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2.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009533

ABSTRACT

Background: Access to health care including clinical trials (CT) leading to paradigm-changing cancer treatments are critical for high quality cancer care and equity in society. In this report, we highlight methods in accruing to ETCTN wherein underrepresented rural, low-income, and racial minorities comprise >50% of enrollment. Methods: University of Kansas Cancer Center (KUCC) is one of eight National Cancer Institute (NCI) designated cancer centers awarded CATCH-UP.2020 (CATCH-UP), a congressionally mandated P30 supplement to enhance access for minority/underserved populations to ETCTN precision medicine CT. KUCC catchment area is 23% rural by Rural Urban Continuum Codes (RUCC);almost 90 % of counties are designated primary care HPSA's (Health Professional Shortage Areas). KUCC Early Phase and Masonic Cancer Alliance (rural outreach network) partnered to operationalize CATCH-UP. We engaged disease-focused champion investigators in disease working groups and MCA physicians who selected scientifically sound CT that fit catchment area needs. Patient and Investigator Voices Organizing Together, a patient research advocacy group provided practical feedback. MCA navigator coordinated recruitment. Telehealth was used for rural patients that would have a significant distance to travel just to be screened. Results: CATCH-UP was initiated in September 2020. Twenty-eight CT were activated, many in community sites. Average activation time was 81 days. Delays were mainly from CT amendments. KUCC enrolled the first patient in the CATCH-UP program. In 6 months, we met accrual requirements (24/year, 50% minorities). During first year, we enrolled 47 (>50% minorities), an increase of 680% from our average accrual of 6/year (>50% minorities) in ETCTN through Early Drug Development Opportunity Program (2016-2020). To date, we have enrolled 61, 54% from rural, HPSA, race and other minorities. Although the proportion of minorities did not change but remained high, this funding allowed us to substantially increase the number of patients from a catchment area with high proportion of geographically and socioeconomically underserved minorities given access to early phase CT through ETCTN. Conclusions: Amid COVID-19 pandemic, the NCI CATCH-UP program and methods we used allowed access to novel therapies for rural, medically underserved, and other minority groups.

3.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816883

ABSTRACT

Background The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has assaulted all aspects of daily life. Medical professionals in oncology face additional challenges with balancing prompt cancer diagnosis and urgent treatment against potential COVID-19 exposure risk in these high-risk patients. We designed this prospective freewill study to offer testing for SAR2-CoV-2 viral RNA and/or anti-COVID-19, respectively in asymptomatic medical and research staff who work in direct contact with cancer patients. The overall goal was to evaluate the prevalence of infection in this group of asymptomatic healthcare providers to reduce exposure of cancer patients to asymptomatic staff. Methods Asymptomatic medical and research staff who work in direct contact with cancer patients were asked to voluntarily be tested for either SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA or antibodies or both. Either NP swabs and/or blood samples (EDTA tube) were collected. Tests are performed at Sinochips Kansas LLC, Sinochips Diagnostics (CLIA number:17D2176068, CAP number: 8709463). The PCR test is performed with FDA authorized 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel EUA. The Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (Roche Diagnostics) immunoassay was used to qualitative detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human plasma. Results From 06/18/2020 to 12/18/2020, 861 participated in the study. 1095 tests were completed for SAR2-CoV-2 virus infection, and 918 were completed for antibody. Amount participants, 530 had both virus and antibody tested. 235 were tested more than once for viral infection and 166 were tested more than once for the antibody. Median age of participants was 39 years (IQR 32-51 years). Among these 84.7% were females, 84.4% white, 6.7% African American, 4.8% Asian and 84.7% non-Hispanic. The cumulative incidence of a positive test for the virus was 2.2% (16/712), and for the antibody test was 3.8% (26/679). 5 had both viral and antibody tests positive, with an average time of 4.1 weeks from viral testing positivity to detectable antibody among 3 cases and 2 cases with both viral infection and antibody detected at same time. There were 3 cases virus was detected more than once after turning positive. 2 remained positive at 16 and 22 days after initial test and one turned negative at 36 days as of last follow up. There were 7 cases where the antibody was tested more than once after turning positive and all 7 remained positive as of last follow up (range 7-103 days). Conclusion Prospective voluntary testing in asymptomatic medical and research staff who work in direct contact with cancer patients was feasible and resulted in identification of asymptomatic carriers who then placed in quarantine, thereby limiting exposure to cancer patients. Medical and research staff who work with cancer patients are general very cautious and the frequency of infections were significantly lower than general society. In addition, it seems that 1) virus and antibody may co-exist in the same person after exposure, and 2) the antibody may last for a relatively long time.

