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1.
JACC: Basic to Translational Science ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819515

ABSTRACT

Summary To gain insights into the mechanisms driving cardiovascular complications in COVID-19, we performed a case-control plasma proteomics study in COVID-19 patients. Our results identify the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, a marker of biological aging, as the dominant process associated with disease severity and cardiac involvement. FSTL3, an indicator of senescence-promoting Activin/TGFβ signaling, and ADAMTS13, the von Willebrand Factor–cleaving protease whose loss-of-function causes microvascular thrombosis, were among the proteins most strongly associated with myocardial stress and injury. Findings were validated in a larger COVID-19 patient cohort and the hamster COVID-19 model, providing new insights into the pathophysiology of COVID-19 cardiovascular complications with therapeutic implications.

3.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 1104-1114, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical use of serum creatine (sCr) and cystatin C (CysC) in kidney function evaluation of critically ill patients has been in continuous discussion. The difference between estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated by sCr (eGFRcr) and CysC (eGFRcysc) of critically ill COVID-19 patients were investigated in this study. METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-center study of critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) at Wuhan, China. Control cases were moderate COVID-19 patients matched in age and sex at a ratio of 1:1. The eGFRcr and eGFRcysc were compared. The association between eGFR and death were analyzed in critically ill cases. The potential factors influencing the divergence between eGFRcr and eGFRcysc were explored. RESULTS: A total of 76 critically ill COVID-19 patients were concluded. The mean age was 64.5 ± 9.3 years. The eGFRcr (85.45 (IQR 60.58-99.23) ml/min/1.73m2) were much higher than eGFRcysc (60.6 (IQR 34.75-79.06) ml/min/1.73m2) at ICU admission. About 50 % of them showed eGFRcysc < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 while 25% showed eGFRcr < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (χ2 = 10.133, p = 0.001). This divergence was not observed in moderate group. The potential factors influencing the divergence included serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) level as well as APACHEII, SOFA scores. Reduced eGFRcr (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) was associated with death (HR = 1.939, 95%CI 1.078-3.489, p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: The eGFRcr was generally higher than eGFRcysc in critically ill COVID-19 cases with severe inflammatory state. The divergence might be affected by inflammatory condition and illness severity. Reduced eGFRcr predicted in-hospital death. In these patients, we advocate for caution when using eGFRcysc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Creatine/blood , Cystatin C/blood , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis
4.
Res Sq ; 2021 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270320

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular complications are common in COVID-19 and strongly associated with disease severity and mortality. However, the mechanisms driving cardiac injury and failure in COVID-19 are largely unknown. We performed plasma proteomics on 80 COVID-19 patients and controls, grouped according to disease severity and cardiac involvement. Findings were validated in 305 independent COVID-19 patients and investigated in an animal model. Here we show that senescence-associated secretory proteins, markers of biological aging, strongly associate with disease severity and cardiac involvement even in age-matched cohorts. FSTL3, an indicator of Activin/TGFß signaling, was the most significantly upregulated protein associated with the heart failure biomarker, NTproBNP (ß = 0.4;p adj =4.6x10 - 7 ), while ADAMTS13, a vWF-cleaving protease whose loss-of-function causes microvascular thrombosis, was the most downregulated protein associated with myocardial injury (ß=-0.4;p adj =8x10 - 7 ). Mendelian randomization supported a causal role for ADAMTS13 in myocardial injury. These data provide important new insights into the pathophysiology of COVID-19 cardiovascular complications with therapeutic implications.

