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1.
Med Rev (Berl) ; 2(1): 50-65, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879338

ABSTRACT

Since June 2020, the re-emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemics in parts of China was linked to the cold chain, which attracted extensive attention and heated discussions from the public. According to the typical characteristics of these epidemics, we speculated a possible route of transmission from cold chain to human. A series of factors in the supply chain contributed to the epidemics if the cold chain were contaminated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as temperature, humidity, personal hygiene/protection, and disinfection. The workers who worked in the cold chain at the receiving end faced a higher risk of being infected when they were not well protected. Facing the difficult situation, China put forward targeted and powerful countermeasures to block the cold chain-related risk. However, in the context of the unstable pandemic situation globally, the risk of the cold chain needs to be recognized and evaluated seriously. Hence, in this review, we reviewed the cold chain-related epidemics in China, analyzed the possible mechanisms, introduced the Chinese experience, and suggested coping strategies for the global epidemic prevention and control.

2.
J Inorg Biochem ; 231: 111777, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873158

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is currently the major challenge to global public health. Two proteases, papain-like protease (PLpro) and the 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro or Mpro), are indispensable for SARS-CoV-2 replication, making them attractive targets for antiviral therapy development. Here we screened a panel of essential metal ions using a proteolytic assay and identified that zinc gluconate, a widely-used zinc supplement, strongly inhibited the proteolytic activities of the two proteases in vitro. Biochemical and crystallographic data reveal that zinc gluconate exhibited the inhibitory function via binding to the protease catalytic site residues. We further show that treatment of zinc gluconate in combination with a small molecule ionophore hinokitiol, could lead to elevated intracellular Zn2+ level and thereby significantly impaired the two protease activities in cellulo. Particularly, this approach could also be applied to rescue SARS-CoV-2 infected mammalian cells, indicative of potential application to combat coronavirus infections. Our studies provide the direct experimental evidence that elevated intracellular zinc concentration directly inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication and suggest the potential benefits to use the zinc supplements for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Gluconates , Mammals/metabolism , Monoterpenes , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Tropolone/analogs & derivatives , Zinc/pharmacology
3.
Fractals ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1874693

ABSTRACT

Mathematical modeling can be utilized to find out how the coronavirus spreads within a population. Hence, considering models that can precisely describe natural phenomena is of crucial necessity. Besides, although one of the most significant benefits of mathematical modeling is designing optimal policies for battling the disease, there are a few studies that employ this beneficial aspect. To this end, this study aims to design optimal management policies for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This is a pioneering research that designs optimal policies based on multi-objective evolutionary algorithms for control of the fractional-order model of the COVID-19 outbreak. First, a fractional-order model of the disease dynamic is presented. The impacts of the fractional derivative’s value on the modeling and forecasting of the disease spread are considered. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem is proposed by considering the rate of communication, the transition of symptomatic infected class to the quarantined one, and the release of quarantined uninfected individuals. Numerical results clearly corroborate that by solving the proposed multi-objective problem, governments can control the massive disease outbreak while economic factors have reasonable values that prevent economic collapse. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Fractals is the property of World Scientific Publishing Company and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324214

ABSTRACT

The spillover of a virus from one host species to another requires both molecular and ecological risk factors to align. While extensive research both before and after the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 implicates horseshoe bat as the significant reservoir genus for the new coronavirus, it remains unclear why it emerged at this time. One massive disruption to human-animal contact in 2019 is linked to the on-going African swine fever virus (ASFV) pandemic. This began in Georgia in 2007 and was introduced to China in 2018. Pork is the major meat source in the Chinese diet. Severe fluctuations in the pork market prior to December 2019, may have increased the transmission of zoonotic pathogens, including severe acute respiratory syndrome–related coronaviruses, from wildlife to humans, wildlife to livestock and non-local animals to local animals. The major production and consumption regions for pork are geographically separated in China. The dramatic shortage of pork following restrictions of pig movement and culling resulted in price increases, leading to alternative meat consumption and unusual animal and meat movements nationwide such as wildlife and thus greatly increased opportunities for human-sarbecovirus contacts. Pork prices were particularly high in southern provinces (Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, and Hubei), where wildlife is farmed on different scales and more frequently consumed. Shandong experienced the biggest losses in pork production (~2 million metric tons), which is also the largest mink farming province. Hence, exposure of SARS-CoV-2 from wildlife or infected animals to humans by contact and consumption are more likely to have taken place in 2019, a year when China was experiencing the worst effects of the ASFV pandemic.