4.
Ann Oncol ; 33(3): 340-346, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is an important preventive health measure to protect against symptomatic and severe COVID-19. Impaired immunity secondary to an underlying malignancy or recent receipt of antineoplastic systemic therapies can result in less robust antibody titers following vaccination and possible risk of breakthrough infection. As clinical trials evaluating COVID-19 vaccines largely excluded patients with a history of cancer and those on active immunosuppression (including chemotherapy), limited evidence is available to inform the clinical efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination across the spectrum of patients with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe the clinical features of patients with cancer who developed symptomatic COVID-19 following vaccination and compare weighted outcomes with those of contemporary unvaccinated patients, after adjustment for confounders, using data from the multi-institutional COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19). RESULTS: Patients with cancer who develop COVID-19 following vaccination have substantial comorbidities and can present with severe and even lethal infection. Patients harboring hematologic malignancies are over-represented among vaccinated patients with cancer who develop symptomatic COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination against COVID-19 remains an essential strategy in protecting vulnerable populations, including patients with cancer. Patients with cancer who develop breakthrough infection despite full vaccination, however, remain at risk of severe outcomes. A multilayered public health mitigation approach that includes vaccination of close contacts, boosters, social distancing, and mask-wearing should be continued for the foreseeable future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 39(15):3, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1538147
7.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 39(15 SUPPL), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1339379

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity is a bona fide risk factor for ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality in patients (pts) with COVID-19 in the general population. However, whether obesity is a risk factor in cancer pts remains unknown. Herein, we have conducted a systematic review/meta-analysis of obesity and all-cause mortality in cancer pts with COVID-19. Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines,a systematic search of PubMed and Embase as well as major conference proceedings (ASCO/ESMO/AACR) was conducted for publications from inception to 14 January 2020. Observational studies that reported all-cause mortality in cancer pts with lab confirmation or clinical diagnosis of COVID19 and BMI (obese (>30 kg/m2 ) vs. non-obese) were included in the analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated with the fixed-effects model based on low heterogeneity. Small sample publication bias was evaluated using the Begg's Funnel Plot and Egger's test. Results: After reviewing 3387 studies,3 retrospective cohort studies of 419 obese and 1694 non-obese cancer pts (N=2117) with COVID-19 in both inpatient/outpatient settings that reported outcomes based on obesity were found. The 3 studies were conducted multi-nationally in North America, in France, and in the Netherlands respectively. The median ages of the cohorts ranged 66-68. All studies included various cancers of various stages and were of high quality per Newcastle Ottawa scale (scores 7-9). Fixed effects metaanalysis showed no association between obesity and all-cause mortality (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.74- 1.23) in cancer pts with COVID-19. Heterogeneity was low (I2= 33%). No significant funnel plot asymmetry was detected per Egger's test (P=0.2273). The reported OR of each study is outlined in the table. Conclusions: In contrast to the general population, our analysis reveals that obesity is not associated with increased all-cause mortality in cancer pts with COVID-19. Limitations of this study include a limited number of included studies, reliance on retrospective studies, non-use of ethnicityspecific WHO BMI criteria, and limited granularity of the study-reported BMI. Future prospective studies are warranted to assess the complex interplay among anthropomorphic measures, cachexia/sarcopenia, comorbidities associated with the metabolic syndrome, and COVID-19 outcomes in the cancer pt population. (Table Presented).

8.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 39(15 SUPPL), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1339350