5.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(12): 1998-2004, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coagulopathy is one of the characteristics observed in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) contribute to coagulopathy, though their role in COVID-19 remains unclear. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and characteristics of aPLs in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Sera collected from 66 COVID-19 patients who were critically ill and 13 COVID-19 patients who were not critically ill were tested by chemiluminescence immunoassay for anticardiolipin antibodies (aCLs), anti-ß2 -glycoprotein I (anti-ß2 GPI) (IgG, IgM, and IgA), and IgG anti-ß2 GPI-domain 1 (anti-ß2 GPI-D1) and IgM and IgG anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (anti-PS/PT) antibodies were detected in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Of the 66 COVID-19 patients in critical condition, aPLs were detected in 31 (47% ). Antiphospholipid antibodies were not present among COVID-19 patients who were not in critical condition. The IgA anti-ß2 GPI antibody was the most commonly observed aPL in patients with COVID-19 and was present in 28.8% (19 of 66) of the critically ill patients, followed by IgA aCLs (17 of 66, or 25.8%) and IgG anti-ß2 GPI (12 of 66, or 18.2%). For multiple aPLs, IgA anti-ß2 GPI + IgA aCLs was the most common antibody profile observed (15 of 66, or 22.7%), followed by IgA anti-ß2 GPI + IgA aCL + IgG anti-ß2 GPI (10 of 66, or 15.2%). Antiphospholipid antibodies emerge ~35-39 days after disease onset. A dynamic analysis of aPLs revealed 4 patterns based on the persistence or transient appearance of the aPLs. Patients with multiple aPLs had a significantly higher incidence of cerebral infarction compared to patients who were negative for aPLs (P = 0.023). CONCLUSION: Antiphospholipid antibodies were common in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Repeated testing demonstrating medium to high titers of aPLs and the number of aPL types a patient is positive for may help in identifying patients who are at risk of developing cerebral infarction. Antiphospholipid antibodies may be transient and disappear within a few weeks, but in genetically predisposed patients, COVID-19 may trigger the development of an autoimmune condition similar to the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), referred to as "COVID-19-induced APS-like syndrome." Long-term follow-up of COVID-19 patients who are positive for aPLs would be of great importance in understanding the pathogenesis of this novel coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , COVID-19/blood , Critical Illness , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(9): 2205-2221, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence, severity, and outcomes of AKI in COVID-19 varied in different reports. In patients critically ill with COVID-19, the clinicopathologic characteristics of AKI have not been described in detail. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 81 patients critically ill with COVID-19 in an intensive care unit. The incidence, etiologies, and outcomes of AKI were analyzed. Pathologic studies were performed in kidney tissues from ten deceased patients with AKI. RESULTS: A total of 41 (50.6%) patients experienced AKI in this study. The median time from illness to AKI was 21.0 (IQR, 9.5-26.0) days. The proportion of Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 AKI were 26.8%, 31.7%, and 41.5%, respectively. The leading causes of AKI included septic shock (25 of 41, 61.0%), volume insufficiency (eight of 41, 19.5%), and adverse drug effects (five of 41, 12.2%). The risk factors for AKI included age (per 10 years) (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.69; P=0.002) and serum IL-6 level (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.73; P=0.003). KDIGO stage 3 AKI predicted death. Other potential risk factors for death included male sex, elevated D-dimer, serum IL-6 level, and higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. The predominant pathologic finding was acute tubular injury. Nucleic acid tests and immunohistochemistry failed to detect the virus in kidney tissues. CONCLUSIONS: AKI was a common and multifactorial complication in patients critically ill with COVID-19 at the late stage of the disease course. The predominant pathologic finding was acute tubular injury. Older age and higher serum IL-6 level were risk factors of AKI, and KDIGO stage 3 AKI independently predicted death.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Kidney/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Kidney/ultrastructure , Kidney/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nat Immunol ; 21(9): 1107-1118, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710376

ABSTRACT

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the relationship between disease severity and the host immune response is not fully understood. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing in peripheral blood samples of 5 healthy donors and 13 patients with COVID-19, including moderate, severe and convalescent cases. Through determining the transcriptional profiles of immune cells, coupled with assembled T cell receptor and B cell receptor sequences, we analyzed the functional properties of immune cells. Most cell types in patients with COVID-19 showed a strong interferon-α response and an overall acute inflammatory response. Moreover, intensive expansion of highly cytotoxic effector T cell subsets, such as CD4+ effector-GNLY (granulysin), CD8+ effector-GNLY and NKT CD160, was associated with convalescence in moderate patients. In severe patients, the immune landscape featured a deranged interferon response, profound immune exhaustion with skewed T cell receptor repertoire and broad T cell expansion. These findings illustrate the dynamic nature of immune responses during disease progression.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/genetics , GPI-Linked Proteins/immunology , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA-Seq , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis
8.
Front Neurol ; 11: 806, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-685937