5.
Genome Biol Evol ; 14(2)2022 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684680

ABSTRACT

The lack of an identifiable intermediate host species for the proximal animal ancestor of SARS-CoV-2, and the large geographical distance between Wuhan and where the closest evolutionary related coronaviruses circulating in horseshoe bats (members of the Sarbecovirus subgenus) have been identified, is fueling speculation on the natural origins of SARS-CoV-2. We performed a comprehensive phylogenetic study on SARS-CoV-2 and all the related bat and pangolin sarbecoviruses sampled so far. Determining the likely recombination events reveals a highly reticulate evolutionary history within this group of coronaviruses. Distribution of the inferred recombination events is nonrandom with evidence that Spike, the main target for humoral immunity, is beside a recombination hotspot likely driving antigenic shift events in the ancestry of bat sarbecoviruses. Coupled with the geographic ranges of their hosts and the sampling locations, across southern China, and into Southeast Asia, we confirm that horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus, are the likely reservoir species for the SARS-CoV-2 progenitor. By tracing the recombinant sequence patterns, we conclude that there has been relatively recent geographic movement and cocirculation of these viruses' ancestors, extending across their bat host ranges in China and Southeast Asia over the last 100 years. We confirm that a direct proximal ancestor to SARS-CoV-2 has not yet been sampled, since the closest known relatives collected in Yunnan shared a common ancestor with SARS-CoV-2 approximately 40 years ago. Our analysis highlights the need for dramatically more wildlife sampling to: 1) pinpoint the exact origins of SARS-CoV-2's animal progenitor, 2) the intermediate species that facilitated transmission from bats to humans (if there is one), and 3) survey the extent of the diversity in the related sarbecoviruses' phylogeny that present high risk for future spillovers.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Pangolins/virology , Phylogeny , Recombination, Genetic , Animals , Humans , Phylogeography
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2257, 2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quickly developed into a global pandemic and affected patients' mental health. However, little is known about psychological experience of patients with COVID-19. The aim was to elucidate the psychological experience of patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Wuhan, at the initial stage of the pandemic. METHODS: This study was conducted using a phenomenological approach in a qualitative study. Thirteen patients with confirmed COVID-19 from a COVID-19-designated hospital in Wuhan, were recruited between March 15th and April 20th, 2020 via purposive sampling. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted face-to-face. The interview data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The psychological experience of patients was summarized into three themes: mental distress related to COVID-19, expectations of life scenarios after discharge, and making sense of the experience. These themes were classified into 10 sub-themes. Patients experienced confusion, uncertainty, worry, guilt and concern. Both positive and negative expectations of life scenarios after discharge were reported, manifested as expectations about making up for lost time with family, anxiety about social discrimination and feelings of helplessness about poor financial security. Moreover, patients perceived strength of abundant social support and awareness of social responsibility from their unique experience to cope with their condition. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Wuhan underwent complex psychological experience, both positive and negative at the initial stage of the pandemic. These findings will contribute to the delivery of effective mental health care to safeguard patients' wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Redox Biol ; 48: 102199, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537013

ABSTRACT

3CLpro is a key proteinase for SARS-CoV-2 replication and serves as an important target for antiviral drug development. However, how its activity is regulated intracellularly is still obscure. In this study, we developed a 3CLpro protease activity reporter system to examine the impact of various factors, including nutrient supplements, ions, pHs, or oxidative stress inducers, on 3CLpro protease activity. We found that oxidative stress could increase the overall activity of 3CLpro. Not altering the expression, oxidative stress decreased the solubility of 3CLpro in the lysis buffer containing 1% Triton-X-100. The Triton-X-100-insoluble 3CLpro was correlated with aggregates' formation and responsible for the increased enzymatic activity. The disulfide bonds formed between Cys85 sites of 3CLpro protomers account for the insolubility and the aggregation of 3CLpro. Besides being regulated by oxidative stress, 3CLpro impaired the cellular antioxidant capacity by regulating the cleavage of GPx1 at its N-terminus. This cleavage could further elevate the 3CLpro-proximate oxidative activity, favor aggregation and activation of 3CLpro, and thus lead to a positive feedback loop. In summary, we reported that oxidative stress transforms 3CLpro into a detergent-insoluble form that is more enzymatically active, leading to increased viral replication/transcription. Our study provided mechanistic evidence that suggests the therapeutic potential of antioxidants in the clinical treatment of COVID-19 patients.

