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1.
J Virol Methods ; 307: 114564, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878302

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infections has led to excess deaths worldwide. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against viral spike protein acquired from natural infections or vaccinations contribute to protection against new- and re-infections. Besides neutralization, antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis (ADCP) are also important for viral clearance. However, due to the lack of convenient methods, the ADCC and ADCP responses elicited by viral infections or vaccinations remain to be explored. Here, we developed cell-based assays using target cells stably expressing SARS-CoV-2 spikes and Jurkat-NFAT-CD16a/CD32a effector cells for ADCC/ADCP measurements of monoclonal antibodies and human convalescent COVID-19 plasmas (HCPs). In control samples (n = 190), the specificity was 99.5% (95%CI: 98.4-100%) and 97.4% (95%CI: 95.1-99.6%) for the ADCC and ADCP assays, respectively. Among 87 COVID-19 HCPs, 83 (sensitivity: 95.4%, 95%CI: 91.0-99.8%) and 81 (sensitivity: 93.1%, 95%CI: 87.8-98.4%) showed detectable ADCC (titer range: 7.4-1721.6) and ADCP activities (titer range: 4-523.2). Notably, both ADCC and ADCP antibody titers positively correlated with the nAb titers in HCPs. In summary, we developed new tools for quantitative ADCC and ADCP analysis against SARS-CoV-2, which may facilitate further evaluations of Fc-mediated effector functions in preventing and treating against SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All currently available SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are administered by intramuscular injection. We aimed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live-attenuated influenza virus vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (dNS1-RBD) administered by intranasal spray in healthy adults. METHODS: We did double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 1 and 2 trials, followed by a phase 2 extension trial, at a single centre in Jiangsu, China. Healthy adults (≥18 years) who had negative serum or fingertip blood total antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 (in phases 1 and 2), with no prevalent SARS-CoV-2 infection or history of infection and no SARS-CoV-2 vaccination history (in all three trials reported here), were enrolled. Participants were randomly allocated (4:1 in phase 1, 2:1 in phase 2, and 1:1 in the extension trial) to receive two intranasal doses of the dNS1-RBD vaccine or placebo on days 0 and 14 or, for half of the participants in phase 2, on days 0 and 21. To avoid cross-contamination during administration, vaccine and placebo recipients were vaccinated in separate rooms in the extension trial. The phase 1 primary outcome was safety (adverse events recorded on days 0-44; serious adverse events recorded from day 0 until 12 months after the second dose). In the phase 2 and extension trials, the primary immunogenicity outcomes were SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response in peripheral blood (measured by IFN-γ ELISpot), proportion of participants with positive conversion for SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG and secretory IgA (s-IgA) antibodies, and concentration of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG in serum and SARS-CoV-2 RBD s-IgA in the nasopharynx (measured by ELISA) at 1 month after the second dose in the per-protocol set for immunogenicity. χ2 test and Fisher's exact test were used to analyse categorical data, and t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare the measurement data between groups. These trials were registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2000037782, ChiCTR2000039715, and ChiCTR2100048316). FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2020, and July 4, 2021, 63, 724, and 297 participants without a history of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were enrolled in the phase 1, phase 2, and extension trials, respectively. At least one adverse reaction after vaccination was reported in 133 (19%) of 684 participants in the vaccine groups. Most adverse reactions were mild. No vaccine-related serious adverse event was noted. Specific T-cell immune responses were observed in 211 (46% [95% CI 42-51]) of 455 vaccine recipients in the phase 2 trial, and in 48 (40% [31-49]) of 120 vaccine recipients compared with one (1% [0-5]) of 111 placebo recipients (p<0·0001) in the extension trial. Seroconversion for RBD-specific IgG was observed in 48 (10% [95% CI 8-13]) of 466 vaccine recipients in the phase 2 trial (geometric mean titre [GMT] 3·8 [95% CI 3·4-4·3] in responders), and in 31 (22% [15-29]) of 143 vaccine recipients (GMT 4·4 [3·3-5·8]) and zero (0% [0-2]) of 147 placebo recipients (p<0·0001) in the extension trial. 57 (12% [95% CI 9-16]) of 466 vaccine recipients had positive conversion for RBD-specific s-IgA (GMT 3·8 [95% CI 3·5-4·1] in responders) in the phase 2 trial, as did 18 (13% [8-19]) of 143 vaccine recipients (GMT 5·2 [4·0-6·8]) and zero (0% [0-2]) of 147 placebo recipients (p<0·0001) in the extension trial. INTERPRETATION: dNS1-RBD was well tolerated in adults. Weak T-cell immunity in peripheral blood, as well as weak humoral and mucosal immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, were detected in vaccine recipients. Further studies are warranted to verify the safety and efficacy of intranasal vaccines as a potential supplement to current intramuscular SARS-CoV-2 vaccine pools. Steps should be taken in future studies to reduce the potential for cross-contamination caused by the vaccine strain aerosol during administration. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Science, Fujian Provincial Science, CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, and Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise.

