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1.
J Comput Biol ; 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037357

ABSTRACT

An accurate understanding of the evolutionary history of rapidly-evolving viruses like SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, is crucial to tracking and preventing the spread of emerging pathogens. However, viruses undergo frequent recombination, which makes it difficult to trace their evolutionary history using traditional phylogenetic methods. In this study, we present a phylogenetic workflow, virDTL, for analyzing viral evolution in the presence of recombination. Our approach leverages reconciliation methods developed for inferring horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes and, compared to existing tools, is uniquely able to identify ancestral recombinations while accounting for several sources of inference uncertainty, including in the construction of a strain tree, estimation and rooting of gene family trees, and reconciliation itself. We apply this workflow to the Sarbecovirus subgenus and demonstrate how a principled analysis of predicted recombination gives insight into the evolution of SARS-CoV-2. In addition to providing confirming evidence for the horseshoe bat as its zoonotic origin, we identify several ancestral recombination events that merit further study.

2.
Nature communications ; 13(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998854

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious swine disease caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). PED causes enteric disorders with an exceptionally high fatality in neonates, bringing substantial economic losses in the pork industry. The trimeric spike (S) glycoprotein of PEDV is responsible for virus-host recognition, membrane fusion, and is the main target for vaccine development and antigenic analysis. The atomic structures of the recombinant PEDV S proteins of two different strains have been reported, but they reveal distinct N-terminal domain 0 (D0) architectures that may correspond to different functional states. The existence of the D0 is a unique feature of alphacoronavirus. Here we combined cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to demonstrate in situ the asynchronous S protein D0 motions on intact viral particles of a highly virulent PEDV Pintung 52 strain. We further determined the cryo-EM structure of the recombinant S protein derived from a porcine cell line, which revealed additional domain motions likely associated with receptor binding. By integrating mass spectrometry and cryo-EM, we delineated the complex compositions and spatial distribution of the PEDV S protein N-glycans, and demonstrated the functional role of a key N-glycan in modulating the D0 conformation. Hsu and co-workers integrate cryo-electron tomography, cryo-electron microscopy and mass spectrometry to reveal the structural polymorphism of a pig coronavirus spike protein within intact viral particles, and how glycosylation modulates the conformational changes pertinent to host recognition.

4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11407, 2022 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921714

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on lifestyle behaviors and depressive symptom among patients with NCDs (noncommunicable diseases). We incorporated a COVID-19 survey to the WELL China cohort, a prospective cohort study with the baseline survey conducted 8-16 months before the COVID-19 outbreak in Hangzhou, China. The COVID-19 survey was carried out to collect information on lifestyle and depressive symptom during lockdown. A total of 3327 participants were included in the COVID-19 survey, including 2098 (63.1%) reported having NCDs at baseline and 1457 (44%) without NCDs. The prevalence of current drinkers decreased from 42.9% before COVID-19 lockdown to 23.7% during lockdown, current smokers from 15.9 to 13.5%, and poor sleepers from 23.9 to 15.3%, while low physical activity increased from 13.4 to 25.2%, among participants with NCDs (P < 0.05 for all comparisons using McNemar's test). Participants with NCDs were more likely than those without to have depressive symptom (OR, 1.30; 95% CI 1.05-1.61), especially among those who need to refill their medication during the COVID-19 lockdown (OR, 1.52; 95% CI 1.15-2.02). Our findings provide insight into the development of targeted interventions to better prepare patients with NCDs and healthcare system to meet the challenge of future pandemic and lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Life Style , Prospective Studies
5.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-338524

