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1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 25, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622235

ABSTRACT

Relationships between viral load, severity of illness, and transmissibility of virus are fundamental to understanding pathogenesis and devising better therapeutic and prevention strategies for COVID-19. Here we present within-host modelling of viral load dynamics observed in the upper respiratory tract (URT), drawing upon 2172 serial measurements from 605 subjects, collected from 17 different studies. We developed a mechanistic model to describe viral load dynamics and host response and contrast this with simpler mixed-effects regression analysis of peak viral load and its subsequent decline. We observed wide variation in URT viral load between individuals, over 5 orders of magnitude, at any given point in time since symptom onset. This variation was not explained by age, sex, or severity of illness, and these variables were not associated with the modelled early or late phases of immune-mediated control of viral load. We explored the application of the mechanistic model to identify measured immune responses associated with the control of the viral load. Neutralising antibodies correlated strongly with modelled immune-mediated control of viral load amongst subjects who produced neutralising antibodies. Our models can be used to identify host and viral factors which control URT viral load dynamics, informing future treatment and transmission blocking interventions.

2.
HERD ; 15(1): 55-74, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Entrusted by the Harbin Municipal Government, evaluation medical building system for prevention and control of sudden infectious diseases in the city has been established. BACKGROUND: China, as a country that found the COVID-19 earlier, has taken strict control measures. However, as the medical building system is not perfect enough to prevent and control sudden infectious diseases. METHOD: First, expert group methodology was used and evaluation index of ability of prevention and control of sudden infectious diseases in medical building system was selected; then fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was adopted to establish index set and to set weight and medical building system evaluation model for prevention and control of sudden infectious diseases was constructed; finally, it's to modify the indicators and weights in the evaluation set and to make an evaluation of the ability of Harbin medical building system to prevent and control sudden infectious diseases in accordance with the current management mode of system. RESULTS: The medical building system in Harbin is significantly unbalanced in its ability to prevent sudden infections where there are low indicators for response monitoring and forecasting terminals, there are high indicators for the construction of emergency center. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation model of the ability of medical building system to prevent and control sudden infectious diseases was constructed. The model is adopted to make practical evaluation of infectious disease prevention and control ability in Harbin and to form the evaluation method of the direct connection between the theoretical research of medical architecture and medical building design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evaluate pre-vaccine pandemic period COVID-19 death risk factors among nursing home (NH) residents. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study covering Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries ages ≥65 residing in U.S. NHs. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regressions. RESULTS: Among 608,251 elderly NH residents, 57,398 (9.4%) died of COVID-related illness April 1 to December 22, 2020. About 46.9% (26,893) of these COVID-19 deaths occurred without prior COVID-19 hospitalizations. We observed a consistently increasing age trend for COVID-19 deaths. Racial/ethnic minorities generally shared a similarly high risk of NH COVID-19 deaths with Whites. NH facility characteristics including for-profit ownership and low health inspection ratings were associated with higher death risk. Resident characteristics, including male (HR 1.69), end-stage renal disease (HR 1.42), cognitive impairment (HR 1.34), and immunocompromised status (HR 1.20) were important death risk factors. Other individual-level characteristics were less predictive of death than they were in community-dwelling population. CONCLUSIONS: Low NH health inspection ratings and private ownership contributed to COVID-19 death risks. Nearly half of NH COVID-19 deaths occurred without prior COVID-19 hospitalization and older residents were less likely to get hospitalized with COVID-19. No substantial differences were observed by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status for NH COVID-19 deaths.

