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1.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol ; 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause severe respiratory failure leading to prolonged mechanical ventilation. Data are just emerging about the practice and outcomes of tracheostomy in these patients. We reviewed our experience with tracheostomies for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the demographics, comorbidities, timing of mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, and intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay in SARS-CoV-2 patients who received tracheostomies performed by the interventional pulmonary team. A tertiary care, teaching hospital in Chicago, Illinois. From March 2020 to April 2021, our center had 473 patients intubated for SARS-CoV-2, and 72 (15%) had percutaneous bedside tracheostomy performed by the interventional pulmonary team. RESULTS: Median time from intubation to tracheostomy was 20 (interquartile range: 16 to 25) days. Demographics and comorbidities were similar between early and late tracheostomy, but early tracheostomy was associated with shorter intensive care unit lengths of stay and a shorter total duration of ventilation. To date, 39 (54%) patients have been decannulated, 17 (24%) before hospital discharge; median time to decannulation was 22 (IQR: 18 to 36) days. Patients that were decannulated were younger (56 vs. 69 y). The rate of decannulation for survivors was 82%. No providers developed symptoms or tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: Tracheostomy enhances care for patients with prolonged respiratory failure from SARS-CoV-2 since early tracheostomy is associated with shorter duration of critical care, and decannulation rates are high for survivors. It furthermore appears safe for both patients and operators.

3.
Nature ; 602(7896): 321-327, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585831

ABSTRACT

It is not fully understood why COVID-19 is typically milder in children1-3. Here, to examine the differences between children and adults in their response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we analysed paediatric and adult patients with COVID-19 as well as healthy control individuals (total n = 93) using single-cell multi-omic profiling of matched nasal, tracheal, bronchial and blood samples. In the airways of healthy paediatric individuals, we observed cells that were already in an interferon-activated state, which after SARS-CoV-2 infection was further induced especially in airway immune cells. We postulate that higher paediatric innate interferon responses restrict viral replication and disease progression. The systemic response in children was characterized by increases in naive lymphocytes and a depletion of natural killer cells, whereas, in adults, cytotoxic T cells and interferon-stimulated subpopulations were significantly increased. We provide evidence that dendritic cells initiate interferon signalling in early infection, and identify epithelial cell states associated with COVID-19 and age. Our matching nasal and blood data show a strong interferon response in the airways with the induction of systemic interferon-stimulated populations, which were substantially reduced in paediatric patients. Together, we provide several mechanisms that explain the milder clinical syndrome observed in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Adult , Bronchi/immunology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Chicago , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , London , Male , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Single-Cell Analysis , Trachea/virology , Young Adult
4.
Artif Organs ; 46(4): 688-696, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) support is increasingly used in the management of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the clinical decision-making to initiate V-V ECMO for severe COVID-19 still remains unclear. In order to determine the optimal timing and patient selection, we investigated the outcomes of both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients undergoing V-V ECMO support. METHODS: Overall, 138 patients were included in this study. Patients were stratified into two cohorts: those with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS. RESULTS: The survival in patients with COVID-19 was statistically similar to non-COVID-19 patients (p = .16). However, the COVID-19 group demonstrated higher rates of bleeding (p = .03) and thrombotic complications (p < .001). The duration of V-V ECMO support was longer in COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients (29.0 ± 27.5 vs 15.9 ± 19.6 days, p < .01). Most notably, in contrast to the non-COVID-19 group, we found that COVID-19 patients who had been on a ventilator for longer than 7 days prior to ECMO had 100% mortality without a lung transplant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that COVID-19-associated ARDS was not associated with a higher post-ECMO mortality than non-COVID-19-associated ARDS patients, despite longer duration of extracorporeal support. Early initiation of V-V ECMO is important for improved ECMO outcomes in COVID-19 ARDS patients. Since late initiation of ECMO was associated with extremely high mortality related to lack of pulmonary recovery, it should be used judiciously or as a bridge to lung transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
5.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(8): 921-932, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476910

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Current guidelines recommend patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia receive empirical antibiotics for suspected bacterial superinfection on the basis of weak evidence. Rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in clinical trials of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia are unexpectedly low. Objectives: We conducted an observational single-center study to determine the prevalence and etiology of bacterial superinfection at the time of initial intubation and the incidence and etiology of subsequent bacterial VAP in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Methods: Bronchoscopic BAL fluid samples from all patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation were analyzed using quantitative cultures and a multiplex PCR panel. Actual antibiotic use was compared with guideline-recommended therapy. Measurements and Main Results: We analyzed 386 BAL samples from 179 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. Bacterial superinfection within 48 hours of intubation was detected in 21% of patients. Seventy-two patients (44.4%) developed at least one VAP episode (VAP incidence rate = 45.2/1,000 ventilator days); 15 (20.8%) initial VAPs were caused by difficult-to-treat pathogens. The clinical criteria did not distinguish between patients with or without bacterial superinfection. BAL-based management was associated with significantly reduced antibiotic use compared with guideline recommendations. Conclusions: In patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation, bacterial superinfection at the time of intubation occurs in <25% of patients. Guideline-based empirical antibiotic management at the time of intubation results in antibiotic overuse. Bacterial VAP developed in 44% of patients and could not be accurately identified in the absence of microbiologic analysis of BAL fluid.