ABSTRACT

The pivot from in-person to remote work due to the COVID-19 pandemic forced audit firm leaders to reevaluate work practices and to implement new strategies to cope with this profound transition in the profession. At the forefront of audit firm priorities is the new hire onboarding process, which is critical in shaping new auditors’ initial work experiences and their long-term commitment to the firm and profession. Drawing from organizational socialization theory, this study explores the onboarding process in a remote environment. Results of a field-based survey of 56 new staff auditors suggest that new hires experienced a more institutionalized, rather than an individualized, onboarding process. We also report aspects of the remote onboarding process auditors viewed positively and present auditor provided recommendations for improvements. Results of this study provide important insights regarding the remote onboarding process through the theoretical lens of organizational socialization and provide implications for future research and audit firms.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1098, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Under the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a structural equation model was established to determine the causality of important factors that affect Chinese citizens' COVID-19 prevention behavior. METHODS: The survey in Qingdao covered several communities in 10 districts and used the method of cluster random sampling. The research instrument used in this study is a self-compiled Chinese version of the questionnaire. Of the 1215 questionnaires, 1188 were included in our analysis. We use the rank sum test, which is a non-parametric test, to test the influence of citizens'basic sociodemographic variables on prevention behavior, and the rank correlation test to analyze the influencing factors of prevention behavior. IBM AMOS 24.0 was used for path analysis, including estimating regression coefficients and evaluating the statistical fits of the structural model, to further explore the causal relationships between variables. RESULTS: The result showed that the score in the prevention behavior of all citizens is a median of 5 and a quartile spacing of 0.31. The final structural equation model showed that the external support for fighting the epidemic, the demand level of health information, the cognition of (COVID-19) and the negative emotions after the outbreak had direct effects on the COVID-19 prevention behavior, and that negative emotions and information needs served as mediating variables. CONCLUSIONS: The study provided a basis for relevant departments to further adopt epidemic prevention and control strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asians , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cognition , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334390

ABSTRACT

Although coronaviruses have RNA proofreading functions, a large number of variants still exist as quasispecies. Identified coronaviruses might just be the tip of the iceberg, and potentially more fatal variants of concern (VOCs) may emerge over time. These VOCs may exhibit increased pathogenicity, infectivity, transmissibility, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding affinity, and antigenicity, causing an increased threat to public health. In this article, we developed PhyloTransformer, a Transformer-based self-supervised discriminative model, which can model genetic mutations that may lead to viral reproductive advantage. We trained PhyloTransformer on 1,765,297 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sequences to infer fitness advantages, by directly modeling the amino acid sequence mutations. PhyloTransformer utilizes advanced techniques from natural language processing, including the Fast Attention Via positive Orthogonal Random features approach (FAVOR+) and the Masked Language Model (MLM), which enable efficient and accurate intra-sequence dependency modeling over the entire RNA sequence. We measured the prediction accuracy of novel mutations and novel combinations using our method and baseline models that only take local segments as input. We found that PhyloTransformer outperformed every baseline method with statistical significance. In order to identify mutations associated with altered glycosylation that might be favored during viral evolution, we predicted the occurrence of mutations in each nucleotide of the receptor binding motif (RBM) and predicted modifications of N-glycosylation sites. We anticipate that the viral mutations predicted by PhyloTransformer may identify potential mutations of threat to guide therapeutics and vaccine design for effective targeting of future SARS-CoV-2 variants.

9.
J Thorac Oncol ; 17(5): 588-591, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799802
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776252

ABSTRACT

Entry inhibitors against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are urgently needed to control the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study developed a robust and straightforward assay that detected the molecular interaction between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of viral spike protein and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in just 10 min. A drug library of 1068 approved compounds was used to screen for SARS-CoV2 entry inhibition, and 9 active drugs were identified as specific pseudovirus entry inhibitors. A plaque reduction neutralization test using authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus in Vero E6 cells confirmed that 2 of these drugs (Etravirine and Dolutegravir) significantly inhibited the infection of SARS-CoV-2. With molecular docking, we showed that both Etravirine and Dolutegravir are preferentially bound to primary ACE2-interacting residues on the RBD domain, implying that these two drug blocks may prohibit the viral attachment of SARS-CoV-2. We compared the neutralizing activities of these entry inhibitors against different pseudoviruses carrying spike proteins from alpha, beta, gamma, and delta variants. Both Etravirine and Dolutegravir showed similar neutralizing activities against different variants, with EC50 values between 4.5 to 5.8 nM for Etravirine and 10.2 to 22.9 nM for Dolutegravir. These data implied that Etravirine and Dolutegravir may serve as general spike inhibitors against dominant viral variants of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , RNA, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 710209, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775826