4.
J Sex Med ; 18(11): 1863-1871, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The psychological and sexual health of different populations are negatively affected during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, little is known about psychological distress and erectile function of male recovered patients with COVID-19 in the long term. AIM: We aimed to evaluate psychological distress and erectile function of male recovered patients with COVID-19 in the mid-to-long terms. METHODS: We recruited 67 eligible male recovered patients with COVID-19 and followed them up twice within approximately 6 months of recovery time. The psychological distress and erectile function were assessed by validated Chinese version of paper questionnaires. OUTCOMES: The primary outcomes were Symptom Checklist 90 questionnaire for psychological distress and International Index of Erectile Function-5 for erectile function. RESULTS: In the first visit, COVID-19 patients with a median recovery time of 80 days mainly presented the following positive symptoms: Obsessive-Compulsive, additional items (ADD), Hostility, Interpersonal Sensitivity, Depression, and Somatization; while the dimension scores in Somatization, Anxiety, ADD, and Phobia were higher than Chinese male norms. Besides, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in the first-visit patients was significantly higher than Chinese controls. In the second visit, the primary psychological symptoms of COVID-19 patients with a median recovery time of 174 days were Obsessive-Compulsive, ADD, Interpersonal Sensitivity, and Hostility, while all dimensions scores of Symptom Checklist 90 were lower than Chinese male norms. Moreover, second-visit patients had no significant difference with Chinese controls in ED prevalence. In addition, it suggested that GSI was the independent risk factor for ED in the regression analysis for the first-visit patients. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The study showed the changes of psychological symptoms and erectile function in COVID-19 recovered patients, and provided reference on whether psychological and sexual supports are needed after a period of recovery. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: To our knowledge, it is the first study to comprehensively evaluate the psychological distress and erectile function of COVID-19 recovered patients in the mid-to-long terms. The main limitations were the low number of analyzed participants, and the psychological distress and erectile function of healthy Chinese men over the same period were not evaluated, and the psychological and sexual related data of participants prior to COVID-19 were not available. Additionally, there was a selection bias in comparing COVID-19 patients with healthy controls. CONCLUSION: With less impact of COVID-19 event, the impaired erectile function and psychological distress improved in COVID-19 recovered patients with a recovery time of nearly half a year. Hu B, Ruan Y, Liu K, et al. A Mid-to-Long Term Comprehensive Evaluation of Psychological Distress and Erectile Function in COVID-19 Recovered Patients. J Sex Med 2021;18:1863-1871.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Erectile Dysfunction , Psychological Distress , Erectile Dysfunction/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Penile Erection , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Cell Biosci ; 11(1): 112, 2021 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277971

ABSTRACT

The altered immune response in aged hosts play a vital role in contributing to their increased morbidity and mortality during respiratory virus infections. The aged hosts display impaired antiviral immune response as well as increased risk for long-term pulmonary sequelae post virus clearance. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms driving these alterations of the immune compartment have not been fully elucidated. During the era of COVID-19 pandemic, a better understanding of such aspects is urgently needed to provide insight that will benefit the geriatric patient care in prevention as well as treatment. Here, we review the current knowledge about the unique immune characteristics of aged hosts during homeostasis and respiratory virus infections.

7.
Brain Behav ; 11(6): e02185, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19 is spreading throughout the whole world as a public health issue. There is a link between the new coronavirus and changes in biochemical indicators, such as coagulation functions. Hypercoagulable state of blood caused by infections may lead to cerebrovascular diseases. More attention should be paid to patients with COVID-19, especially critically ill individuals with history of cerebrovascular disease who may have high risk of stroke. METHODS: 193 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. These patients were categorized into nonsevere (143 patients) and severe (50 patients) groups. This study evaluated laboratory tests, including routine blood tests, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, electrolytes, and coagulation functions. Furthermore, neurological function and stroke risks were evaluated in this study. RESULTS: Compared to the nonsevere group, there were increases in white blood cells, neutrophil count, interleukin-6, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein in the severe group (p < .05). For coagulation functions, parameters like prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, D-dimer, and fibrin degradation products were increased significantly in the severe group (p < .01). Severe patients also demonstrated higher scores on the Framingham stroke risk profile and lower Glasgow scores (p < .05). Furthermore, significant associations were noticed between stroke risk and age, blood cell count, neutrophil count, D-dimmer, and fibrin degradation productions (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Data suggested that coagulation functions were affected in patients with COVID-19. Hypercoagulable state in patients may lead to potential high risk of stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Partial Thromboplastin Time , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology
8.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1200-1218.e9, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213288

