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1.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Men with progressive neuroendocrine or aggressive-variant metastatic prostate cancer (NEPC/AVPC) have a poor prognosis and limited treatment options, and immunotherapy has not been tested in such patients. METHODS: We conducted an open label single center phase 2 trial (NCT03179410) of men with progressive NEPC/AVPC either defined by histology or AVPC criteria. Avelumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks) was administered until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included ORR, radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS), overall survival, and safety. Correlative studies included longitudinal peripheral blood immune phenotyping. The study was limited by the small number of patients enrolled and by the early termination due to COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 15 men with AVPC/NEPC were enrolled. The median age was 71 (range 51-85 years), and men had received a median of two prior therapies (range 1-3). Median PSA was 54 ng/dl (range 0-393), and 73% of men had liver metastasis. The ORR with avelumab in this setting by iRECIST or RECIST 1.1 was 6.7%, including one patient (6.7%) with a complete remission (CR), 20% with stable disease, and 67% with progressive disease. The patient with the CR had an MSH2 somatic mutation and MSI-high NEPC with central nervous system metastases, and his CR remains durable off all therapy for 2 years. The median rPFS was 1.8 months (95% CI 1.6-3.6 months), and median overall survival was 7.4 months (85% CI 2.8-12.6 months). Safety was consistent with the known profile of avelumab. Phenotyping of peripheral immune subsets suggest enhanced CXCR2-dependent myeloid and T-cell responses in this extraordinary responder. CONCLUSIONS: While the study was terminated early due to slow enrollment at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and lower than anticipated objective response rate, PD-L1 inhibition with avelumab monotherapy showed poor efficacy in patients with microsatellite stable NEPC/AVPC. Immune profiling revealed enhanced CXCR2 positive immune cell activation in the one extraordinary responder, suggesting potential mechanisms for further immunotherapy development in this population.

4.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(1):29-36, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1190523

ABSTRACT

Serological detection of specific antibody is an important method in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, numerous antibody detection kits for SARS-CoV-2 have been available within a short period, their accuracy and effectiveness are uncertain. This paper summarizes the current status of antibody detection kits for SARS-CoV-2 at home and abroad to provide reference on their uses by staffs in hospitals and CDCs.

5.
Seizure ; 88: 102-108, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164463

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the behaviours, mental health and seizure control of adult patients with epilepsy (PWE) and to identify the correlation of seizure increase and the COVID-19 outbreak to guide the medical care of individuals with epilepsy during a public health crisis. METHODS: This study was conducted at 28 centres from February 2020 to April 2020. Participants filled out a 62-item online survey including sociodemographic, COVID-19-related, epilepsy-related and psychological variables and were divided into two groups based on whether their seizure frequency increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Chi-square tests and t-tests were used to test differences in significant characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors for seizure worsening. RESULTS: A total of 1,237 adult PWE were enrolled for analysis. Of this sample, 31 (8.33%) patients experienced an increase in seizures during the pandemic. Multivariate logistic regression suggested that feeling nervous about the pandemic (P < 0.05), poor quality of life (P = 0.001), drug reduction/withdrawal (P = 0.032), moderate anxiety during the COVID-19 outbreak (P = 0.046) and non-seizure free before the COVID-19 outbreak (P < 0.05) were independently related to seizure increase during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, PWE with poor quality of life and mental status, as well as AED reduction/withdrawal, were more likely to experience seizure increase. This observation highlights the importance of early identification of the population at high risk of seizure worsening and implementation of preventive strategies during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Quality of Life/psychology , Seizures/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 33(4): 1739-1745, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080067

