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2.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073362

ABSTRACT

Background With the development of society, nurses have an increasingly more important role in the medical team. At the same time, due to various reasons, the number of active nurses is continuously decreasing, and the shortage of nursing personnel is becoming ever more serious. The COVID-19 pandemic made these clinical problems more serious. As the department with the greatest work pressure and the most intense pace, acute and critical care nurses are already facing serious problems related to job burnout and dismission. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, these problems should be solved urgently. Furthermore, with the rise of positive psychology, many scholars are turning their research direction to the positive professional experience of nurses so as to get inspiration to encourage nurses to face work with an optimistic attitude and guide nursing managers to better retain nursing talents. Objective The purpose of this paper is to summarize and evaluate the positive emotional experience and professional benefit of acute and critical care specialist nurses in the process of work. So as to better interpret their occupational benefit perception and guide nursing managers in adopting positive measures and promoting the development of high-quality nursing. Methods Cinahl plus, Embase, Medline and other twelve databases were searched for relevant literature. Meta-aggregation was used to synthesize the findings of the included studies. Results From a total of 12 articles included in this study, 55 main results were presented, 8 new categories were integrated, and three themes were formed: professional identity, social support, and personal growth. The professional identity included: being proud of professional ability and increasing professional value;social support included: friends and family support, organizational, environmental support, peer support, and support of patients and their families;personal growth included realizing self-worth and promoting self-development. Conclusion Hospital managers should pay attention to the positive emotional experience of nurses in work and based on this, provide practical and beneficial protection for nurses from the aspects of salary, learning opportunities, working environment, social support and internal personality, stimulate work enthusiasm, guide nurses to correctly face negative emotions and occupational pressure, and improve the sense of professional benefit.

3.
Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity ; 4(1):1-4, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1578204

ABSTRACT

Biological threats, whether naturally occurring or accidentally or deliberately released, have the potential to endanger lives and disrupt economies worldwide. Thus, high-containment protective measures should be implemented when handling bio-agents that can cause serious, highly contagious diseases, otherwise devastating pandemics can occur. In the fields of scientific investigation, healthcare, and product development, high-containment facilities play a critical role in preventing, detecting, and responding promptly and effectively to threats to global health security. In this paper, we present a summary of the main types of high-containment facilities, as well as their applications, challenges, and suggestions for the future.

4.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970449

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines (CoronaVac and BBIBP-CorV) in China using existing international clinical trials and real-world evidence. Methods Through a search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CNKI, studies investigating the effectiveness of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines were identified, and a meta-analysis was undertaken to synthesize the vaccine efficacy and effectiveness data. Moreover, a decision-analytic model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of inactivated vaccines for combating the COVID-19 pandemic in the Chinese context from a societal perspective. Results of the meta-analysis, along with cost data from official websites and works of literature were used to populate the model. Sensitivity analysis was performed to test the robustness of the model results. Results A total of 24 studies were included in the meta-analysis. In comparison to no immunization, the effectiveness of inactivated vaccine against COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, ICU admission and death were 65.18% (95% CI 62.62, 67.75), 79.10% (95% CI 71.69, 86.51), 90.46% (95% CI 89.42, 91.50), and 86.69% (95% CI 85.68, 87.70);and the efficacy against COVID-19 infection and hospitalization were 70.56% (95% CI 57.87, 83.24) and 100% (95% CI 61.72, 100). Inactivated vaccine vaccination prevented more infections, hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and deaths with lower total costs, thus was cost-saving from a societal perspective in China. Base-case analysis results were robust in the one-way sensitivity analysis, and the percentage of ICU admission or death and direct medical cost ranked the top influential factors in our models. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, vaccination had a 100% probability of being cost-effective. Conclusion Inactivated vaccine is effective in preventing COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, ICU admission and avoiding COVID-19 related death, and COVID-19 vaccination program is cost-saving from societal perspective in China.

5.
PLoS Genet ; 18(4): e1010137, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789166

ABSTRACT

Viral infections can alter host transcriptomes by manipulating host splicing machinery. Despite intensive transcriptomic studies on SARS-CoV-2, a systematic analysis of alternative splicing (AS) in severe COVID-19 patients remains largely elusive. Here we integrated proteomic and transcriptomic sequencing data to study AS changes in COVID-19 patients. We discovered that RNA splicing is among the major down-regulated proteomic signatures in COVID-19 patients. The transcriptome analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces widespread dysregulation of transcript usage and expression, affecting blood coagulation, neutrophil activation, and cytokine production. Notably, CD74 and LRRFIP1 had increased skipping of an exon in COVID-19 patients that disrupts a functional domain, which correlated with reduced antiviral immunity. Furthermore, the dysregulation of transcripts was strongly correlated with clinical severity of COVID-19, and splice-variants may contribute to unexpected therapeutic activity. In summary, our data highlight that a better understanding of the AS landscape may aid in COVID-19 diagnosis and therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Alternative Splicing/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transcriptome
7.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 99, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483126