3.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867754

ABSTRACT

Remarkable progress has been made in developing intramuscular vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); however, they are limited with respect to eliciting local immunity in the respiratory tract, which is the primary infection site for SARS-CoV-2. To overcome the limitations of intramuscular vaccines, we constructed a nasal vaccine candidate based on an influenza vector by inserting a gene encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, named CA4-dNS1-nCoV-RBD (dNS1-RBD). A preclinical study showed that in hamsters challenged 1 d after single-dose vaccination or 9 months after booster vaccination, dNS1-RBD largely mitigated lung pathology, with no loss of body weight. Moreover, such cellular immunity is relatively unimpaired for the most concerning SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially for the latest Omicron variant. In addition, this vaccine also provides cross-protection against H1N1 and H5N1 influenza viruses. The protective immune mechanism of dNS1-RBD could be attributed to the innate immune response in the nasal epithelium, local RBD-specific T cell response in the lung, and RBD-specific IgA and IgG response. Thus, this study demonstrates that the intranasally delivered dNS1-RBD vaccine candidate may offer an important addition to the fight against the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and influenza infection, compensating limitations of current intramuscular vaccines.

5.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837508

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents an unprecedented public health crisis worldwide. Although several vaccines are available, the global supply of vaccines, particularly within developing countries, is inadequate, and this necessitates a need for the development of less expensive, accessible vaccine options. To this end, here, we used the Escherichia coli expression system to produce a recombinant fusion protein comprising the receptor binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2;residues 319–541) and the fragment A domain of Cross-Reacting Material 197 (CRM197);hereafter, CRMA-RBD. We show that this CRMA-RBD fusion protein has excellent physicochemical properties and strong reactivity with COVID-19 convalescent sera and representative neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Furthermore, compared with the use of a traditional aluminum adjuvant, we find that combining the CRMA-RBD protein with a nitrogen bisphosphonate-modified zinc-aluminum hybrid adjuvant (FH-002C-Ac) leads to stronger humoral immune responses in mice, with 4-log neutralizing antibody titers. Overall, our study highlights the value of this E. coli-expressed fusion protein as an alternative vaccine candidate strategy against COVID-19.

7.
Cell Rep ; 39(8): 110862, 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821171

ABSTRACT

The rapidly spreading Omicron variant is highly resistant to vaccines, convalescent sera, and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), highlighting the urgent need for potent therapeutic nAbs. Here, a panel of human nAbs from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) convalescent patients show diverse neutralization against Omicron, of which XMA01 and XMA04 maintain nanomolar affinities and excellent neutralization (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50]: ∼20 ng/mL). nAb XMA09 shows weak but unattenuated neutralization against all variants of concern (VOCs) as well as SARS-CoV. Structural analysis reveals that the above three antibodies could synergistically bind to the receptor-binding domains (RBDs) of both wild-type and Omicron spikes and defines the critical determinants for nAb-mediated broad neutralizations. Three nAbs confer synergistic neutralization against Omicron, resulting from the inter-antibody interaction between XMA04 and XMA01(or XMA09). Furthermore, the XMA01/XMA04 cocktail provides synergistic protection against Beta and Omicron variant infections in hamsters. In summary, our results provide insights for the rational design of antibody cocktail therapeutics or universal vaccines against Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Cell Rep ; 38(12): 110558, 2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797096