ABSTRACT

Tissue macrophages self-renew during homeostasis and produce inflammatory mediators upon microbial infection. We examined the relationship between proliferative and inflammatory properties of tissue macrophages by defining the impact of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, a central regulator of self-renewal, in alveolar macrophages (AMs). Activation of ß-catenin by Wnt ligand inhibited AM proliferation and stemness, but promoted inflammatory activity. In a murine influenza viral pneumonia model, ß-catenin-mediated AM inflammatory activity promoted acute host morbidity; in contrast, AM proliferation enabled repopulation of reparative AMs and tissue recovery following viral clearance. Mechanistically, Wnt treatment promoted ß-catenin-HIF-1α interaction and glycolysis-dependent inflammation while suppressing mitochondrial metabolism and thereby, AM proliferation. Differential HIF-1α activities distinguished proliferative and inflammatory AMs in vivo. This ß-catenin-HIF-1α axis was conserved in human AMs and enhanced HIF-1α expression associated with macrophage inflammation in COVID-19 patients. Thus, inflammatory and reparative activities of lung macrophages are regulated by ß-catenin-HIF-1α signaling, with implications for the treatment of severe respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Self Renewal/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Signal Transduction
9.
J Infect Dis ; 223(6): 945-956, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current study was performed to evaluate risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries during the pandemic's early phase. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study covering Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, we separated out elderly residents in nursing homes (NHs) and those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from the primary study population of individuals age ≥65 years. Outcomes included COVID-19 hospital encounters and COVID-19-associated deaths. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) using logistic regression. RESULTS: We analyzed 25 333 329 elderly non-NH beneficiaries without ESRD, 653 966 elderly NH residents, and 292 302 patients with ESRD. COVID-related death rates (per 10 000) were much higher among elderly NH residents (275.7) and patients with ESRD (60.8) than in the primary study population (5.0). Regression-adjusted clinical predictors of death among the primary population included immunocompromised status (OR, 1.43), frailty index conditions such as cognitive impairment (3.16), and other comorbid conditions, including congestive heart failure (1.30). Demographic-related risk factors included male sex (OR, 1.77), older age (3.09 for 80- vs 65-year-olds), Medicaid dual-eligibility status (2.17), and racial/ethnic minority. Compared with whites, ORs were higher for blacks (2.47), Hispanics (3.11), and Native Americans (5.82). Results for COVID-19 hospital encounters were consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Frailty, comorbid conditions, and race/ethnicity were strong risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization and death among the US elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
10.
Sci Immunol ; 5(53)2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999190

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory viral infections, such as influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections, often cause severe viral pneumonia in aged individuals. Here, we report that influenza viral pneumonia leads to chronic nonresolving lung pathology and exacerbated accumulation of CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) in the respiratory tract of aged hosts. TRM cell accumulation relies on elevated TGF-ß present in aged tissues. Further, we show that TRM cells isolated from aged lungs lack a subpopulation characterized by expression of molecules involved in TCR signaling and effector function. Consequently, TRM cells from aged lungs were insufficient to provide heterologous protective immunity. The depletion of CD8+ TRM cells dampens persistent chronic lung inflammation and ameliorates tissue fibrosis in aged, but not young, animals. Collectively, our data demonstrate that age-associated TRM cell malfunction supports chronic lung inflammatory and fibrotic sequelae after viral pneumonia.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lung/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/virology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2287-2300, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986260

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A meta-analysis was performed. We systematically searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the Web of Science, EMBASE, medRxiv, and bioRxiv database through October 30, 2020. The primary and secondary outcomes were mortality and severe COVID-19, respectively. We included 25 studies with 22,734 COVID-19 patients, and we compared the outcomes between patients who did and did not receive angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs). The use of ACEIs/ARBs was not associated with higher risks of severe disease (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63, 1.15; I2 = 38.55%), mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.61, 1.16; I2 = 3.19%), dialysis (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 0.09, 2.39; I2 = 0.00%), or the length of hospital stay (SMD = 0.05; 95% CI: -0.16, 0.26; I2 = 84.43%) in COVID-19 patients. The effect estimates showed an overall protective effect of ACEIs/ARBs against mortality (OR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.85; I2 = 73.37%), severity/mortality (OR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95; I2 = 22.90%), transfer to the intensive care unit among COVID-19 patients with hypertension (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.53, I2 = 0.00%), hospitalization (OR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.98; I2 = 0.00%), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.95; I2 = 0.00%). The use of RAAS inhibitor was not associated with increased mortality or disease severity in COVID-19 patients. This study supports the current guidelines that discourage the discontinuation of RAAS inhibitors in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/virology , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Front Mol Biosci ; 7: 189, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808761