ABSTRACT

Background: The complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) involved multiple organs or systems, especially in critically ill patients. We aim to investigate the neurological complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Methods: This retrospective single-center case series analyzed critically ill patients with COVID-19 at the intensive care unit of Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China from February 5 to April 2, 2020. Demographic data, clinical and laboratory findings, comorbidities and treatments were collected and analyzed. Results: Among 86 patients with confirmed COVID-19, 54 patients (62.8%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 66.6 (11.1) years. Overall, 65% patients presented with at least one neurological symptom. Twenty patients (23.3%) had symptoms involving the central nervous system, including delirium, cerebrovascular diseases and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, while 6 patients (7%) had neuromuscular involvement. Seven of 86 patients exhibited new stroke and 6 (7%) cases were ischemic. A significantly higher prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies was observed in patients with ischemic stroke than in those without stroke (83.3 vs. 26.9%, p < 0.05). Patients with ischemic stroke were more likely to have a higher myoglobulin level, and a lower hemoglobin level. Conclusions: The clinical spectrum of neurological complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 was broad. Stroke, delirium and neuromuscular diseases are common neurological complications of COVID-19. Physicians should pay close attention to neurological complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3410, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635899

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with 5.1% mortality. Although the virological, epidemiological, clinical, and management outcome features of COVID-19 patients have been defined rapidly, the inflammatory and immune profiles require definition as they influence pathogenesis and clinical expression of COVID-19. Here we show lymphopenia, selective loss of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells, excessive T-cell activation and high expression of T-cell inhibitory molecules are more prominent in severe cases than in those with mild disease. CD8+ T cells in patients with severe disease express high levels of cytotoxic molecules. Histochemical studies of lung tissue from one fatality show sub-anatomical distributions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and massive infiltration of T cells and macrophages. Thus, aberrant activation and dysregulation of CD8+ T cells occur in patients with severe COVID-19 disease, an effect that might be for pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and indicate that immune-based targets for therapeutic interventions constitute a promising treatment for severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biomarkers/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19 , Chemotaxis, Leukocyte , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Leukocyte Count , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Cell Metab ; 32(2): 188-202.e5, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612608

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents an unprecedented threat to global public health. Herein, we utilized a combination of targeted and untargeted tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the plasma lipidome and metabolome in mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. A panel of 10 plasma metabolites effectively distinguished COVID-19 patients from healthy controls (AUC = 0.975). Plasma lipidome of COVID-19 resembled that of monosialodihexosyl ganglioside (GM3)-enriched exosomes, with enhanced levels of sphingomyelins (SMs) and GM3s, and reduced diacylglycerols (DAGs). Systems evaluation of metabolic dysregulation in COVID-19 was performed using multiscale embedded differential correlation network analyses. Using exosomes isolated from the same cohort, we demonstrated that exosomes of COVID-19 patients with elevating disease severity were increasingly enriched in GM3s. Our work suggests that GM3-enriched exosomes may partake in pathological processes related to COVID-19 pathogenesis and presents the largest repository on the plasma lipidome and metabolome distinct to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Exosomes/metabolism , G(M3) Ganglioside/blood , Gangliosides/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19 , Diglycerides/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolome/physiology , Metabolomics/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sphingomyelins/blood , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Young Adult
11.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 483-488, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343363

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread over many countries and regions since the end of 2019, becoming the most severe public health event at present. Most of the critical cases developed multiple organ dysfunction, including acute kidney injury (AKI). Cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) may complicate the process of severe COVID-19 patients. This manuscript reviews the different aspects of blood purification in critically ill patients with AKI and increased inflammatory factors, and examines its potential role in severe COVID-19 treatment. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has been practiced in many sepsis patients with AKI. Still, the timing and dosing need further robust evidence. In addition to the traditional CRRT, the high-throughput membrane with adsorption function and cytokine adsorption column are two representatives of recently emerging novel membrane technologies. Their potential in removing inflammatory factors and other toxins prospects for the treatment of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Calcinosis/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokines , Heart Valve Diseases/therapy , Hypotrichosis/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy , Skin Diseases, Genetic/therapy , COVID-19 , Calcinosis/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Critical Illness , Heart Valve Diseases/etiology , Humans , Hypotrichosis/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases, Genetic/etiology
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