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) may alter viral host tropism and affect the activities of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we investigated 153 RBD mutants and 11 globally circulating variants of concern (VOCs) and variants of interest (VOIs) (including Omicron) for their antigenic changes and cross-species tropism in cells expressing 18 ACE2 orthologs. Several RBD mutations strengthened viral infectivity in cells expressing ACE2 orthologs of non-human animals, particularly those less susceptible to the ancestral strain. The mutations surrounding amino acids (aas) 439-448 and aa 484 are more likely to cause neutralization resistance. Strikingly, enhanced cross-species infection potential in the mouse and ferret, instead of the neutralization-escape scores of the mutations, account for the positive correlation with the cumulative prevalence of mutations in humans. These findings present insights for potential drivers of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and provide informative parameters for tracking and forecasting spreading mutations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Ferrets , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tropism , Viral Envelope Proteins
9.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 828806, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793005

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have very successfully decreased the disease risk as we know; some key information remains unknown due to the short development history and the lack of long-term follow-up studies in vaccinated populations. One of the unanswered issues is the protection duration conferred after COVID-19 vaccination, which appears to play a pivotal role in the future impact of pathogens and is critical to inform the public health response and policy decisions. Here, we review current information on the long-term effectiveness of different COVID-19 vaccines, persistence of immunogenicity, and gaps in knowledge. Meanwhile, we also discuss the influencing factors and future study prospects on this topic.

10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332901

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 continues to be a severe public health thread worldwide. The major challenge to control this pandemic is the rapid mutation rate of the SARS-Cov-2 virus, leading to the escape of the protection of vaccines and most of the neutralizing antibodies to date. Thus, it is pivotal to develop neutralizing antibodies with broad-spectrum activity targeting multiple SARS-Cov-2 variants. In this study, we first got a synthetic nanobody (named C5) which could interfere with ACE2 binding to SARS-Cov-2 spike protein and its RBD domain. The affinity matured format of C5 clone, named C5G2, has a single digit nanomolar affinity to RBD domain and inhibit its binding to ACE2 with an IC50 of 3.7 nM. Pseudovirus assay indicated that the monovalent C5G2 could protect the cells from the infection of SARS-Cov-2 wild type virus as well as most of the virus of concern, i.e. Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Omicron variants. Strikingly, C5G2 has the highest potency against omicron among all the variants with the IC50 of 4.9ng/ml (0.3 nM). We further solved the Cryo-EM structure of C5G2 in complex with the Spike trimer. The structure data showed that C5G2 bind to RBD mainly through its CDR3 at a vast region that not overlapping with the ACE2 binding surface. Surprisingly, C5G2 also bind to a distinct epitope residing in the NTD domain of spike protein through the same CDR3 loop, which may further increase its potency against the virus infection. Thus, this bi-paratopic nanobody may be served as an effective drug for the prophylaxis and therapy of the Omicron infection.

11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 793-803, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758587