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plays a pivotal role in the renin-angiotensin system and is closely related to coronavirus disease of 2019. However, the role of ACE2 in cancers remains unclear. We explored the pan-cancer expression patterns and prognostic value of ACE2 across multiple databases, including Oncomine, PrognoScan, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis, and Kaplan-Meier Plotter. Then, we investigated the correlations between ACE2 expression and immune infiltration in cancers. We found that tumor tissues had higher expression levels of ACE2 compared with normal tissue in the kidney and the liver and lower expression levels in the lung. High expression levels of ACE2 were beneficial to survival in ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma, liver hepatocellular carcinoma, kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma, and kidney renal clear cell carcinoma, although this was not the case in lung squamous cell carcinoma. For those with a better prognosis, there were significant positive correlations between ACE2 expression and immune infiltrates, including B cells, CD8 + T cells, CD4 + T cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells. In conclusion, ACE2 could serve as a pan-cancer prognostic biomarker and is correlated with immune infiltrates.

14.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-729

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have reported that 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients with lung cancer have a higher risk of severe events than patients without

15.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e926651, 2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793806

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients lacks evidence and is still controversial. This study was designed to investigate effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients and to assess the safety of ACEIs/ARBs medication. MATERIAL AND METHODS COVID-19 patients with hypertension from 2 hospitals in Wuhan, China, from 17 Feb to 18 Mar 2020 were retrospectively screened and grouped according to in-hospital medication. We performed 1: 1 propensity score matching (PSM) analysis to adjust for confounding factors. RESULTS We included 210 patients and allocated them to ACEIs/ARBs (n=81; 46.91% males) or non-ACEIs/ARBs (n=129; 48.06% males) groups. The median age was 68 [interquartile range (IQR) 61.5-76] and 66 (IQR 59-72.5) years, respectively. General comparison showed mortality in the ACEIs/ARBs group was higher (8.64% vs. 3.88%) but the difference was not significant (P=0.148). ACEIs/ARBs was associated with significantly more cases 7-categorical ordinal scale >2 at discharge, more cases requiring Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, and increased values and ratio of days that blood pressure (BP) was above normal range (P<0.05). PSM analysis showed no significant difference in mortality, cumulative survival rate, or other clinical outcomes such as length of in-hospital/ICU stay, BP fluctuations, or ratio of adverse events between groups after adjustment for confounding parameters on admission. CONCLUSIONS We found no association between ACEIs/ARBs and clinical outcomes or adverse events, thus indicating no evidence for discontinuing use of ACEIs/ARBs in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hypertension/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19 , China , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/biosynthesis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
16.
Complexity ; 2020, 2020.
Article | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-788239

ABSTRACT

Analyzing the process and results of dispelling rumors is a prerequisite for designing an effective anti-rumor strategy. Current research on this subject focuses on the simulation experiments, short of empirical study. By using the False Information Publicity Results of Sina Weibo as the data source of empirical research, this article compares the typical features of rumor and anti-rumor accounts. Furthermore, taking COVID-19 as the target topic, distributions of the reported time, frequency, platform penalty levels, and diffusion parameters of rumors related to COVID-19 are given, and some interesting results are obtained.