7.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(8): 921-932, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365264

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Current guidelines recommend patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia receive empirical antibiotics for suspected bacterial superinfection on the basis of weak evidence. Rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in clinical trials of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia are unexpectedly low. Objectives: We conducted an observational single-center study to determine the prevalence and etiology of bacterial superinfection at the time of initial intubation and the incidence and etiology of subsequent bacterial VAP in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Methods: Bronchoscopic BAL fluid samples from all patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation were analyzed using quantitative cultures and a multiplex PCR panel. Actual antibiotic use was compared with guideline-recommended therapy. Measurements and Main Results: We analyzed 386 BAL samples from 179 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. Bacterial superinfection within 48 hours of intubation was detected in 21% of patients. Seventy-two patients (44.4%) developed at least one VAP episode (VAP incidence rate = 45.2/1,000 ventilator days); 15 (20.8%) initial VAPs were caused by difficult-to-treat pathogens. The clinical criteria did not distinguish between patients with or without bacterial superinfection. BAL-based management was associated with significantly reduced antibiotic use compared with guideline recommendations. Conclusions: In patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation, bacterial superinfection at the time of intubation occurs in <25% of patients. Guideline-based empirical antibiotic management at the time of intubation results in antibiotic overuse. Bacterial VAP developed in 44% of patients and could not be accurately identified in the absence of microbiologic analysis of BAL fluid.

8.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311200

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is among the most important public health crises of our generation. Despite the promise of prevention offered by effective vaccines, patients with severe COVID-19 will continue to populate hospitals and intensive care units for the foreseeable future. The most common clinical presentation of severe COVID-19 is hypoxemia and respiratory failure, typical of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Whether the clinical features and pathobiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia differ from those of pneumonia secondary to other pathogens is unclear. This uncertainty has created variability in the application of historically proven therapies for ARDS to patients with COVID-19. We review the available literature and find many similarities between patients with ARDS from pneumonia attributable to SARS-CoV-2 versus other respiratory pathogens. A notable exception is the long duration of illness among patients with COVID-19, which could result from its unique pathobiology. Available data support the use of care pathways and therapies proven effective for patients with ARDS, while pointing to unique features that might be therapeutically targeted for patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Autopsy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(9): 1070-1087, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223640

ABSTRACT

Background: This document provides evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on the diagnostic utility of nucleic acid-based testing of respiratory samples for viral pathogens other than influenza in adults with suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).Methods: A multidisciplinary panel developed a Population-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome question, conducted a pragmatic systematic review, and applied Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for clinical recommendations.Results: The panel evaluated the literature to develop recommendations regarding whether routine diagnostics should include nucleic acid-based testing of respiratory samples for viral pathogens other than influenza in suspected CAP. The evidence addressing this topic was generally adjudicated to be of very low quality because of risk of bias and imprecision. Furthermore, there was little direct evidence supporting a role for routine nucleic acid-based testing of respiratory samples in improving critical outcomes such as overall survival or antibiotic use patterns. However, on the basis of direct and indirect evidence, recommendations were made for both outpatient and hospitalized patients with suspected CAP. Testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was not addressed in the literature at the time of the evidence review.Conclusions: The panel formulated and provided their rationale for recommendations on nucleic acid-based diagnostics for viral pathogens other than influenza for patients with suspected CAP.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Pneumonia/virology , Societies, Medical , Viruses/genetics , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis
11.
Nature ; 590(7847): 635-641, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019856

ABSTRACT

Some patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) develop severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome1 (ARDS). Distinct clinical features in these patients have led to speculation that the immune response to virus in the SARS-CoV-2-infected alveolus differs from that in other types of pneumonia2. Here we investigate SARS-CoV-2 pathobiology by characterizing the immune response in the alveoli of patients infected with the virus. We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from 88 patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced respiratory failure and 211 patients with known or suspected pneumonia from other pathogens, and analysed them using flow cytometry and bulk transcriptomic profiling. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on 10 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples collected from patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) within 48 h of intubation. In the majority of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the alveolar space was persistently enriched in T cells and monocytes. Bulk and single-cell transcriptomic profiling suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infects alveolar macrophages, which in turn respond by producing T cell chemoattractants. These T cells produce interferon-γ to induce inflammatory cytokine release from alveolar macrophages and further promote T cell activation. Collectively, our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 causes a slowly unfolding, spatially limited alveolitis in which alveolar macrophages containing SARS-CoV-2 and T cells form a positive feedback loop that drives persistent alveolar inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Cohort Studies , Humans , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Time Factors
13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(11): 1324-1325, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436648
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