS-CoV-2-induced humoral immunity across other coronaviruses. Moreover, among the rare somatic hypermutations, we identified a novel mutation signature of F27 to I, L, or V with high frequency, which was located in the CDR1 region of the heavy chain among IGHV3-53/3-66-encoded antibodies. This convergent mutation contributed to improving SARS-CoV-2 binding affinity and may advance our knowledge of the humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(47): 19794-19801, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521695

ABSTRACT

Effective screening of infectious diseases requires a fast, cheap, and population-scale testing. Antigen pool testing can increase the test rate and shorten the screening time, thus being a valuable approach for epidemic prevention and control. However, the overall percent agreement (OPA) with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one-half to three-quarters, hampering it from being a comprehensive method, especially pool testing, beyond the gold-standard PCR. Here, a multiantibodies transistor assay is developed for sensitive and highly precise antigen pool testing. The multiantibodies capture SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 proteins with different configurations, resulting in an antigen-binding affinity down to 0.34 fM. The limit of detection reaches 3.5 × 10-17 g mL-1SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein in artificial saliva, 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than existing transistor sensors. The testing of 60 nasopharyngeal swabs exhibits ∼100% OPA with PCR within an average diagnoses time of 38.9 s. Owing to its highly precise feature, a portable integrated platform is fabricated, which achieves 10-in-1 pooled screening for high testing throughput. This work solves the long-standing problem of antigen pool testing, enabling it to be a valuable tool in precise diagnoses and population-wide screening of COVID-19 or other epidemics in the future.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transistors, Electronic , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein Subunits/genetics , Protein Subunits/immunology , Protein Subunits/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Saliva/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 378, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500450

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has heavily burdened the global public health system and may keep simmering for years. The frequent emergence of immune escape variants have spurred the search for prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic antibodies that confer broad protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here we show that the bivalency of an affinity maturated fully human single-domain antibody (n3113.1-Fc) exhibits exquisite neutralizing potency against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, and confers effective prophylactic and therapeutic protection against authentic SARS-CoV-2 in the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) humanized mice. The crystal structure of n3113 in complex with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, combined with the cryo-EM structures of n3113 and spike ecto-domain, reveals that n3113 binds to the side surface of up-state RBD with no competition with ACE2. The binding of n3113 to this novel epitope stabilizes spike in up-state conformations but inhibits SARS-CoV-2 S mediated membrane fusion, expanding our recognition of neutralization by antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Binding assay and pseudovirus neutralization assay show no evasion of recently prevalent SARS-CoV-2 lineages, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), and Delta (B.1.617.2) for n3113.1-Fc with Y58L mutation, demonstrating the potential of n3113.1-Fc (Y58L) as a promising candidate for clinical development to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Single-Chain Antibodies/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Crystallography, X-Ray , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Chain Antibodies/immunology , Single-Chain Antibodies/therapeutic use
8.
Nano Lett ; 21(19): 7897-7904, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440453

ABSTRACT

The fast spread of SARS-CoV-2 has severely threatened the public health. Establishing a sensitive method for SARS-CoV-2 detection is of great significance to contain the worldwide pandemic. Here, we develop a graphene field-effect transistor (g-FET) biosensor and realize ultrasensitive SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection with a limit of detection (LoD) down to 10-18 M (equivalent to 10-16 g mL-1) level. The g-FETs are modified with spike S1 proteins, and the SARS-CoV-2 antibody biorecognition events occur in the vicinity of the graphene surface, yielding an LoD of ∼150 antibodies in 100 µL full serum, which is the lowest LoD value of antibody detection. The diagnoses time is down to 2 min for detecting clinical serum samples. As such, the g-FETs leverage rapid and precise SARS-CoV-2 screening and also hold great promise in prevention and control of other epidemic outbreaks in the future.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Humans , Limit of Detection , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 111957, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330662

