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Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 62(2): 106857, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326271


BACKGROUND: Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (NMVr) is a recently developed antiviral agent for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, data describing its appropriate use are scarce. This study examined the prevalence of inappropriate use of NMVr in a Chinese hospital setting. METHODS: A multi-centre retrospective chart review was performed for all hospitalized patients who received NMVr between 15 December 2022 and 15 February 2023 in four university-affiliated hospitals in Hangzhou, China. A multi-disciplinary team of experts developed the evaluation criteria. A group of senior clinical pharmacists examined and verified the suitability of NMVr prescriptions. RESULTS: In total, 247 patients received NMVr during the study period, of which 13.4% (n=31) met all the criteria for appropriate use of NMVr. The main types of inappropriate use of NMVr were delayed initiation of treatment (n=147, 59.5%), no dose adjustment for moderate renal impairment (n=46, 18.6%), use in patients with severe-to-critical COVID-19 (n=49, 19.8%), presence of contra-indicated drug‒drug interactions with other medications (n=36, 14.6%), and prescription for patients without a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 (n=36, 14.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of inappropriate use of NMVr was particularly high in the Chinese hospital setting, highlighting the urgent need to improve the appropriate use of NMVr.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 646184, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305630


Healthcare workers at the frontline are facing a substantial risk of respiratory tract infection during the COVID-19 outbreak due to an extremely stressful work schedule and public health event. A well-established first-line defense on oropharyngeal microbiome could be a promising strategy to protect individuals from respiratory tract infections including COVID-19. The most thoroughly studied oropharyngeal probiotic product which creates a stable upper respiratory tract microbiota capable of preventing upper respiratory tract infections was chosen to evaluate the safety and efficacy on reducing episodes of upper respiratory tract infections for COVID-19 healthcare workers. To our knowledge to date, this is the very first study describing the beneficial effects of oropharyngeal probiotic been administered by healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this randomized controlled trial, we provided the probiotics to frontline medical staff who work in the hospitals in Wuhan and had been in close contact with hospitalized COVID-19 patients for prophylactic use on a daily basis. Our finding suggests that oropharyngeal probiotic administration significantly reduced the incidence of respiratory tract infections by 64.8%, reduced the time experiencing respiratory tract infections and oral ulcer symptoms by 78%, shortened the days absent from work by 95.5%, and reduced the time under medication where there is no record of antibiotic and anti-viral drug intake in the probiotic group. Furthermore, medical staff treated with Bactoblis experienced sustained protection from respiratory tract infections since the 10th day of oropharyngeal probiotic administration resulting in an extremely low incidence rate of respiratory tract infections.

BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 663, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301848


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high mortality rate, especially in patients with severe illness. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the potential predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and three electronic Chinese databases were searched from December 1, 2019 to April 29, 2020. Eligible studies reporting potential predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19 were identified. Unadjusted prognostic effect estimates were pooled using the random-effects model if data from at least two studies were available. Adjusted prognostic effect estimates were presented by qualitative analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-six observational studies were identified, of which 27 were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 106 potential risk factors were tested, and the following important predictors were associated with mortality: advanced age, male sex, current smoking status, preexisting comorbidities (especially chronic kidney, respiratory, and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases), symptoms of dyspnea, complications during hospitalization, corticosteroid therapy and a severe condition. Additionally, a series of abnormal laboratory biomarkers of hematologic parameters, hepatorenal function, inflammation, coagulation, and cardiovascular injury were also associated with fatal outcome. CONCLUSION: We identified predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19. These findings could help healthcare providers take appropriate measures and improve clinical outcomes in such patients.

COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Age Distribution , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/physiopathology , Male , Observational Studies as Topic , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Smokers/statistics & numerical data