ABSTRACT

Large-scale COVID-19 vaccinations are currently underway in many countries in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we report, besides generation of neutralizing antibodies, consistent alterations in hemoglobin A1c, serum sodium and potassium levels, coagulation profiles, and renal functions in healthy volunteers after vaccination with an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Similar changes had also been reported in COVID-19 patients, suggesting that vaccination mimicked an infection. Single-cell mRNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before and 28 days after the first inoculation also revealed consistent alterations in gene expression of many different immune cell types. Reduction of CD8+ T cells and increase in classic monocyte contents were exemplary. Moreover, scRNA-seq revealed increased NF-κB signaling and reduced type I interferon responses, which were confirmed by biological assays and also had been reported to occur after SARS-CoV-2 infection with aggravating symptoms. Altogether, our study recommends additional caution when vaccinating people with pre-existing clinical conditions, including diabetes, electrolyte imbalances, renal dysfunction, and coagulation disorders.

8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 715519, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477836

ABSTRACT

Background: Secondary infections pose tremendous challenges in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment and are associated with higher mortality rates. Clinicians face of the challenge of diagnosing viral infections because of low sensitivity of available laboratory tests. Case Presentation: A 66-year-old woman initially manifested fever and shortness of breath. She was diagnosed as critically ill with COVID-19 using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) and treated with antiviral therapy, ventilator and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). However, after the condition was relatively stabled for a few days, the patient deteriorated with fever, frequent cough, increased airway secretions, and increased exudative lesions in the lower right lung on chest X-rays, showing the possibility of a newly acquired infection, though sputum bacterial and fungal cultures and smears showed negative results. Using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), we identified a reactivation of latent human herpes virus type 1 (HHV-1) in the respiratory tract, blood and gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a worsened clinical course in a critically ill COVID-19 patient on ECMO. Anti-HHV-1 therapy guided by these sequencing results effectively decreased HHV-1 levels, and improved the patient's clinical condition. After 49 days on ECMO and 67 days on the ventilator, the 66-year-old patient recovered and was discharged. Conclusions: This case report demonstrates the potential value of mNGS for evidence-based treatment, and suggests that potential reactivation of latent viruses should be considered in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 112: 115-120, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230607

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has emerged as an effective environmental surveillance tool in monitoring fecal-oral pathogen infections within a community. Congruently, SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent of COVID-19, has been demonstrated to infect the gastrointestinal tissues, and be shed in feces. In the present study, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was concentrated from wastewater, sludge, surface water, ground water, sediment, and soil samples of municipal and hospital wastewater systems and related environments in Wuhan during the COVID-19 middle and low risk periods, and the viral RNA copies quantified using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). From the findings of this study, during the middle risk period, one influent sample and three secondary effluents collected from waste water treatment plant 2, as well as two samples from Jinyintan Hospital wastewater system influent were SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive. One sludge sample collected from Guanggu Branch of Tongji Hospital, which was obtained during the low risk period, was also positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. These study findings demonstrate the significance of WBE in continuous surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 at the community level, even when the COVID-19 prevalence is low. Overall, this study can be used as an important reference for contingency management of wastewater treatment plants and COVID-19 prevention and control departments of Wuhan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Waste Water , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Aerobiologia (Bologna) ; 37(3): 575-583, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220488

ABSTRACT

To clarify the characteristics and distribution of hospital environmental microbiome associated with confirmed COVID-19 patients. Environmental samples with varying degrees of contamination which were associated with confirmed COVID-19 patients were collected, including 13 aerosol samples collected near eight patients in different wards, five swabs from one patient's skin and his personal belongings, and two swabs from the surface of positive pressure respiratory protective hood and the face shield from a physician who had close contact with one patient. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) was used to analyze the composition of the microbiome. One of the aerosol samples (near patient 4) was detected positive for COVID-19, and others were all negative. The environmental samples collected in different wards possessed protean compositions and community structures, the dominant genera including Pseudomonas, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, and Cutibacterium. Top 10 of genera accounted for more than 76.72%. Genera abundance and proportion of human microbes and pathogens radiated outward from the patient, while the percentage of environmental microbes increased. The abundance of the pathogenic microorganism of medical supplies is significantly higher than other surface samples. The microbial compositions of the aerosol collected samples nearby the patients were mostly similar to those from the surfaces of the patient's skin and personal belongings, but the abundance varied greatly. The positive rate of COVID-19 RNA detected from aerosol around patients in general wards was quite low. The ward environment was predominantly inhabited by species closely related to admitted patients. The spread of hospital microorganisms via aerosol was influenced by the patients' activity. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10453-021-09708-5.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(45): 28336-28343, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-882991