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and its global dissemination became the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. In patients undergoing immunotherapy, the effect and path of viral infection remain uncertain. In addition, viral-infected mice and humans show T-cell exhaustion, which is identified after infection with SARS-CoV-2. Notably, they regain their T-cell competence and effectively prevent viral infection when treated with anti-PD-1 antibodies. Four clinical trials are officially open to evaluate anti-PD-1 antibody administration's effectiveness for cancer and non-cancer individuals influenced by COVID-19 based on these findings. The findings may demonstrate the hypothesis that a winning strategy to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection could be the restoration of exhausted T-cells. In this review, we outline the potential protective function of the anti-PD-1 blockade against SARS-CoV-2 infection with the aim to develop SARS-CoV-2 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/immunology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/pharmacology , Immunotherapy/methods , Mice , Protective Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
11.
Antib Ther ; 4(2): 89-98, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262064

ABSTRACT

In recent years, fully human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are making up an increasing share of the pharmaceutical market. However, to improve affinity and efficacy of antibodies, many somatic hypermutations could be introduced during affinity maturation, which cause several issues including safety and efficacy and limit their application in clinic. Here, we propose a special class of human mAbs with limited level of somatic mutations, referred to as germline-like mAbs. Remarkably, germline-like mAbs could have high affinity and potent neutralizing activity in vitro and in various animal models, despite lacking of extensive affinity maturation. Furthermore, the germline nature of these mAbs implies that they exhibit lower immunogenicity and can be elicited relatively fast in vivo compared with highly somatically mutated antibodies. In this review, we summarize germline-like mAbs with strong therapeutic and protection activity against various viruses that caused large-scale outbreaks in the last decade, including influenza virus H7N9, Zika virus, Dengue virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We also illustrate underlying molecular mechanisms of these germline-like antibodies against viral infections from the structural and genetic perspective, thus providing insight into further development as therapeutic agents for the treatment of infectious diseases and implication for rational design of effective vaccines.

12.
Fundamental Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1062352

ABSTRACT

The worldwide pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged in late December 2019 requires the urgent development of therapeutic options. So far, numerous studies have investigated and uncovered the underlying epidemiology and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 infections in order to develop effective drugs. Compared with antiviral small-molecule inhibitors, biotherapeutics have unique advantages such as few side effects by virtue of their high specificity, and thus can be rapidly developed for promising treatments of COVID-19. Here, we summarize potential biotherapeutics and their mechanisms of action, including convalescent plasma, therapeutic antibodies, peptides, engineered ACE2, interferons, cytokine inhibitors, and RNAi-based therapeutics, and discuss in depth the advancements and precautions for each type of biotherapeutics in the treatment of COVID-19.

13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111330, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051491

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a causal factor of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Drug repurposing, portraying patented drugs as a successful drug development technique, could shorten the period and minimize costs relative to de novo drug exploration. Recently several drugs have been used as anti-SARS-CoV-2 such as Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Nafamostat mesylate and so on. Despite such efforts, there is currently no successful broad-spectrum antiviral countermeasures to combat SARS-CoV-2 or possibly potential CoVs pandemic. Therefore it is desperately important to recognize and test widely efficient, reliable anti-CoV therapies now and in the future. Remdesivir and Favipiravir were more promising despite having side effects; it had prominent efficacy and efficiency while still not yet approved as the official anti-viral drug for SARS CoV-2. In this review, we summarizes the current drug and vaccine discovery status against SARS-CoV-2, predicting that these efforts will help create effective drugs and vaccines for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
14.
Cell Rep ; 34(5): 108699, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044918

ABSTRACT

Several potent neutralizing antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus have been identified. However, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) has not been comprehensively studied for SARS-CoV-2, and the relationship between enhancing versus neutralizing activities and antibody epitopes remains unknown. Here, we select a convalescent individual with potent IgG neutralizing activity and characterize his antibody response. Monoclonal antibodies isolated from memory B cells target four groups of five non-overlapping receptor-binding domain (RBD) epitopes. Antibodies to one group of these RBD epitopes mediate ADE of entry in Raji cells via an Fcγ receptor-dependent mechanism. In contrast, antibodies targeting two other distinct epitope groups neutralize SARS-CoV-2 without ADE, while antibodies against the fourth epitope group are poorly neutralizing. One antibody, XG014, potently cross-neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 variants, as well as SARS-CoV-1, with respective IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values as low as 5.1 and 23.7 ng/mL, while not exhibiting ADE. Therefore, neutralization and ADE of human SARS-CoV-2 antibodies correlate with non-overlapping RBD epitopes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , Epitopes/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Child , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 282, 2020 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947524