ABSTRACT

Most cervical cancers were closely associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Therefore, understanding the ecological diversity of HPV prevalence and genotype distribution among various populations in different geographical regions was essential for optimizing HPV vaccination and maximizing the vaccination effects. A total of 12,053 patient data from the three-level hospitals in Hengyang city were retrospectively analyzed. In this study, the HPV prevalence was 10.16% overall, and the multiple-type infection rate was 1.83%. The HR-HPV infection rate was 8.52%. The top six HPV genotypes were as follows in descending order: HPV16, HPV58, HPV52, HPV39, HPV51, and HPV53. The HPV prevalence in the group above 60 years old was the most, and their HR-HPV infection rate corresponded to the most too. The infection rates of HPV and HR-HPV among outpatients were both lower than those among the hospitalized-patients, respectively. Among the hospitalized-patients, the infection rates of HPV and HR-HPV among the 50-60 years group were the most in both. The HR-HPV ratio-in-positive among HPV-positive patients with the histopathologic examination was higher than that among those patients without. Among 52 HPV-positive patients with cervical squamous carcinoma, the ratio-in-positive of HPV16 was 61.54%. This study demonstrated that the HPV prevalence varied with age among women from Hengyang district of Hunan province in China and showed that HPV16, HPV58, HPV52, HPV39, HPV51, and HPV53 genotypes were more popularly distributed in this region, which could provide the experimental basis for Chinese public health measures on cervical cancer prevention.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , China/epidemiology , Female , Genotype , Humans , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
12.
JMIR Serious Games ; 10(1): e35040, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has not only changed the lifestyles of people globally but has also resulted in other challenges, such as the requirement of self-isolation and distance learning. Moreover, people are unable to venture out to exercise, leading to reduced movement, and therefore, the demand for exercise at home has increased. OBJECTIVE: We intended to investigate the relationships between a Nintendo Ring Fit Adventure (RFA) intervention and improvements in running time, cardiac force index (CFI), sleep quality (Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score), and mood disorders (5-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale score). METHODS: This was a randomized prospective study and included 80 students who were required to complete a 1600-meter outdoor run before and after the intervention, the completion times of which were recorded in seconds. They were also required to fill out a lifestyle questionnaire. During the study, 40 participants (16 males and 24 females, with an average age of 23.75 years) were assigned to the RFA group and were required to exercise for 30 minutes 3 times per week (in the adventure mode) over 4 weeks. The exercise intensity was set according to the instructions given by the virtual coach during the first game. The remaining 40 participants (30 males and 10 females, with an average age of 22.65 years) were assigned to the control group and maintained their regular habits during the study period. RESULTS: The study was completed by 80 participants aged 20 to 36 years (mean 23.20, SD 2.96 years). The results showed that the running time in the RFA group was significantly reduced. After 4 weeks of physical training, it took females in the RFA group 19.79 seconds (P=.03) and males 22.56 seconds (P=.03) less than the baseline to complete the 1600-meter run. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the performance of the control group in the run before and after the fourth week of intervention. In terms of mood disorders, the average score of the RFA group increased from 1.81 to 3.31 for males (difference=1.50, P=.04) and from 3.17 to 4.54 for females (difference=1.38, P=.06). In addition, no significant differences between the RFA and control groups were observed for the CFI peak acceleration (CFIPA)_walk, CFIPA_run, or sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: RFA could either maintain or improve an individual's physical fitness, thereby providing a good solution for people involved in distance learning or those who have not exercised for an extended period. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05227040; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05227040.