17.
Intern. Eye Sci. ; 6(20): 1100-1104, 20200608.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-621776

ABSTRACT

AIM: To obtain the healthcare-seeking intention of eye patients during COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: Questionnaire survey was conducted from 2020-02-10 to 2020-02-20, with the combination form of convenience sampling and "Link-tracking related sampling". We designed the questionnaires, forwarded them to individuals or WeChat group chats, and had the participants fill out the questionnaires on mobile phones, to evaluate their healthcare seeking time and intention, as well as their sense of trust towards online consultation when they had ocular discomforts or trauma. RESULTS: Totally 458 males (51.3%) and 435 females (48.7%) responded and a total of 893 questionnaires were included. Our data shows that 26.5%, 33.3%, and 40.2% of the respondents respectively from low, medium and high risk area chose online consultation during the COVID-19 outbreak, and the hospital visiting rates were 45.1%, 30.3%, 24.6% in corresponding area. We also demonstrated that gender, age, education level, regional economic development, and the region-level risk classifications have impacts on the consultation methods of the population. Compared to females (39.3%), more males (60.7%) intended to accept online medicine, and the participants from highly developed area preferentially chose virtual medical advisory service (68.2%),while the hospital visiting rates of less developed area (65.2%) was much higher than that in developed area (34.8%). Interestingly, geographic risk level had dramatic influence on the participants' sense of trust towards online consultation. CONCLUSION: Virtual online consultations were more favorable among Chinese population during COVID-19 outbreak, and were potential to facilitate clinician-patient communication. However, a balance should be achieved between online consultations and face-to-face communication, to avoid human-to-human coronavirus transmission, and to resolve patients' problems.

18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 128: 110316, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pudilan (PDL), a four-herb prescription with the traditional function of heat-clearing and detoxifying, has been clinically used as an anti-SARS-CoV-2 infectory agent in China. PDL might also have therapeutic potentials for COVID-19 while the underlying mechanisms remain to be clarified. METHODS: We used network pharmacology analysis and selected 68 co-targeted genes/proteins as targets of both PDL and COVID-19. These co-targeted genes/proteins were predicted by SwissDock Server for their high-precision docking simulation, and analyzed by STRING for proteins to protein interaction (PPI), pathway and GO (gene ontology) enrichment. The therapeutic effect for PDL treatment on COVID-19 was validated by the TCMATCOV (TCM Anti COVID-19) platform. RESULTS: PDL might prevent the entrance of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells by blocking the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). It might inhibit the cytokine storm by affecting C-reactive protein (CRP), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin- 6 (IL-6), interleukin- 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGFß1), and other proteins. PDL might moderate the immune system to shorten the course of the disease, delay disease progression, and reduce the mortality rate. CONCLUSION: PDL might have a therapeutic effect on COVID-19 through three aspects, including the moderate immune system, anti-inflammation, and anti-virus entry into cells.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS-CoV-2 , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology
19.
J Infect Dis ; 221(11): 1775-1781, 2020 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were mainly based on information from adult populations. Limited data are available for children with COVID-19, especially for infected infants. METHODS: We report a 55-day-old case with COVID-19 confirmed in China and describe the identification, diagnosis, clinical course, and treatment of the patient, including the disease progression from day 7 to day 11 of illness. RESULTS: This case highlights that children with COVID-19 can also present with multiple organ damage and rapid disease changes. CONCLUSIONS: When managing such infant patients with COVID-19, frequent and careful clinical monitoring is essential.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Heart Injuries/etiology , Liver/injuries , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia/etiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(2): 147-151, 2020 Feb 29.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-250195

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic starting in Wuhan in December, 2019 has spread rapidly throughout the nation. The control measures to contain the epidemic also produced influences on the transport and treatment process of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and adjustments in the management of the patients need to be made at this particular time. AMI is characterized by an acute onset with potentially fatal consequence, a short optimal treatment window, and frequent complications including respiratory infections and respiratory and circulatory failure, for which active on-site treatment is essential. To standardize the management and facilitate the diagnosis and treatment, we formulated the guidelines for the procedures and strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of AMI, which highlight 5 Key Principles, namely Nearby treatment, Safety protection, Priority of thrombolysis, Transport to designated hospitals, and Remote consultation. For AMI patients, different treatment strategies are selected based on the screening results of SARS-CoV-2, the time window of STEMI onset, and the vital signs of the patients. During this special period, the cardiologists, including the interventional physicians, should be fully aware of the indications and contraindications of thrombolysis. In the transport and treatment of AMI patients, the physicians should strictly observe the indications for patient transport with appropriate protective measurements of the medical staff.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Myocardial Infarction , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Remote Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy , Transportation of Patients
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