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1.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 234, 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The application of prone position (PP) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) supported by venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of application of PP during VV-ECMO in patients with ARDS. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study of patients who met the Berlin definition of ARDS, and were supported with VV-ECMO. We divided the patients into two groups. The prone group included patients who were supported by VV-ECMO, and experienced at least one period of PP, while those without PP during VV-ECMO were defined as the supine group. Propensity score matching (PSM) at a ratio of 1:1 was introduced to minimize potential confounders. The primary outcomes were the complications of PP and the change of arterial oxygen pressure/fraction of the inspiration (PaO2/FiO2) ratio after PP. The secondary outcomes were hospital survival, ICU survival, and ECMO weaning rate. RESULTS: From April 2013 to October 2020, a total of 91 patients met the diagnostic criteria of ARDS who were supported with ECMO. 38 patients (41.8%) received at least one period of PP during ECMO, while 53 patients (58.2%) were maintained in supine position during ECMO. 22 minor complications were reported in the prone group and major complications were not found. The other ECMO-related complications were similar between two groups. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio significantly improved after PP compared with before (174.50 (132.40-228.25) mmHg vs. 158.00 (122.93-210.33) mmHg, p < 0.001). PSM selected 25 pairs of patients with similar characteristics. Hospital survival or ICU survival did not differ between the two groups (40% vs. 28%, p = 0.370; 40% vs. 32%, p = 0.556). Significant difference of ECMO weaning rate between two groups was not found (56% vs. 32%, p = 0.087). CONCLUSIONS: PP during VV-ECMO was safe and could improve oxygenation. A large-scale and well-designed RCT is needed in the future.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Patient Positioning , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325194

ABSTRACT

Background: Current information is not enough to recognize the risk factors of clinical deterioration and to make medical decisions in COVID-19 patients. Methods: : A retrospective study was performed, with collecting data from medical records of COVID-19 patients in three designated hospitals from January 8, 2020 to May 6, 2020. Clinical data were analyzed between the deteriorated and the non-deteriorated patients, which was defined as either a increase of 2 categories on the modified 6-category ordinal scale, or a decline of PaO 2 -to-FIO 2 ratio more than 100mmHg. Results: : Total 238 patients with COVID-19 were selected, where 31 were deteriorated and 207 were non-deteriorated. In the deterioration group, the case fatality rate was up to 41.9%. Compared with non-deteriorated patients, the deteriorated were older (65.8[IQR 54.3-72.3] vs 54.4[41.0-66.1], p=0.004) and were more likely to have chronic medical illnesses (17[54.8%]) vs 92[44.4%]). Multivariable regression showed that three variables, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR)≥3.66 (OR, 9.85;95% CI, 1.68-57.57), hyponatremia (OR, 8.35;95% CI, 1.74-40.16), and presence of ground-glass opacities with consolidation (OR, 5.84;95% CI, 1.24-27.49) were associated with increased odds of clinical deterioration. The variable that inspiring air or traditional oxygen therapy only within 72 hours after admission, indicated a decreased odd of illness progression (OR, 0.075;95% CI, 0.012–0.465). Conclusions: : COVID-19 patients with clinical deterioration had more common extra-pulmonary organ impair in early stage and high case fatality rate. Three factors, NLR ≥3.66, hyponatremia and presence of ground-glass opacities with consolidation were determined as high risk factors in deterioration.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312714

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has now spread worldwide. This study aimed to provide a reference for comprehensive treatment, personal protection, and team management of patients with critical COVID-19. Methods: The study included critical COVID-19 cases at a single centre in Wuhan, China. We retrospectively analysed data on symptoms, laboratory tests, radiology findings, treatment, and outcomes. Air samples and environmental surface swabs in the isolation ward were tested for SARS-CoV-2. Results: Fourteen critically ill patients (mean age 62.1 years) were treated between February 4, 2020 and April 6, 2020. Less than half had underlying diseases, including hypertension (n=6, 42.9%) and diabetes (n=4, 28.6%). Laboratory tests showed decreased lymphocyte levels and increased serum ferritin and inflammatory cytokine levels. More than half of the patients received antiviral drugs, including lopinavir/ritonavir (n=10;71.4%) and arbidol (n=6, 42.9%). Eight patients (57.1%) received convalescent plasma, and 12 (85.7%) received systemic glucocorticoids. Eleven (78.6%) received high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, five (35.7%) received non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, seven (50.0%) received invasive positive pressure ventilation, and three (21.4%) received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. By April 6, 2020, nine (64.3%) patients were discharged, four remained in hospital, and one had died. All air samples tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Of 128 environmental surface swabs, one gastric tube swab and one anal tube swab were positive for SARS-CoV-2. All oropharyngeal swabs taken from medical staff tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: Individualised comprehensive treatment, appropriate personal protection, and teamwork may improve the prognosis in patients with COVID-19 who are critically ill.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307613

