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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 296, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has attracted great public health efforts across the world. Few studies, however, have described the potential impact of these measures on other important infectious diseases. METHODS: The incidence of 19 major infectious diseases in Zhejiang Province was collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System from January 2017 to October 2020. The entire epidemic control phase was divided into three stages. The government deployed the first level response from 24 January to 2 March (the most rigorous measures). When the outbreak of COVID-19 was under control, the response level changed to the second level from 3 to 23 March, and then the third level response was implemented after 24 March. We compared the epidemiological characteristics of 19 major infectious diseases during different periods of the COVID-19 epidemic and previous years. RESULTS: A total of 1,814,881 cases of 19 infectious diseases were reported in Zhejiang from January 2017 to October 2020, resulting in an incidence rate of 8088.30 cases per 1,000,000 person-years. After the non-pharmaceutical intervention, the incidence of 19 infectious diseases dropped by 70.84%, from 9436.32 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 2751.51 cases per 1,000,000 person-years, with the large decrease in the first response period of influenza. However, we observed that the daily incidence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and leptospirosis increased slightly (from 1.11 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 1.82 cases per 1,000,000 person-years for SFTS and 0.30 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 1.24 cases per 1,000,000 person-years for leptospirosis). There was no significant difference in the distribution of epidemiological characteristic of most infectious diseases before and during the implementation of COVID-19 control measures. CONCLUSION: Our study summarizes the epidemiological characteristics of 19 infectious diseases and indicates that the rigorous control measures for COVID-19 are also effective for majority of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2045-2051, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unprecedented outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in Wuhan City has caused global concern; the outflow of the population from Wuhan was believed to be a main reason for the rapid and large-scale spread of the disease, so the government implemented a city-closure measure to prevent its transmission considering the large amount of travel before the Chinese New Year. METHODS: Based on the daily reported new cases and the population-movement data between 1 and 31 January, we examined the effects of population outflow from Wuhan on the geographical expansion of the infection in other provinces and cities of China, as well as the impacts of the city closure in Wuhan using different closing-date scenarios. RESULTS: We observed a significantly positive association between population movement and the number of the COVID-19 cases. The spatial distribution of cases per unit of outflow population indicated that the infection in some areas with a large outflow of population might have been underestimated, such as Henan and Hunan provinces. Further analysis revealed that if the city-closure policy had been implemented 2 days earlier, 1420 (95% confidence interval, 1059-1833) cases could have been prevented, and if 2 days later, 1462 (1090-1886) more cases would have been possible. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that population movement might be one important trigger for the transmission of COVID-19 infection in China, and the policy of city closure is effective in controlling the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Confidence Intervals , Humans , Pandemics
5.
Atmos Environ (1994) ; 246: 118083, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nine COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease, 2019) cases were observed in one community in Guangzhou. All the cases lived in three vertically aligned units of one building sharing the same piping system, which provided one unique opportunity to examine the transmission mode of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We interviewed the cases on the history of travelling and close contact with the index patients. Respiratory samples from all the cases were collected for viral phylogenetic analyses. A simulation experiment in the building and a parallel control experiment in a similar building were then conducted to investigate the possibility of transmission through air. RESULTS: Index patients living in Apartment 15-b had a travelling history in Wuhan, and four cases who lived in Apartment 25-b and 27-b were subsequently diagnosed. Phylogenetic analyses showed that virus of all the patients were from the same strain of the virus. No close contacts between the index cases and other families indicated that the transmission might not occur through droplet and close contacts. Airflow detection and simulation experiment revealed that flushing the toilets could increase the speed of airflow in the pipes and transmitted the airflow from Apartment 15-b to 25-b and 27-b. Reduced exhaust flow rates in the infected building might have contributed to the outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: The outbreak of COVID-19 in this community could be largely explained by the transmission through air, and future efforts to prevent the infection should take the possibility of transmission through air into consideration. A disconnected drain pipe and exhaust pipe for toilet should be considered in the architectural design to help prevent possible virus spreading through the air.

6.
Innovation (N Y) ; 1(2): 100022, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692819

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of patients are being killed by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), however, risk factors for the fatality of COVID-19 remain unclear. A total of 21,392 COVID-19 cases were recruited in the Hubei Province of China between December 2019 and February 2020, and followed up until March 18, 2020. We adopted Cox regression models to investigate the risk factors for case fatality and predicted the death probability under specific combinations of key predictors. Among the 21,392 patients, 1,020 (4.77%) died of COVID-19. Multivariable analyses showed that factors, including age (≥60 versus <45 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 7.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.42, 9.89), sex (male versus female, HR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.15, 1.50), severity of the disease (critical versus mild, HR = 39.98; 95% CI, 29.52, 48.86), comorbidity (HR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.23, 1.60), highest body temperature (>39°C versus <39°C, HR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09, 1.49), white blood cell counts (>10 × 109/L versus (4-10) × 109/L, HR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.35, 2.13), and lymphocyte counts (<0.8 × 109/L versus (0.8-4) × 109/L, HR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.50) were significantly associated with case fatality of COVID-19 patients. Individuals of an older age, who were male, with comorbidities, and had a critical illness had the highest death probability, with 21%, 36%, 46%, and 54% within 1-4 weeks after the symptom onset. Risk factors, including demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, and laboratory factors were confirmed to be important determinants of fatality of COVID-19. Our predictive model can provide scientific evidence for a more rational, evidence-driven allocation of scarce medical resources to reduce the fatality of COVID-19.

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