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1.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684757

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have become a pandemic in the world. This study is aim to explore risk factors for COVID-19 severity in the early stage and the correlation between the viral shedding and COVID-19 severity. We included inpatient with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 who had been discharged by 9 March 2020. The medical record data and dynamic change of biochemical indicators in-hospital were compared between common and severe patients. Eighty patients were included in this study. Multivariable regression demonstrated increasing odds of severity associated with the duration of fever (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.82, per day increase; P = .007), C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.52; P = .02), and PO2 < 80 mm Hg (28.07, 95% CI, 1.50-524.12; P = .026) on admission. We found severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral RNA could be long-term presence in respiratory tract and fecal sample, up to 43 and 46 days, respectively. However, the duration of viral shedding have no correlation with the COVID-19 severity. The duration of fever, elevated CRP and PO2 < 80 mm Hg on admission were associated with the COVID-19 severity in the early stage and there is no correlation between the viral shedding and COVID-19 severity.

2.
Trials ; 21(1): 622, 2020 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 (caused by SARS-Cov-2) is very serious, and no effective antiviral treatment has yet been confirmed. The adage "old drug, new trick" in this context may suggest the important therapeutic potential of existing drugs. We found that the lopinavir/ritonavir treatment recommended in the fifth edition of the Treatment Plan of China can only help to improve a minority of throat-swab nucleic-acid results (3/15) in hospitals. Our previous use of chloroquine to treat patients with COVID-19 infection showed an improvement in more throat-swab nucleic-acid results (5/10) than the use of lopinavir/ritonavir. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective, open-label, randomized controlled, multicenter clinical study. The study consists of three phases: a screening period, a treatment period of no more than 10 days, and a follow-up period for each participant. Participants with COVID-19 infection who are eligible for selection for the study will be randomly allocated to the trial group or the control group. The control group will be given lopinavir/ritonavir treatment for no more than 10 days. The trial group will be given chloroquine phosphate treatment for no more than 10 days. The primary outcome is the clinical recovery time at no more than 28 days after the completion of therapy and follow-up. The secondary outcomes include the rate of treatment success after the completion of therapy and follow-up, the time of treatment success after no more than 28 days, the rate of serious adverse events during the completion of therapy and follow-up, and the time to return to normal temperature (calculated from the onset of illness) during the completion of therapy and follow-up. Comparisons will be performed using two-sided tests with a statistical significance level of 5%. DISCUSSION: This experiment should reveal the efficacy and safety of using chloroquine versus lopinavir/ritonavir for patients with mild/general COVID-19 infection. If the new treatment including chloroquine shows a higher rate of throat-swab SARS-CoV-2 real-time fluorescent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negativity and is safe, it could be tested as a future COVID-19 treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ID: ChiCTR2000029741 . Registered on 11 February 2020.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects
3.
National Science Review ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-401795

ABSTRACT

Background Effective therapies are urgently needed for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic Chloroquine has been proved to have antiviral effect against coronavirus in vitro In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of chloroquine with different doses in COVID-19 Method In this multicenter prospective observational study, we enrolled patients older than 18 years old with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection excluding critical cases from 12 hospitals in Guangdong and Hubei Provinces Eligible patients received chloroquine phosphate 500 mg, orally, once (half dose) or twice (full dose) daily Patients treated with non-chloroquine therapy were included as historical controls The primary endpoint is the time to undetectable viral RNA Secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with undetectable viral RNA by day 10 and 14, hospitalization time, duration of fever, and adverse events Results A total of 197 patients completed chloroquine treatment, and 176 patients were included as historical controls The median time to achieve an undetectable viral RNA was shorter in chloroquine than in non-chloroquine (absolute difference in medians -6 0 days;95% CI -6 0 to -4 0) The duration of fever is shorter in chloroquine (geometric mean ratio 0 6;95% CI 0 5 to 0 8) No serious adverse events were observed in the chloroquine group Patients treated with half dose experienced lower rate of adverse events than with full dose Conclusions Although randomised trials are needed for further evaluation, this study provides evidence for safety and efficacy of chloroquine in COVID-19 and suggests that chloroquine can be a cost-effective therapy for combating the COVID-19 pandemic

4.
Front. Med. ; (7)20200508.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-381022

ABSTRACT

Background: An outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infections began in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread to the entire country. We sought to delineate the time features of clinical symptoms, virological conversion, and chest radiological abnormalities in individuals infected with this virus in Zhuhai, China. Methods: In this retrospective study, we assessed 85 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the Fifth Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, from the 17th of January to the 11th of February 2020. Outcomes were followed up until the 24th of February 2020. Results: The median age of the 85 patients with COVID-19 was 43 years (range, 1–80); 56.5% (48/85) were female. The median time from the last known contact to the first SARS-CoV-2 positive test result was 8 days (0–18). The time to throat swab negativity for SARS-CoV-2 ranged from 5 to 36 days after illness onset. Patients with abnormal chest imaging findings on admission were older than those with normal imaging findings (median age, 50 [3-80] vs. 37 [1-69], P = 0.031). Among patients with lung changes on admission, the risk of lesions was 13.8 times greater in the left lower lobe than in the right middle lobe. Most lung lesions appeared within 2 weeks of onset (median 4–5 days). The overall rates of lesions in the right upper/middle/lower lobe and left upper/lower lobe were 47.1, 30.6, 62.4% as well as 49.4 and 63.5%, respectively. Conclusions: The incubation period of SARS-CoV-2 may be longer than 14 days; thus, medical surveillance after contact is required for longer than this. The predominant sites of lung lesions are both lower lungs, whereas the lowest risk region is the right middle lobe.

6.
J Infect ; 81(1): e1-e5, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-6347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China. We aimed to compare arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/r) treatment for patients with COVID-19 with LPV/r only. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included adults (age≥18years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 without Invasive ventilation, diagnosed between Jan 17, 2020, and Feb 13, 2020. Patients, diagnosed after Jan 17, 2020, were given oral arbidol and LPV/r in the combination group and oral LPV/r only in the monotherapy group for 5-21 days. The primary endpoint was a negative conversion rate of coronavirus from the date of COVID-19 diagnosis(day7, day14), and assessed whether the pneumonia was progressing or improving by chest CT (day7). RESULTS: We analyzed 16 patients who received oral arbidol and LPV/r in the combination group and 17 who oral LPV/r only in the monotherapy group, and both initiated after diagnosis. Baseline clinical, laboratory, and chest CT characteristics were similar between groups. The SARS-CoV-2 could not be detected for 12(75%) of 16 patients' nasopharyngeal specimens in the combination group after seven days, compared with 6 (35%) of 17 in the monotherapy group (p < 0·05). After 14 days, 15 (94%) of 16 and 9 (52·9%) of 17, respectively, SARS-CoV-2 could not be detected (p < 0·05). The chest CT scans were improving for 11(69%) of 16 patients in the combination group after seven days, compared with 5(29%) of 17 in the monotherapy group (p < 0·05). CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19, the apparent favorable clinical response with arbidol and LPV/r supports further LPV/r only.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Indoles/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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