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has recently spread worldwide partly through environmental and airborne contamination. The number of patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU)-based healthcare services exceeds the available negative-pressure isolation ICU room capacity. Some general wards of Wuhan hospitals have been temporarily converted into COVID-19 ICU wards and pose safety concerns. We explored the safety of these temporary COVID-19 ICU wards. Methods: : Fifteen air samples and 128 environmental surface swabs were collected from 14 patients in 4 departments with temporary COVID-19 ICU wards. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) methods confirmed the existence of COVID-19 pathogens. Results: : Four of the 15 air samples were obtained during aerosol-generating medical procedures (1 tracheostomy, 1 high-flow nasal cannula [HFNC], 1 HFNC+nebulization, 1 non-invasive positive pressure ventilation). Five patients were administered invasive positive pressure ventilation through tracheostomy. All air samples tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Viruses were detected on the surface of a patient’s gastric tube, and an anal tube swab tested positive. Five days later, the anal swab of the patient remained positive, although viral RNA of the nasopharyngeal swap turned negative. Conclusions: : Establishing temporary isolation COVID-19 ICU wards is a safe and effective method to increase surge capacity in a hospital. SARS-CoV-2 sheds from the enteric canal after viral clearance in the respiratory tract. Reinforcing disinfection of tubes and circuits given to the patients is essential in COVID-19 isolation wards to decrease nosocomial transmission.

5.
Sci Robot ; 6(52)2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209822

ABSTRACT

The world was unprepared for the COVID-19 pandemic, and recovery is likely to be a long process. Robots have long been heralded to take on dangerous, dull, and dirty jobs, often in environments that are unsuitable for humans. Could robots be used to fight future pandemics? We review the fundamental requirements for robotics for infectious disease management and outline how robotic technologies can be used in different scenarios, including disease prevention and monitoring, clinical care, laboratory automation, logistics, and maintenance of socioeconomic activities. We also address some of the open challenges for developing advanced robots that are application oriented, reliable, safe, and rapidly deployable when needed. Last, we look at the ethical use of robots and call for globally sustained efforts in order for robots to be ready for future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/trends , Communicable Diseases , Robotics/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Disinfection/trends , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics/prevention & control , Remote Sensing Technology/trends , Robotic Surgical Procedures/trends , Robotics/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2 , User-Computer Interface
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 637, 2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally. Recently, several articles have mentioned that the early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by COVID-19 significantly differ from those of ARDS due to other causes. Actually, we newly observed that some mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients recovering from severe ARDS (more than 14 days after invasive ventilation) often experienced evidently gradual increases in CO2 retention and minute ventilation. However, the underlying mechanics remain unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: To explain these pathophysiological features and discuss the ventilatory strategy during the late phase of severe ARDS in COVID-19 patients, we first used a metabolic module on a General Electric R860 ventilator (Engstrom Carestation; GE Healthcare, USA) to monitor parameters related to gas metabolism, lung mechanics and physiological dead space in two COVID-19 patients. We found that remarkably decreased ventilatory efficiency (e.g., the ratio of dead space to tidal volume 70-80%, arterial to end-tidal CO2 difference 18-23 mmHg and ventilatory ratio 3-4) and hypermetabolism (oxygen consumption 300-400 ml/min, CO2 elimination 200-300 ml/min) may explain why these patients experienced more severe respiratory distress and CO2 retention in the late phase of ARDS caused by COVID-19. CONCLUSION: During the recovery period of ARDS among mechanically-ventilated COVID-19 patients, attention should be paid to the monitoring of physiological dead space and metabolism. Tidal volume (8-9 ml/kg) could be increased appropriately under the limited plateau pressure; however, barotrauma should still be kept in mind.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic , Oxygen Consumption , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tidal Volume , Ventilators, Mechanical
7.
Crit Care Med ; 48(11): e1079-e1086, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725837

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 is spreading globally. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure is the most common complication of coronavirus disease 2019. However, the clinical effectiveness of early high-flow nasal oxygen treatment in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure has not been explored. This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of high-flow nasal oxygen treatment and to identify the variables predicting high-flow nasal oxygen treatment failure in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. DESIGN: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Three tertiary hospitals in Wuhan, China. PATIENTS: Forty-three confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure treated with high-flow nasal oxygen. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Mean age of the enrolled patients was 63.0 ± 9.7 years; female patients accounted for 41.9%. High-flow nasal oxygen failure (defined as upgrading respiratory support to positive pressure ventilation or death) was observed in 20 patients (46.5%), of which 13 (30.2%) required endotracheal intubation. Patients with high-flow nasal oxygen success had a higher median oxygen saturation (96.0% vs 93.0%; p < 0.001) at admission than those with high-flow nasal oxygen failure. High-flow nasal oxygen failure was more likely in patients who were older (p = 0.030) and male (p = 0.037), had a significant increase in respiratory rate and a significant decrease in the ratio of oxygen saturation/FIO2 to respiratory rate index within 3 days of high-flow nasal oxygen treatment. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis model, male and lower oxygen saturation at admission remained independent predictors of high-flow nasal oxygen failure. The hospital mortality rate of the cohort was 32.5%; however, the hospital mortality rate in patients with high-flow nasal oxygen failure was 65%. CONCLUSIONS: High-flow nasal oxygen may be effective for treating coronavirus disease 2019 patients with mild to moderate acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. However, high-flow nasal oxygen failure was associated with a poor prognosis. Male and lower oxygenation at admission were the two strong predictors of high-flow nasal oxygen failure.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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