ABSTRACT

The specific antibodies induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection may provide protection against a subsequent infection. However, the efficacy and duration of protection provided by naturally acquired immunity against subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection remain controversial. We systematically searched for the literature describing COVID-19 reinfection published before 07 February 2022. The outcomes were the pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) for estimating the risk of subsequent infection. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Statistical analyses were conducted using the R programming language 4.0.2. We identified 19 eligible studies including more than 3.5 million individuals without the history of COVID-19 vaccination. The efficacy of naturally acquired antibodies against reinfection was estimated at 84% (pooled IRR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.14-0.18), with higher efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 cases (pooled IRR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.07-0.12) than asymptomatic infection (pooled IRR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.14-0.54). In the subgroup analyses, the pooled IRRs of COVID-19 infection in health care workers (HCWs) and the general population were 0.22 (95% CI = 0.16-0.31) and 0.14 (95% CI = 0.12-0.17), respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.02), and those in older (over 60 years) and younger (under 60 years) populations were 0.26 (95% CI = 0.15-0.48) and 0.16 (95% CI = 0.14-0.19), respectively. The risk of subsequent infection in the seropositive population appeared to increase slowly over time. In conclusion, naturally acquired antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can significantly reduce the risk of subsequent infection, with a protection efficacy of 84%.Registration number: CRD42021286222.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733475

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have very successfully decreased the disease risk as we know;some key information remains unknown due to the short development history and the lack of long-term follow-up studies in vaccinated populations. One of the unanswered issues is the protection duration conferred after COVID-19 vaccination, which appears to play a pivotal role in the future impact of pathogens and is critical to inform the public health response and policy decisions. Here, we review current information on the long-term effectiveness of different COVID-19 vaccines, persistence of immunogenicity, and gaps in knowledge. Meanwhile, we also discuss the influencing factors and future study prospects on this topic.

13.
Cell reports ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1728589

ABSTRACT

Zhang et al. show in vitro cross-species infectivity and neutralization-escape characteristics of 153 SARS-CoV-2 RBD mutants and 11 globally circulating VOC/VOI variants. They reveal an association between enhanced cross-species infection potential and the current cumulative prevalence of mutations, which can inform surveillance and forecasting of SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations.

14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 203: 114032, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729564

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) contain several single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) at key sites in the receptor-binding region (RBD) that enhance infectivity and transmission, as well as cause immune escape, resulting in an aggravation of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Emerging VOCs have sparked the need for a diagnostic method capable of simultaneously monitoring these SNVs. To date, no highly sensitive, efficient clinical tool exists to monitor SNVs simultaneously. Here, an encodable multiplex microsphere-phase amplification (MMPA) sensing platform that combines primer-coded microsphere technology with dual fluorescence decoding strategy to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA and simultaneously identify 10 key SNVs in the RBD. MMPA limits the amplification refractory mutation system PCR (ARMS-PCR) reaction for specific target sequence to the surface of a microsphere with specific fluorescence coding. This effectively solves the problem of non-specific amplification among primers and probes in multiplex PCR. For signal detection, specific fluorescence codes inside microspheres are used to determine the corresponding relationship between the microspheres and the SNV sites, while the report probes hybridized with PCR products are used to detect the microsphere amplification intensity. The MMPA platform offers a lower SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection limit of 28 copies/reaction, the ability to detect a respiratory pathogen panel without cross-reactivity, and a SNV analysis accuracy level comparable to that of sequencing. Moreover, this super-multiple parallel SNVs detection method enables a timely updating of the panel of detected SNVs that accompanies changing VOCs, and presents a clinical availability that traditional sequencing methods do not.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Microspheres , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mutation , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
15.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329405

ABSTRACT

Antibody therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19 has been highly successful while faces a challenge of the recent emergence of the Omicron variant which escapes the majority of existing SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Here, we successfully generated a panel of SARS-CoV-2/SARS-CoV cross-neutralizing antibodies by sequential immunization of the two pseudoviruses. Of which, nAbs X01, X10 and X17 showed broadly neutralizing breadths against most variants of concern (VOCs) and X17 was further identified as a Class 5 nAb with undiminished neutralization against the Omicron variant. Cryo-EM structures of three-antibody in complex with the spike proteins of prototyped SARS-CoV-2, Delta, Omicron and SARS-CoV defined three non-overlapping conserved epitopes on the receptor-binding domain (RBD). The triple antibody cocktail exhibited enhanced resistance to viral escape and effective protection against the infection of Beta variant in hamsters. Our finding will aid the development of both antibody therapeutics and broad vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.