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, has resulted thus far in greater than 933,000 deaths worldwide; yet disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Clinical and immunological features of patients with COVID-19 have highlighted a potential role for changes in immune activity in regulating disease severity. However, little is known about the responses in human lung tissue, the primary site of infection. Here we show that pathways related to neutrophil activation and pulmonary fibrosis are among the major up-regulated transcriptional signatures in lung tissue obtained from patients who died of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Strikingly, the viral burden was low in all samples, which suggests that the patient deaths may be related to the host response rather than an active fulminant infection. Examination of the colonic transcriptome of these patients suggested that SARS-CoV-2 impacted host responses even at a site with no obvious pathogenesis. Further proteomics analysis validated our transcriptome findings and identified several key proteins, such as the SARS-CoV-2 entry-associated protease cathepsins B and L and the inflammatory response modulator S100A8/A9, that are highly expressed in fatal cases, revealing potential drug targets for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , Transcriptome , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Colon/metabolism , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophil Activation , Proteome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load
13.
Quant Biol ; 8(3): 238-244, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-754125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various models have been applied to predict the trend of the epidemic since the outbreak of COVID-19. METHODS: In this study, we designed a dynamic graph model, not for precisely predicting the number of infected cases, but for a glance of the dynamics under a public epidemic emergency situation and of different contributing factors. RESULTS: We demonstrated the impact of asymptomatic transmission in this outbreak and showed the effectiveness of city lockdown to halt virus spread within a city. We further illustrated that sudden emergence of a large number of cases could overwhelm the city medical system, and external medical aids are critical to not only containing the further spread of the virus but also reducing fatality. CONCLUSION: Our model simulation showed that highly populated modern cities are particularly vulnerable and lessons learned in China could facilitate other countries to plan the proactive and decisive actions. We shall pay close attention to the asymptomatic transmission being suggested by rapidly accumulating evidence as dramatic changes in quarantine protocol are required to contain SARS-CoV-2 from spreading globally. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS: The supplementary materials can be found online with this article at 10.1007/s40484-020-0215-4.

14.
researchsquare; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-40110.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: The clinical characteristics and risk factors of clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in elderly and non-elderly patients show great difference. We are the first to explore the relationship between hsCRP variation and intensive care unit (ICU) admission in young and middle-aged COVID-19 patients compared with elderly patients.Methods: We included 273 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 from Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China from Feb 10, 2020 to Mar 8, 2020. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of outcomes were compared between young and middle-aged patients with elderly patients.Results: Among young and middle-aged patients, hsCRP variation in those admitted to ICU was significantly higher than that in discharged patients. Among patients admitted to ICU, hsCRP variation showed significantly difference between young and middle-aged patients and elderly patients (median, 67.9 vs -10.2, P < 0.01). The hsCRP variation was an independent risk factor for ICU admission in young and middle-aged patients (OR = 1.068) and ROC curve revealed hsCRP variation significant for the prediction of ICU admission (AUC = 0.925) with 92.9% sensitivity and 95.5% specificity. Conclusion: HsCRP variation is the major independent risk factors for ICU admission in young and middle-aged COVID-19 inpatients, but not in the elderly patients. 


Subject(s)
COVID-19
15.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 98(8): 859-863, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of COVID-19 has spread rapidly all over the world. Respiratory droplets and contaction with infected patients are the two major transmission routes. However, the value of tear virus nucleic acid is still not clear. We dynamic detected the SARS-CoV-2 in eye sample of one COVID-19 patient with obstruction of common lacrimal ducts. METHODS: Besides the routine examination, nasopharyngeal and eye swab were continuously measured by polymerase chain reaction assay and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Gene detection was performed for drug use guidance, and flow cytometry was performed to analyse the lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for 22 days, but eye swabs were still continuously positive for 2 weeks after nasopharyngeal swabs turned negative. The low level of lymphocyte and the high level IL-6 lasted for almost 4 weeks, then became near normal. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) confirmed the existing of SARS-CoV-2, HSV1 and HHV6B virus nucleic acid. The gene detection for drug use guidance showed the genetic locus ABCB1 (3435T>C) rs1045642 belonged to type CC and it mean the efficiency of lopinavir-ritonavir would be significantly decreased. The flow cytometry of lymphocyte subsets showed PD-1+  CD95+ cells was accounting for 94.8% in CD3+  CD8+ T subset and for 94.8% in CD3+  TCRγδ+ T subset. CONCLUSIONS: As obstruction of common lacrimal duct, positively detection in one eye for 2 weeks more after nasopharyngeal swab became negative. More eye swabs should be collected from COVID-19 patients, especially from those immunocompromised, those with eye symptoms and those had a history of ocular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Conjunctiva/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tears/virology , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Flow Cytometry , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/virology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/drug therapy , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/virology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Roseolovirus Infections/diagnosis , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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