9.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 726712, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497113

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been an emergency worldwide. Web-based physical education is a choice for college students to keep on their study. The aim of this study was to compare the data of physical fitness of college students before and after web-based physical education. Methods: All the students of 2018 and 2019 in Wuhan University of Technology who had taken the web-based physical education class in 2020 were included in this study. The records of annual physical fitness tests of all the subjects in 2019 and 2020 which were carried out in September were reviewed, including weight, height, body mass index (BMI), vital capacity (VC), 50-m dash, sit-and-reach, standing long jump, male-specific pull-ups and 1,000-m race, and female-specific sit-ups and 800-m race. Results: There were 24,112 male and 9,690 female records of physical fitness tests included in our study. The results of 11,219 male and 4,651 female students who completed both physical fitness tests in 2019 and 2020 were employed for Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Declined performance was observed on male 50-m dash by 0.1 s, male 1,000-m race by 14 s, and female 800-m race by 11 s. Notably, the percentage of male obesity, based on BMI, rose from 10.6 to 15.2% and 17.1 to 21.8% for male overweight; correspondingly, the percentage of male normal weight declined from 55.9 to 51.9% and 16.4 to 11.1% for male thinness. The trend of increasing BMI in males should be paid attention to. Improved results on vital capacity, sit-and-reach, standing long jump for both males and females, female 50-m dash, female sit-ups, and male pull-ups were observed in 2020. All the results of physical fitness tests were significantly different between 2019 and 2020 (p < 0.01) by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Conclusions: The changes of physical fitness tests before and after web-based physical education suggested that the focus should be placed on improvement for running tests through appropriate alternatives, such as fast running in place and shuttle run. In addition, the simple, convenient, and practical sport that require available equipment and little field should be considered for web-based physical education.

10.
Chem Sci ; 12(42): 14098-14102, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472230

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro or Mpro) is a key cysteine protease for viral replication and transcription, making it an attractive target for antiviral therapies to combat the COVID-19 disease. Here, we demonstrate that bismuth drug colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) is a potent inhibitor for 3CLpro in vitro and in cellulo. Rather than targeting the cysteine residue at the catalytic site, CBS binds to an allosteric site and results in dissociation of the 3CLpro dimer and proteolytic dysfunction. Our work provides direct evidence that CBS is an allosteric inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 619357, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268256

ABSTRACT

The current global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is still exerting severe global implications, and its development in various regions is complex and variable. The high risk of cross-infection poses a great challenge to the dental practice environment; it is therefore urgent to develop a set of pandemic prevention measures to ensure dental practice safety during the COVID-19 outbreak. Therefore, we combined the epidemiological characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), public emergency measures for COVID-19, characteristics of dental practice, and relevant literature reports to develop a set of dynamic practice measures for dental practices in high-, medium-, and low-risk areas affected by COVID-19. This will help dental practices to achieve standard prevention and ensure their safe and smooth operation during the pandemic. It is hoped that these measures will provide a reference basis for dental hospitals and dental clinics in their care and pandemic prevention work.

13.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(7): 1499-1512, 2021 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134503

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, which has lasted for nearly a year, has made people deeply aware of the strong transmissibility and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 since its outbreak in December 2019. By December 2020, SARS-CoV-2 had infected over 65 million people globally, resulting in more than 1 million deaths. At present, the exact animal origin of SARS-CoV-2 remains unclear and antiviral vaccines are now undergoing clinical trials. Although the social order of human life is gradually returning to normal, new confirmed cases continue to appear worldwide, and the majority of cases are sporadic due to environmental factors and lax self-protective consciousness. This article provides the latest understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors of nosocomial and community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, as well as strategies to diminish the risk of transmission. We believe that our review will help the public correctly understand and cope with SARS-CoV-2.