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed serious threats to global health and economy, thus calling for the development of safe and effective vaccines. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for its binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. It contains multiple dominant neutralizing epitopes and serves as an important antigen for the development of COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we showed that immunization of mice with a candidate subunit vaccine consisting of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Fc fragment of human IgG, as an immunopotentiator, elicited high titer of RBD-specific antibodies with robust neutralizing activity against both pseudotyped and live SARS-CoV-2 infections. The mouse antisera could also effectively neutralize infection by pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 with several natural mutations in RBD and the IgG extracted from the mouse antisera could also show neutralization against pseudotyped SARS-CoV and SARS-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV). Vaccination of human ACE2 transgenic mice with RBD-Fc could effectively protect mice from the SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 RBD-Fc has good potential to be further developed as an effective and broad-spectrum vaccine to prevent infection of the current SARS-CoV-2 and its mutants, as well as future emerging SARSr-CoVs and re-emerging SARS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Binding/immunology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors
17.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(1): 8-19, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948163

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is now a global pandemic that has wreaked havoc globally, which has put a heavy toll on public health, lives, and the world economy. Vaccination is considered as one of the greatest successes in medical history. Based on prior experience with the development of SARS-CoV vaccines, all COVID-19 vaccines must be subjected to the tests for protective effects and harmful risks derived from antibody-dependent enhancement that may contribute to augmented infectivity and/or eosinophilic infiltration. The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is now being developed urgently in several different ways. China is regarded as one of the world's leading countries in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development, up to date the last inactivated vaccine international clinical (Phase III) trial was launched in the United Arab Emirates by Sinopharm China National Biotec Group (CNBG). In this review, we outline the current status of vaccine development against clinically relevant SARS-CoV-2 strains, anticipating that such attempts would help create efficacious and sage SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(1): 97-106, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948159

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The pandemic apparently started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since affected many countries worldwide, turning into a major global threat. Chinese researchers reported that SARS-CoV-2 could be classified into two major variants. They suggest that investigating the variations and characteristics of these variants might help assess risks and develop better treatment and prevention strategies. The two variants were named L-type and S-type, in which L-type was prevailed in an initial outbreak in Wuhan, Central China's Hubei Province, and S-type was phylogenetically older than L-type and less prevalent at an early stage, but with a later increase in frequency in Wuhan. There were 149 mutations in 103 sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes, 83 of which were nonsynonymous, leading to alteration in the amino acid sequence of proteins. Much effort is currently being devoted to elucidate whether or not these mutations affect viral transmissibility and virulence. In this review, we summarize the mutations in SARS-CoV-2 during the early phase of virus evolution and discuss the significance of the gene alterations in infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adaptation, Physiological , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Genome, Viral , Humans , Phylogeny , Recombination, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
19.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 17(10): 1095-1097, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748174
20.
Small Methods ; : 2000451-2000451, 2020.
Article | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-739645

ABSTRACT

The ability of the human adaptive immune system to respond to antigens relies upon the tremendous diversity of T cell receptors (TCR) and B cell receptors (BCR). The entirety of an individual's BCRs, often referred to as an antibody repertoire, shapes the humoral immune system. Therefore, technologies to identify and characterize antibody repertoires are critical for understanding fundamental aspects of the development and maintenance of the humoral immune system. Recently, innovative methodologies and technologies devoted to high-throughput sequencing of antibody repertoires (Ig-Seq) have broadened the understanding of humoral immunity. This review provides an overview of the Ig-Seq pipeline from sample collection, library preparation, and sequencing, to data cleaning, sequence alignment, and high-level processing. Conventional and current strategies used in Ig-Seq are introduced in detail, including bulk BCR sequencing, heavy and light chain paired sequencing combined with proteomic or single B cell sequencing approaches, antigen-specific single B cell sequencing, and single-molecule sequencing. Applications of Ig-Seq are also discussed, including antibody diversity measurement, signatures associated with different populations, novel findings involved in the antibody repertoire development, and strategies of functional antibody discovery from antibody repertoires. Finally, the pitfalls and opportunities in the deep mining of antibody repertoires are discussed.

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