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of CoVID-19 infection rapidly increases worldwide. Most of the continents affecting from CoVID-19 and still widening its burden disease (Jones DS, 2020; Lai et al., 2020). Along with its fatality rates, CoVID-19 has caused physiological disturbances in the society and termed as "coronophobia". CoVID-19 with renal failure, severe pneumonia and respiratory syndrome patients have been reported to increase the severity of disease conditions (Sevim et al., 2020). Also, CoVID-19 with cancer patients increase the higher risk of infections. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific treatment against CoVID-19 and drug research centres continuously investigating the potential drug against CoVID-19 (Osama and Amer, 2020). For the past 20 years two major coronavirus epidemics have occurred in public includes SARS-CoV approximately 8000 cases and 800 deaths and MERS-CoV 2,500 cases and 800 deaths and these continuing sporadically (Cascella et al., 2020).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Age Factors , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Comorbidity , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Prevalence , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
7.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 19: 1533033820974021, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983619

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: With the widespread prevalence of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), cancer patients are suggested to wear a surgical mask during radiation treatment. In this study, cone beam CT (CBCT) was used to investigate the effect of surgical mask on setup errors in head and neck radiotherapy. METHODS: A total of 91 patients with head and neck tumors were selected. CBCT was performed to localize target volume after patient set up. The images obtained by CBCT before treatment were automatically registered with CT images and manually fine-tuned. The setup errors of patients in 6 directions of Vrt, Lng, Lat, Pitch, Roll and Rotation were recorded. The patients were divided into groups according to whether they wore the surgical mask, the type of immobilization mask used and the location of the isocenter. The setup errors of patients were calculated. A t-test was performed to detect whether it was statistically significant. RESULTS: In the 4 groups, the standard deviation in the directions of Lng and Pitch of the with surgical mask group were all higher than that in the without surgical mask group. In the head-neck-shoulder mask group, the mean in the Lng direction of the with surgical mask group was larger than that of the without surgical mask group. In the lateral isocenter group, the mean in the Lng and Pitch directions of the with surgical mask group were larger than that of the without surgical mask group. The t-test results showed that there was significant difference in the setup error between the 2 groups (p = 0.043 and p = 0.013, respectively) only in the Lng and Pitch directions of the head-neck-shoulder mask group. In addition, the setup error of 6 patients with immobilization open masks exhibited no distinguished difference from that of the patients with regular immobilization masks. CONCLUSION: In the head and neck radiotherapy patients, the setup error was affected by wearing surgical mask. It is recommended that the immobilization open mask should be used when the patient cannot finish the whole treatment with a surgical mask.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Masks , Radiotherapy Setup Errors/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Female , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Immobilization/instrumentation , Immobilization/methods , Immobilization/statistics & numerical data , Male , Masks/adverse effects , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Radiation Oncology/methods , Radiation Oncology/standards , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted/adverse effects , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted/methods , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted/statistics & numerical data , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided/adverse effects , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided/methods , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided/statistics & numerical data , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Shoulder , Young Adult
8.
Int J Cardiol ; 329: 260-265, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of fibrinolysis-first strategy on outcomes of patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the COVID-19 pandemic was unknown. METHODS: Data from STEMI patients presenting to Fuwai Hospital from January 23 to April 30, 2020 were compared with those during the equivalent period in 2019. The primary end-point was net adverse clinical events (NACE; a composite of death, non-fatal myocardial reinfarction, stroke, emergency revascularization, and bleeding over BARC type 3). The secondary outcome was a composite of recurrent ischaemia, cardiogenic shock, and exacerbated heart failure. RESULTS: The final analysis included 164 acute STEMI patients from 2020 and 240 from 2019. Eighteen patients (20.2% of those with indications) received fibrinolysis therapy in 2020 with a median door-to-needle time of 60.0 (43.5, 92.0) minutes. Patients in 2020 underwent primary PCI less frequently than their counterparts (14 [14.2%] vs. 144 [86.8%] in 2019, P < 0.001), and had a longer median door-to-balloon time (175 [121,213] minutes vs. 115 [83, 160] minutes in 2019, P = 0.009). Patients were more likely to undergo elective PCI (86 [52.4%] vs. 28 [11.6%] in 2019, P < 0.001). The in-hospital NACE was similar between 2020 and 2019 (14 [8.5%] vs. 25 [10.4%], P = 0.530), while more patients developed a secondary outcome in 2020 (20 [12.2%] vs. 12 [5.0%] in 2019, P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: The fibrinolysis-first strategy during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a lower rate of timely coronary reperfusion and increased rates of recurrent ischaemia, cardiogenic shock, and exacerbated heart failure. However, the in-hospital NACE remained similar to that in 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Registries , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
10.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 3(8): 4809-4819, 2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833523