14.
Global Health ; 17(1): 23, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105718

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The psychological distress caused by COVID-19 may be pronounced among the parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study aimed to investigate psychological distress among parents of children with ASD during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 1764 parents of children with ASD and 4962 parents of typically developing (TD) children were recruited. The participants completed an online survey which contained demographic information, the impact due to COVID-19 crisis, resilience, coping styles, anxiety and depression. Hierarchical linear regression was used to assess the contributions of these variables to anxiety and depression. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic variables, the following factors were associated with parents' anxiety and depression symptoms: (i) Whether or not the participants had a child with ASD; (ii) resilience; (iii) coping strategies, and; (iv) the impact due to COVID-19. Among these, the psychological stress caused by COVID-19 played the most important role in parental anxiety (ß = 0.353) and depression (ß = 0.242) symptoms. Parents of children with ASD had lower levels of resilience and positive coping, and used more negative coping strategies than parents of TD children. Among all participants, 8.0 and 24.2% of parents had symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. Compared to parents of TD children, more parents of children with ASD exhibited symptoms of anxiety and depression (12.2% vs. 6.6%; 31.0% vs. 21.7%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, parents experienced varying levels of anxiety and depression, particularly, parents of children with ASD. More specific attention should be paid to parental mental health and long-term effective intervention programs, that are targeted towards parents of children with ASD, and such programs should be promoted around China in the wake of the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19/psychology , Parents/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
15.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(5): 617-628, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wuhan was the first epicentre of COVID-19 in the world, accounting for 80% of cases in China during the first wave. We aimed to assess household transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and risk factors associated with infectivity and susceptibility to infection in Wuhan. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included the households of all laboratory-confirmed or clinically confirmed COVID-19 cases and laboratory-confirmed asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections identified by the Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention between Dec 2, 2019, and April 18, 2020. We defined households as groups of family members and close relatives who did not necessarily live at the same address and considered households that shared common contacts as epidemiologically linked. We used a statistical transmission model to estimate household secondary attack rates and to quantify risk factors associated with infectivity and susceptibility to infection, accounting for individual-level exposure history. We assessed how intervention policies affected the household reproductive number, defined as the mean number of household contacts a case can infect. FINDINGS: 27 101 households with 29 578 primary cases and 57 581 household contacts were identified. The secondary attack rate estimated with the transmission model was 15·6% (95% CI 15·2-16·0), assuming a mean incubation period of 5 days and a maximum infectious period of 22 days. Individuals aged 60 years or older were at a higher risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 than all other age groups. Infants aged 0-1 years were significantly more likely to be infected than children aged 2-5 years (odds ratio [OR] 2·20, 95% CI 1·40-3·44) and children aged 6-12 years (1·53, 1·01-2·34). Given the same exposure time, children and adolescents younger than 20 years of age were more likely to infect others than were adults aged 60 years or older (1·58, 1·28-1·95). Asymptomatic individuals were much less likely to infect others than were symptomatic cases (0·21, 0·14-0·31). Symptomatic cases were more likely to infect others before symptom onset than after (1·42, 1·30-1·55). After mass isolation of cases, quarantine of household contacts, and restriction of movement policies were implemented, household reproductive numbers declined by 52% among primary cases (from 0·25 [95% CI 0·24-0·26] to 0·12 [0·10-0·13]) and by 63% among secondary cases (from 0·17 [0·16-0·18] to 0·063 [0·057-0·070]). INTERPRETATION: Within households, children and adolescents were less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection but were more infectious than older individuals. Presymptomatic cases were more infectious and individuals with asymptomatic infection less infectious than symptomatic cases. These findings have implications for devising interventions for blocking household transmission of SARS-CoV-2, such as timely vaccination of eligible children once resources become available. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, US National Institutes of Health, and US National Science Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e927472, 2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND SARS-CoV-2 has caused a pandemic. Control measures differ among countries. It is necessary to assess the effectiveness of these control measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected the data of COVID-19 patients and control measures between January 18, 2020 and September 18, 2020 from the Changshou District and analyzed the clinical characteristics, epidemiological data, and the adjustment of policies to assess the effectiveness of control measures. The control of COVID-19 was divided into 2 stages, with the lifting of lockdown in Hubei province (March 25, 2020) as a dividing line. RESULTS We identified 32 patients through different means in the first stage. All the imported patients entered this area before the lockdown. In 93.1% of patients, the last exposure occurred before the implementation of the stay-at-home order and centralized isolation. Tracing of high-risk people and RT-PCR screening identified 56.3% of cases. In the second stage, all the high-risk people were under centralized isolation. Nine asymptomatic patients were identified. City lockdown and stay-at-home orders were not issued again, and no second-generation patients were found. CONCLUSIONS We have provided a successful model to control the transmission of COVID-19 in a short period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Cities , Humans , Risk Factors
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(22)2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945800

ABSTRACT

The growing popularity of heated tobacco products (HTPs) among youth may act as a gateway for smoking and jeopardize youth health. We aimed to describe the use of HTPs among youth smokers in Hong Kong and examine their risk awareness of HTPs as well as awareness of the proposed legislation. We conducted retrospective data analyses on the Youth Quitline Cohort (n = 731). We extracted participants' sociodemographic data, smoking profiles, and HTP use from 1 January 2017. Participants' HTP use increased from 5.7% in 2017 to 37.9% in 2020. Among the 731 participants, 175 were HTP users and 556 were HTP nonusers. Compared with nonusers, a significantly higher proportion of HTP users had tried using other tobacco products at least once. The most common reason for using HTPs was curiosity. HTP users were more likely than nonusers to misclassify HTPs as e-cigarettes; agree that HTPs were healthier and contained fewer harmful substances than conventional cigarettes; consider HTPs as a smoking cessation aid; and believe that HTPs could reduce conventional cigarette consumption. Overall, 61.2% of youth smokers disagreed with banning HTPs. Risk awareness of HTPs among youth might affect their likelihood of using these products. Stricter regulations on advertising and intensive health education are imperative to avoid misleading information and limit youth exposure to such harmful products.