13.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(3): 217-220, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722664

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, a previous unidentified coronavirus, currently named as the 2019 novel coronavirus#, emerged from Wuhan, China, and resulted in a formidable outbreak in many cities in China and expanded globally, including Thailand, Republic of Korea, Japan, United States, Philippines, Viet Nam, and our country (as of 2/6/2020 at least 25 countries). The disease is officially named as Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19, by WHO on February 11, 2020). It is also named as Severe Pneumonia with Novel Pathogens on January 15, 2019 by the Taiwan CDC, the Ministry of Health and is a notifiable communicable disease of the fifth category. COVID-19 is a potential zoonotic disease with low to moderate (estimated 2%-5%) mortality rate. Person-to-person transmission may occur through droplet or contact transmission and if there is a lack of stringent infection control or if no proper personal protective equipment available, it may jeopardize the first-line healthcare workers. Currently, there is no definite treatment for COVID-19 although some drugs are under investigation. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of the travel or contact history of the patient with compatible symptoms.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Pneumonia, Viral , Asia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
14.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(639): eabm0899, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714341

ABSTRACT

A major challenge to end the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is to develop a broadly protective vaccine that elicits long-term immunity. As the key immunogen, the viral surface spike (S) protein is frequently mutated, and conserved epitopes are shielded by glycans. Here, we revealed that S protein glycosylation has site-differential effects on viral infectivity. We found that S protein generated by lung epithelial cells has glycoforms associated with increased infectivity. Compared to the fully glycosylated S protein, immunization of S protein with N-glycans trimmed to the mono-GlcNAc-decorated state (SMG) elicited stronger immune responses and better protection for human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) transgenic mice against variants of concern (VOCs). In addition, a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody was identified from SMG-immunized mice that could neutralize wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs with subpicomolar potency. Together, these results demonstrate that removal of glycan shields to better expose the conserved sequences has the potential to be an effective and simple approach for developing a broadly protective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Polysaccharides , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329417

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 400 million people around the globe and caused millions of deaths. Since its identification in November 2021, Omicron, a highly transmissible variant, has become the dominant variant in most countries. Omicron highly mutated spike protein, the main target of vaccine development, significantly compromises the immune protection from current vaccination. We develop an mRNA vaccine (SOmicron-6P) based on an Omicron-specific sequence. In mice, SOmicron-6P shows superior neutralizing antibodies inducing abilities to a clinically approved inactivated virus vaccine, a clinically approved protein subunit vaccine, and an mRNA vaccine (SWT-2P) with the same sequence of BNT162b2 RNA. Significantly, SOmicron-6P induces a 14.4~27.7-fold and a 28.3~50.3-fold increase of neutralizing activity against the pseudovirus of Omicron and authentic Omicron compared to SWT-2P, respectively. In addition, two doses SOmicron-6P significantly protects Syrian hamsters against challenge with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant and elicits high titers of nAbs in a dose-dependent manner in macaques. Our results suggest that SOmicron-6P offers advantages over current vaccines, and it will be helpful for those with weak immunity.

16.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329084

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on lifestyle behaviors and depressive symptom among patients with NCDs.We incorporated a COVID-19 survey to the WELL China cohort, a prospective cohort study with the baseline survey conducted 8–16 months before the COVID-19 outbreak in Hangzhou, China. The COVID-19 survey was carried out to collect information on lifestyle and depressive symptom during lockdown.A total of 3,327 participants were included in the COVID-19 survey, including 2,098 (63.1%) reported having NCDs at baseline and 1,457 (44%) without NCDs. The prevalence of current drinkers decreased from 42.9% before COVID-19 lockdown to 23.7% during lockdown, current smokers from 15.9–13.5%, and poor sleepers from 23.9–15.3%, while low physical activity increased from 13.4–25.2%, among participants with NCDs. Participants with NCDs were more likely than those without to have depressive symptom (OR, 1.30;95% CI, 1.05–1.61), especially among those who need to refill their medication during the COVID-19 lockdown (OR, 1.52;95% CI, 1.15–2.02).Our findings provide insight into the development of targeted interventions to better prepare patients with NCDs and healthcare system to meet the challenge of future pandemic and lockdown, which is highly likely to happen in the near future.

