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1.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(6): 959-965, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924346

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: India witnessed the catastrophic second wave of COVID-19 during the summer months of 2021. Many patients with non-resolution of symptoms admitted to dedicated COVID-19 treatment centers required prolonged inpatient care which led to the unavailability of beds for other COVID-19 patients. The objective of this study was to determine the duration of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in moderate and severe COVID-19 patients requiring long-term pulmonary care as well as to find out the association between different variables with the persistence of the virus. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective chart review of clinical and laboratory data of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 between 1st April 2021 and 15th July 2021 admitted for more than 28 days and requiring long-term pulmonary care was carried out at National Cancer Institute, AIIMS, India. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-based tests. Data from all consecutively included patients satisfying the selection criteria were presented temporally and analyzed by Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: All 51 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA at the 5th week of initial laboratory confirmation of COVID-19. The majority of the patients (38; 74.5%) remained positive for viral RNA till the 6th week and the median duration of viral positivity was 45 days. The clinical presentation of SARI at admission was significantly higher among patients with viral persistence till the 6th week (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The median duration of the viral positivity was 45 days and SARI at admission was significantly associated with viral persistence till the 6th week.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Lung India ; 39(1): 16-26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The "second wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic hit India from early April 2021 to June 2021. We describe the clinical features, treatment trends, and baseline laboratory parameters of a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and their association with the outcome. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify clinical and biochemical predictors of developing hypoxia, deterioration during the hospital stay, and death. RESULTS: A total of 2080 patients were included. The case fatality rate was 19.5%. Among the survivors, the median duration of hospital stay was 8 (5-11) days. Out of 853 (42.3%%) of patients who had COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome at presentation, 340 (39.9%) died. Patients aged >45 years had higher odds of death as compared to the 18-44 years age group. Vaccination reduced the odds of death by 40% (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval [CI]]: 0.6 [0.4-0.9], P = 0.032). Patients with hyper inflammation at baseline as suggested by leukocytosis (OR [95% CI]: 2.1 [1.5-3.1], P < 0.001), raised d-dimer >500 mg/dL (OR [95% CI]: 3.2 [2.2-4.7], P < 0.001), and raised C-reactive peptide >0.5 mg/L (OR [95% CI]: 3.7 [2.2-13], P = 0.037) had higher odds of death. Patients who were admitted in the 2nd week had lower odds and those admitted in the 3rd week had higher odds of death. CONCLUSION: This study shows that vaccination status and early admission during the inflammatory phase can change the course of illness of these patients. Improving vaccination rates and early admission of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 can improve the outcomes.

4.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(1 & 2): 207-213, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110548

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are considered to be at a high risk of contracting COVID-19 infection. Besides, control of nosocomial infections transmitted from HCWs to the patients is also a cause of concern. This study was undertaken to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus among the hospital staff of a tertiary care health facility in north India. Methods: The HCWs were tested for SARS-CoV-2 serology (IgG+IgM) using chemiluminescence immunoassay between June 22 and July 24, 2020. Venous blood (2 ml) was collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies. Results: Of the 3739 HCWs tested, 487 (13%) were positive for total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The highest seroprevalence was observed in administrative staff (19.6%) and least in physicians (5.4%). The staff who used public (20%) and hospital transportation (16.9%) showed higher seroprevalence compared to staff using personal transportation (12.4%). No difference was observed between HCWs posted in COVID versus non-COVID areas. All seropositive symptomatic HCWs in our study (53.6%) had mild symptoms, and the remaining 46.4 per cent were asymptomatic. The antibody positivity rate progressively increased from 7.0 per cent in the first week to 18.6 per cent in the fourth week during the study. Interpretation & conclusions: The presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in a significant number of asymptomatic HCWs, association with the use of public transport, relatively lower seroprevalence compared with the non-HCWs and rising trend during the period of the study highlight the need for serosurveillance, creating awareness for infection control practices including social distancing and study of infection dynamics in the community for effective control of an infectious pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Infection Control , COVID-19/blood , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Healthcare
5.
BMJ Open Qual ; 9(3)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797155

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Effective implementation of standard precautions specific to COVID-19 is a challenge for hospitals within the existing constraints of time and resources. AIM: To rapidly design and operationalise personal protective equipment (PPE) donning and doffing areas required for a COVID-19 care facility. METHODS: Literature review was done to identify all issues pertaining to donning and doffing in terms of Donabedian's structure, process and outcome. Training on donning and doffing was given to hospital staff. Donning and doffing mock drills were held. 5S was used as a tool to set up donning and doffing areas. Instances of donning and doffing were observed for protocol deviations and errors. Plan-do-study-act cycles were conducted every alternate day for 4 weeks. The initiative was reported using Standards for QUality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE) guidelines. RESULTS: Best practices in donning and doffing were described. Our study recommends a minimum area of 16 m2 each for donning and doffing rooms. Verbally assisted doffing was found most useful than visual prompts. DISCUSSION: Challenges included sustaining the structure and process of donning and doffing, varied supplies of PPE which altered sequencing of donning and/or doffing, and training non-healthcare workers such as plumbers, electricians and drivers who were required during emergencies in the facility. CONCLUSION: Our study used evidence-based literature and quality improvement (QI) tools to design and operationalise donning and doffing areas with focus on people, task and environment. Our QI will enable healthcare facilities to rapidly prototype donning and doffing areas in a systematic way.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Occupational Health/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Health Personnel/standards , Health Plan Implementation , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Protective Clothing/standards , Quality Improvement , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Indian J Med Res ; 152(1 & 2): 61-69, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-708771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China and rapidly spread globally including India. The characteristic clinical observations and outcomes of this disease (COVID-19) have been reported from different countries. The present study was aimed to describe the clinico-demographic characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of a group of COVID-19 patients in north India. METHODS: This was a prospective, single-centre collection of data regarding epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters, management and outcome of COVID-19 patients admitted in a tertiary care facility in north India. Patient outcomes were recorded as death, discharge and still admitted. RESULTS: Data of 144 patients with COVID-19 were recorded and analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 40.1±13.1 yr, with 93.1 per cent males, and included 10 (6.9%) foreign nationals. Domestic travel to or from affected States (77.1%) and close contact with COVID-19 patients in congregations (82.6%) constituted the most commonly documented exposure. Nine (6.3%) patients were smokers, with a median smoking index of 200. Comorbidities were present in 23 (15.9%) patients, of which diabetes mellitus (n=16; 11.1%) was the most common. A significant proportion of patients had no symptoms (n=64; 44.4%); among the symptomatic, cough (34.7%) was the most common symptom followed by fever (17.4%) and nasal symptoms (2.15%). Majority of the patients were managed with supportive treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin given on a case-to-case basis. Only five (3.5%) patients required oxygen supplementation, four (2.8%) patients had severe disease requiring intensive care, one required mechanical ventilation and mortality occurred in two (1.4%) patients. The time to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negativity was 16-18 days. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: In this single-centre study of 144 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in north India, the characteristic findings included younger age, high proportion of asymptomatic patients, long time to PCR negativity and low need for intensive care unit care.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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