Subject(s)
Smokers , Tobacco Products , Adolescent , Awareness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tobacco , Tobacco Products/statistics & numerical data
18.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 602083, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940200

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To discuss the different characteristics of clinical, laboratory and chest computed tomography (CT) between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in pediatric patients. Methods: We retrospectively retrieved data of inpatients with COVID-19 from January 21st to March 14th, 2020, and CAP from November 1st, 2019 to December 31st, 2019 in Wuhan Children's Hospital. We divided CAP into mycoplasma pneumonia and other viral pneumonia. We analyzed clinical and radiological features from those patients, and compared the differences among COVID-19, mycoplasma pneumonia and other viral pneumonia. Results: Eighty COVID-19 inpatients from January 21st to March 14th, 2020, as well as 95 inpatients with mycoplasma pneumonia and 50 inpatients with other viral pneumonia from November 1st, 2019 to December 31st, 2019 were included in our study. All patients were confirmed with RT-PCR. The clinical symptoms were similar in the three groups. Except fever and cough, diarrhea (6/80, 7.5%), tachypnea (2/80, 2.5%), and fatigue (6/80, 7.5%) were less common in COVID-19 patients. Compared to mycoplasma pneumonia and other viral pneumonia inpatients, COVID-19 patients present remarkably increased alanine aminotransferase (69/80, 86.3%). The typical CT feature of COVID-19 is ground-glass opacity, and it was more common in COVID-19 patients (32/80, 40%). Conclusion: The COVID-19 shared similar onsets with CAP. Even though the ground-glass opacity and elevated level of ALT were frequent in COVID-19, the better way for treatment and management of this disease is quickly and accurately identifying the pathogen.

19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(22)2020 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927788

ABSTRACT

Tobacco use is a possible risk factor for contracting and spreading COVID-19. We aimed to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Youth Quitline service and quitting behaviors of its users in Hong Kong. We conducted a telephone survey involving 201 participants of the Youth Quitline service, and retrospectively analyzed the operation and use of Quitline since the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong. The number of incoming calls to the Youth Quitline and the participants' quit rate has increased since the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong. Many participants (68%) did not realize that tobacco use potentially increased their risk for developing and spreading COVID-19; however, 43% agreed that the pandemic motivated their intention to quit, and 83% changed their smoking habits during the pandemic. These changes were mainly due to wearing masks (30%), closure of bars/pubs (25%), suspension of classes (14%), and being unable to socialize with friends (24%). Overall, 58% reduced their tobacco use; of these participants, 66% reported a ≥50% reduction in daily cigarette consumption. The participants reduced their smoking during the COVID-19 pandemic despite lacking knowledge about the potentially increased risk for contracting COVID-19 from continued smoking. The pandemic could create new opportunities to motivate young smokers to quit smoking, especially those seeking support for smoking cessation, and may further contribute to reducing the risks posed by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Hotlines/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 579512, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902431

ABSTRACT

Objective: This work aims to investigate the clinical features and the temporal changes of RT-PCR and CT in COVID-19 pediatric patients. Methods: The clinical, RT-PCR, and CT features of 114 COVID-19 pediatric in-patients were retrospectively reviewed from January 21 to March 14, 2020. All patients had chest CT on admission and were identified as positive by pharyngeal swab nucleic acid test. The clinical features were analyzed, as well as the features and the temporal changes of RT-PCR and CT. Results: Fever (62, 54%) and cough (61, 54%) were the most common symptoms. There were 34 (30%) cases of concurrent infections. The most common imaging features on CT were ground-glass opacities (46, 40%) and consolidation (46, 40%). The bilateral lower lobes were the most common pattern of involvement, with 63 cases (55%) involving one to two lobes, and in 32 (28%) cases CT was normal. Throughout the whole duration of COVID-19 in children, the diagnostic positive rate of RT-PCR has been far higher than that of CT (all P < 0.05). For RT-PCR follow-up, reliable negative results were obtained only 7 days after the onset of symptoms. Though lung involvement on chest CT progressed rapidly in several cases, lung involvement in children with COVID-19 is mild, with a median value of 2 on CT score. Conclusions: RT-PCR is more reliable than CT in the initial diagnosis of pediatric patients with COVID-19. On follow-up, reliable negative RT-PCR results are available 7 days after the initial symptoms. The use of CT should be considered for follow-up purposes only if necessary.

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