16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315306

ABSTRACT

The emergence of numerous variants of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has presented new challenges to the global efforts to control the still ravaging COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we obtain two cross-neutralizing antibodies (7D6 and 6D6) that target Sarbecoviruses’ receptor binding domain (RBD) with sub-picomolar affinities and potently neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2. Crystal structures show that both antibodies bind a cryptic site different from that recognized by existing antibodies and highly conserved across Sarbecovirus isolates. Binding of these two antibodies to the RBD clashes with the adjacent N-terminal domain and disrupts the viral spike. Significantly, both antibodies confer good mutation resistance to the currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants. Thus, our results have direct relevance to public health as options for passive antibody therapeutics and even active prophylactics, and can also inform the design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.

17.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327136

ABSTRACT

The widespread SARS-CoV-2 in humans results in the continuous emergence of new variants. Recently emerged Omicron variant with multiple spike mutations sharply increases the risk of breakthrough infection or reinfection, highlighting the urgent need for new vaccines with broad-spectrum antigenic coverage. Using inter-lineage chimera and mutation patch strategies, we engineered a recombinant monomeric spike variant (STFK1628x), which showed high immunogenicity and mutually complementary antigenicity to its prototypic form (STFK). In hamsters, a bivalent vaccine comprised of STFK and STFK1628x elicited high titers of broad-spectrum antibodies to neutralize all 14 circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron;and fully protected vaccinees from intranasal SARS-CoV-2 challenges of either the ancestral strain or immune-evasive Beta variant. Strikingly, the vaccination of hamsters with the bivalent vaccine completely blocked the within-cage virus transmission to unvaccinated sentinels, for either the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 or Beta variant. Thus, our study provides new insights and antigen candidates for developing next-generation COVID-19 vaccines.

18.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324812

ABSTRACT

Background: The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has turned into a global public health crisis. Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with severe pneumonia, multiple-organ failures and deaths. Currently, treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe pneumonia is largely lacking. Several clinical trials demonstrated that glucocorticoid dexamethasone is effective to reduce disease severity and mortality. However, whether dexamethasone is clinically sufficient to treat COVID-19 is unknown.Methods: We tested the therapeutic effect of dexamethasone on SARS-CoV-2 infection and pneumonia in a Syrian hamster model. Survival rate, body weight loss, viral RNA, antibody responses, severity of lung inflammation and injury were measured in a 7-day acute infection course.Findings: Dexamethasone reduces body weight loss and relieves the diffusion of lung injury in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamster by inhibiting the excessive proinflammatory cytokines including IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Dexamethasone rescues hamsters from the lethal infection of SARS-CoV-2 variant D614G. Dexamethasone attenuates serum neutralizing antibody and RBD-specific antibody titers, and slightly increases viral RNA level in lung tissues.Interpretation: Overall, using the hamster model, this study improves our understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms and drawbacks of dexamethasone treatment of COVID-19, and suggests that an antiviral is needed to accompany the dexamethasone treatment regimen.Funding: National Science Key Research and Development Project of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, the CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.Declaration of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: All the animal experiments were approved by the Medical Ethics Committee(SUCM2021-112).

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324208

ABSTRACT

To date, viral RNA detection is almost the only way to confirm SARS-CoV-2infectionin practice.However, variousreasons can cause low sensitivity for RNA detection, and thisposes aserious challenge to disease control. We tested the performance of detecting total antibody(Ab) and IgM levels in serum by the methods of chemiluminescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and colloidal golddetection. The datashowed that the sensitivity and specificity for detecting total Ab and IgM levels were high by all three methods, and the sensitivity was higher for detecting total Ab than for detecting IgM. Evidence from studieshas shown thatviral RNA testingcombinedwith serological testing could increase the diagnostic sensitivity while maintaining a high specificity. Specific serology testsfor SARS-CoV-2 havegreat value for clinical practice and public health.

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