ABSTRACT

Background: Racial/ethnic minorities have disproportionately increased risk of contracting COVID-19 and experiencing severe illness;they also have worse breast cancer (BC) outcomes. COVID-19 outcomes among racial/ethnic minorities with BC are currently unknown. We sought to compare clinicopathologic characteristics and COVID-19 outcomes stratified by race/ethnicity. Methods: The COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium registry (NCT04354701) was used to identify patients with invasive BC and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 diagnosed in the U.S. between 2020-03-06 and 2021-02-04. The primary analysis was restricted to women who selfidentified as non-Hispanic White (NHW), nonHispanic Black (NHB), or Hispanic (H). Demographic, cancer characteristics, and COVID-19 outcomes were evaluated. COVID-19 outcomes included: hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, death within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis and death from any cause during follow-up. Descriptive statistics were used to compare clinicopathologic characteristics and Fisher exact tests were used to compare COVID19 outcomes across the 3 racial/ethnic groups. Results: A total of 1133 patients were identified of which 1111 (98%) were women;of which 575 (52%) NHW, 243 (22%) NHB, 183 (16%) H, and 110 (10%) other/unknown. Baseline characteristics differed among racial/ethnic groups. H were younger (median age: NHW 63y;NHB 62y;H 54y) and more likely to be never smokers (NHW 62%;NHB 62%;H 78%). NHB had higher rates of obesity (NHW 40%;NHB 54%;H 46%), diabetes (NHW 16 %;NHB 32%;H 20%) and combined moderate and severe baseline COVID-19 at presentation (NHW 28%;NHB 42%;H 28%). Cancer characteristics are as shown (Table). Significant differences were observed in outcomes across racial/ethnic groups including higher rates of hospital admission (NHW 34%;NHB 49%;H 34%;P <0.001), mechanical ventilation (NHW 3%;NHB 9%;H 5%;P=0.002), 30-day mortality (NHW 6%;NHB 9%;H 4%;P=0.043) and total mortality (NHW 8%;NHB 12%;H 5%;P=0.05) among NHB compared to NHW and H. Conclusions: This is the largest study to show significant differences in COVID-19 outcomes by racial/ethnic groups of women with BC. The adverse outcomes in NHB could be due to higher moderate to severe COVID-19 at presentation and preexisting comorbidities. H did not have worse outcomes despite having more active disease and recent anti-cancer therapy, including with cytotoxic chemotherapy - potentially due to younger age and nonsmoking status. (Table Presented).

9.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 39(15 SUPPL), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1339224

ABSTRACT

Background: In-hospital mortality among patients with cancer (pts) and COVID-19 infection is high. The frequency of, and factors associated with, donot- resuscitate (DNR) or do-not-intubate (DNI) orders at hospital admission (HA), and their correlation with care, has not been well studied. In November 2020, we began collecting this information for pts who were hospitalized at initial presentation in the CCC19 registry (NCT04354701). Methods: We investigated: 1. the frequency of, and factors associated with, DNR/DNI orders at HA;2. change in code status during HA;and 3. the correlation between DNR/DNI orders and palliative care consultation (PC), mortality or length of stay (LOS). We included hospitalized, adult pts with cancer and COVID-19 from 57 participating sites. Reported characteristics include age, ECOG performance status (PS), and cancer status. Comparative statistics include 2-sided Wilcoxon rank sum and Fisher's exact tests. Results: 744 pts had known baseline and/or changed code status (CS);most (79%) maintained their baseline CS (Table). Those with DNR±DNI orders at HA were older (median age 79 vs 69 yrs, p<0.001) and more likely to have: ECOG PS 2+ vs 0-1 (45% vs 22%, OR 3.95, p<0.001), metastatic disease (45% vs 35%, OR 1.72, p=0.005) and progressing cancer (32% vs 16%, OR 2.69, p<0.001), but equally likely to have received systemic anticancer therapy in the prior 3 months (38% vs 45%, p=0.15). N=192 pts with a change in CS from full to DNR±DNI were younger (median age 73), had better PS (37% ECOG PS 2+), and were less likely to have progressing cancer (23%) than those with DNR±DNI orders at baseline. However, their LOS was significantly longer, median 9 vs 6 days, p<0.001. Compared to those with DNR±DNI orders at HA, pts whose CS changed to DNR±DNI were more likely to die, OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.76-4.97, p<0.001. PC was obtained in 106 (14%) pts and associated with transition to DNR±DNI in 47 (44%), affirmation of admission CS in 58 (55%), and reversal in 1 (1%). Median LOS for pts receiving PC was 11 vs 6 days, p<0.001. Conclusions: In our sample, the majority of patients with cancer and COVID-19 were full code at hospital admission. DNR±DNI status, whether at baseline or assigned during the hospital course, was associated with worse prognosis. Longer length of stay for patients changing code status and/or receiving palliative care consultation was observed likely suggesting earlier palliative care consultation is an important, but likely underutilized component in the care of patients with cancer and COVID-19. (Table Presented).

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