17.
Platelets ; 33(4): 531-535, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707820

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a condition that is distinct from thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) that may also occur after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations. Previous reports revealed an increased ITP incidence after ChAdOx1, a vaccine for COVID-19. Our study aimed to highlight the key features of ITP after COVID-19 vaccination. From April to October 2021, we collected data on 23 patients, including nine men and 14 women, with ITP from five hospitals across Taiwan who received either the ChAdOx1 or mRNA-1273 vaccine before development or exacerbation of ITP. Our findings revealed that both ChAdOx1 and mRNA-1273 vaccines were associated with ITP. Many patients responded well to steroids and immune suppressants, which may also suggest that the nature of thrombocytopenia is more like ITP rather than TTS. Lack of thrombosis, low D-dimer level, and negative anti-PF4 result could help to exclude TTS, which is also a rare but a far more lethal condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Syndrome , Taiwan/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , Vaccination/adverse effects
18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325449

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has outbreaked in Wuhan city, Hubei province of China since December 30 th 2019, and spread nationwide and widely spilled over to other countries around the world that has been declared a public health emergency. However, there is no specific drug for the treatment of the disease. Therefore, identifying effective antiviral drugs to combat the disease is urgently needed. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has become the promising target to discovery new antiviral drugs to treat COVID-19, we have attempted to discover novel ACE2 inhibitors through ligand-based virtual screening. Finally, eight compounds were selected and tested ACE2 kinase inhibitory assay using fluorescence assays method. The results showed that four compounds (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, glycyrrhizic acid methyl ester, ginsenoside Rg6 and ginsenoside F1) from 101 kinds of Chinese medicinal and edible plants which could inhibit ACE2 activity in vitro. Further efforts on chemical modification of these lead compounds are undergoing can lead to discover better agents against COVID-19.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325086

ABSTRACT

Existing deep learning technologies generally learn the features of chest X-ray data generated by Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) to diagnose COVID-19 pneumonia. However, the above methods have a critical challenge: data privacy. GAN will leak the semantic information of the training data which can be used to reconstruct the training samples by attackers, thereby this method will leak the privacy of the patient. Furthermore, for this reason that is the limitation of the training data sample, different hospitals jointly train the model through data sharing, which will also cause the privacy leakage. To solve this problem, we adopt the Federated Learning (FL) frame-work which is a new technique being used to protect the data privacy. Under the FL framework and Differentially Private thinking, we propose a FederatedDifferentially Private Generative Adversarial Network (FedDPGAN) to detectCOVID-19 pneumonia for sustainable smart cities. Specifically, we use DP-GAN to privately generate diverse patient data in which differential privacy technology is introduced to make sure the privacy protection of the semantic information of training dataset. Furthermore, we leverage FL to allow hospitals to collaboratively train COVID-19 models without sharing the original data. Under Independent and Identically Distributed (IID) and non-IID settings, The evaluation of the proposed model is on three types of chest X-ray (CXR) images dataset (COVID-19, normal, and normal pneumonia). A large number of the truthful reports make the verification of our model can effectively diagnose COVID-19 without compromising privacy.

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324183

ABSTRACT

Physical distancing has proven effective in preventing the spread of the COVID-19, yet decreasing social interactions may be harmful to well-being. The current study investigated the protective roles of social support and social connectedness on well-being during the pandemic in many countries. Specifically, we examined how the changes of social connectedness toward different social ties (i.e., family, friends, colleagues, and neighbors) as indirect effects to explain the relationship between social support and well-being, using survey data from 16,685 individuals from 49 countries. Results from multilevel structural equation modeling showed that i) social support was positively related to well-being, ii) people who felt increased social connectedness to family, friends, colleagues, and neighbors were likely to experience better well-being than those who did not feel more connected during the COVID-19, iii) changes of connectedness to family, friends, colleagues and neighbors could serve as indirect effects between social support and well-being;the indirect effects from family and friends were more potent than colleagues and neighbors, and iv) the indirect effects were similar across all countries. Our findings highlighted the benefits of social support and social connectedness to well-being during the pandemic.

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