ABSTRACT

Despite the good biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of zinc sulfide nanoparticles (ZnS NPs), whether they possess antiviral activity is still unclear. Here, GSH-modified ZnS NPs (GSH-ZnS NPs) were synthesized and their significant antiviral activity was demonstrated using the Arteriviridae family RNA virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), as a model. Mechanistically, GSH-ZnS NPs were shown to reduce PRRSV-induced ROS production to prevent PRRSV multiplication, with no activating effect on the interferon (IFN) signal pathway, the first defense line against virus infection. Furthermore, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic analysis of GSH-ZnS NP-treated cells revealed the involvement of numerous crucial proteins in virus proliferation, with vitronectin (VTN) being confirmed as an efficient PRRSV antagonist here. Furthermore, GSH-ZnS NPs were found to have potent antiviral effects on the Herpesviridae family DNA virus, pseudorabies virus (PRV), the Coronaviridae family positive-sense RNA virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and the Rhabdoviridae family negative-stranded RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), indicating their broad-spectrum antiviral activity against viruses from different families with various genome types. Overall, GSH-ZnS NP is a prospective candidate for the development of antiviral nanomaterials and may serve as a model for investigation of potential host restriction factors in combination with proteomics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Glutathione/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Sulfides/chemistry , Viruses/drug effects , Zinc Compounds/chemistry , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Viruses/classification
11.
RSC Adv ; 10(24): 14161-14169, 2020 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833522

ABSTRACT

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a kind of cellular adhesion receptor that mediates the attachment and internalization of virus infection. Herein, to mimic the cell surface receptor, mercaptoethane sulfonate (MES), an analogue of HS, was used as the surface modifier to synthesize bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated tellurium nanoparticles (Te/BSA NPs) with a unique triangular star shape (Te/BSA nanostars). Using porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which utilizes HS as a cellular receptor, as a model of arterivirus, we found that Te/BSA nanostars suppressed virus infection mainly by inhibiting the virus internalization process. Interestingly, Te/BSA nanostars exhibited much higher antiviral activity than the spherical Te/BSA NPs (Te/BSA nanospheres), the Te/BSA NPs were synthesized with GSH as a substitute of MES, suggesting that both MES modification and the novel shapes of Te/BSA NPs enhance their antiviral activity. Finally, the antiviral effect of Te/BSA nanostars on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a model of coronavirus, was also demonstrated, indicating the potential broad-spectrum antiviral property of Te/BSA nanostars.

13.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 60(1): e60-e65, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-196669

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China and has now spread worldwide. In the affected countries, physicians and nurses are under heavy workload conditions and are at high risk of infection. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of burnout between physicians and nurses on the frontline (FL) wards and those working in usual wards (UWs). METHODS: A survey with a total of 49 questions was administered to 220 medical staff members from the COVID-19 FL and UWs, with a ratio of 1:1. General information, such as age, gender, marriage status, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-medical personnel, were gathered and compared. RESULTS: The group working on the FLs had a lower frequency of burnout (13% vs. 39%; P < 0.0001) and were less worried about being infected compared with the UW group. CONCLUSION: Compared with medical staff working on their UWs for uninfected patients, medical staff working on the COVID-19 FL ward had a lower frequency of burnout. These results suggest that in the face of the COVID-19 crisis, both FL ward and UW staff should be considered when policies and procedures to support the well-being of health care workers are devised.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epidemics , Hospital Units , Nurses/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Oncology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Specialization
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