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1.
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Medical Science) ; JOUR(9):1188-1196, 42.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2099972

ABSTRACT

Objective·To explore the possible roles of immune inhibitory receptor leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 2 (LILRB2) in the immune inflammation after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and provide a potential therapeutic way for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods·The supernatants containing the extracellular domain of spike protein (S-ECD) were collected, and the detection of the protein expression and activity in the conditional medium by Western blotting and flow cytometric analysis was followed by. The binding of S-ECD with LILRB2 was measured by co-immunoprecipitation and flow cytometric analysis. The mRNA expression levels of several inflammation genes in a human mononuclear cell line (THP1) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were measured after spike protein stimulation for 24 h by quantitative RT-PCR. The protein levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the conditional medium were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The siLILRB2 was transferred into CD33+ myeloid cells purified from human peripheral blood with Lipofectamine 3000 reagents. The knockdown efficiency was detected 24 h after transfection by flow cytometric analysis. The difference in the protein levels of IL-6 between the control cells and LILRB2-knocked-down cells after spike protein treatment was evaluated by ELISA. Results·The study established a transfection system with 293T cells by which the SARSCoV-2 S-ECD could be secreted to supernatants with normal biological activities. The interaction and the binding of spike protein with LILRB2 were evaluated by a co-immunoprecipitation assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, arginase 1 and IL-2 in THP1 cells were significantly up-regulated 24 h after spike protein treatment compared to the control cells (all P<0.05). Consistently, the mRNA levels of IL-6, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), IL-8, IL-10 and IL-β in PBMC were notably increased after spike protein stimulation (all P<0.05). In addition, spike protein could also induce the release of IL-6 and IL-1β in PBMC as measured by ELISA (all P<0.05). More importantly, spike protein was able to increase the secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 by CD33+ myeloid cells 24 h after treatment (both P<0.05). LILRB2-overexpressing THP1 cells produced more IL-6 24 h after treatment with spike protein than the control cells (P<0.05). Two siRNAs could efficiently down-regulate the expression of LILRB2 in CD33+ cells as evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. Consistently, spike protein had no effect on the IL-6 secretion to supernatant from LILRB2-knockdown CD33+ myeloid cells. Conclusion·SARS-CoV-2 can induce cytokine release syndrome by inflammatory factors, such as IL-6 and IL-1β, released by myeloid cells through spike protein binding to LILRB2. © 2022 Editorial Department of Journal of Shanghai Second Medical University. All rights reserved.

2.
14th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design, CCD 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 ; 13313 LNCS:230-240, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919665

ABSTRACT

Social media is one of the most significant sources of information in modern people’s life. Due to the large quantity of user base and public opinions, when people read a blog post, the different tendencies of comments may affect their views on the event to a certain extent. This paper, taking the COVID-19 epidemic as an example, investigated the impact of Weibo (a popular social software in China) comments on readers’ sentiments. In this paper, text mining technology was adopted to collect data including the blogs and the comments under each blog, and the NLPIR-Parser platform was used to analyze the sentiment of the comments. Finally, the conclusion that the sentiments of other comments tend to follow the sentiments of the first comments was drawn. Based on the research results, this paper also gave some enlightenment on social media management and suggestions of public opinions oversight. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

3.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337382

ABSTRACT

Children typically experience more mild symptoms of COVID-19 when compared to adults. There is a strong body of evidence that children are also less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection with the ancestral viral isolate. However, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) has been associated with an increased number of pediatric infections. Whether this is the result of widespread adult vaccination or fundamental changes in the biology of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be determined. Here, we use primary nasal epithelial cells from children and adults, differentiated at an air-liquid interface to show that the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 replicates to significantly lower titers in the nasal epithelial cells of children compared to those of adults. This was associated with a heightened antiviral response to SARS-CoV-2 in the nasal epithelial cells of children. Importantly, the Delta variant also replicated to significantly lower titres in the nasal epithelial cells of children. This trend was markedly less pronounced in the case of Omicron. It is also striking to note that, at least in terms of viral RNA, Omicron replicated better in pediatric NECs compared to both Delta and the ancestral virus. Taken together, these data show that the nasal epithelium of children supports lower infection and replication of ancestral SARS-CoV-2, although this may be changing as the virus evolves.

4.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):1845-1845, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1849018
6.
2021 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, IEEM 2021 ; : 869-874, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1731004

ABSTRACT

Due to the community lockdown caused by COVID-19, people are turning to a new retail method called 'Community group purchase' to obtain daily consumer goods. Orders from the entire community are aggregated and sent to the retailer. To reduce orders' turnover time, the retailer needs to decide what time to fulfill and deliver these orders, which have different information from the distribution center. This paper studies a joint order fulfillment and delivery problem and proposes an integer programming model. Due to the uncertain order information, the robust optimization approach is introduced to formulate two uncertain models based on different uncertainty sets. Through a series of formulations, the robust models are transformed to the tractable form that can be solved directly by the solver. The numerical experiments are carried out to show the benefits of the two robust optimization models, and managerial insights related to the problem are also presented. © 2021 IEEE.

7.
Medical Journal of Wuhan University ; 43(1):1-5, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1600038

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of the male reproductive system of COVID‑19 patients and to explore the presence of SARS‑CoV‑2 in semen. Methods: Case series of 112 male patients with confirmed COVID‑19 who were admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January to March, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms and signs related to the male reproductive system, throat swabs and semen samples were collected and analyzed. SARS‑CoV‑2 RNA levels were measured in throat swab and semen samples. The organ distribution of ACE2 mRNA and protein in human tissue on HPA database were investigated. Results: The HPA dataset revealed relatively high levels of ACE2 protein and RNA expression in testis. A total of 3 severe COVID‑19 patients (2.7%) presented with orchidoptosis, while no patient experienced other symptoms or signs related to the male reproductive system. The analysis of SARS‑CoV‑2 RNA in semen included 17 patients with fertility needs. In the semen SARS‑CoV‑2 analysis, all 17 patients were negative for the N gene and ORF1ab gene. Conclusion: The online datasets indicated the potential impairment of the testicular function by SARS‑CoV‑2. However, this study suggestes that male patients have few reproductive symptoms and signs, and SARS‑CoV‑2 was not present in the semen of patients with confirmed COVID‑19. In view of the potential impairment, the long‑term follow‑up for male COVID‑19 patients with fertility needs is of great significance. © 2022, Editorial Board of Medical Journal of Wuhan University. All right reserved.

8.
Research of Environmental Sciences ; 34(10):2509-2516, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1497975

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate the distribution and risk of microbial aerosols in residential areas after the COVID-19 in Wuhan Ctiy, Changqing Garden residential area, a mature community was selected as a case in this study. From October to December 2020, the Andersen-sixstage microbial air sampler was used to collect samples in six typical places in this residential area, and the microbial aerosol concentration was determined by the plate count method. In addition, the health risk assessment was evaluated according to the Chinese Population Exposure Parameters Manual (Adult Volume). The results showed that: (1) The concentration of microbial aerosol can be ranked in this order: fresh food market >underground parking lot >food street >central basketball court >central square >green pavilion. (2) The concentration of bacteria and fungus aerosol was different in different places, and the maximum aerosol concentration occurred in the fresh food market ((1525.32±1311.31) CFU/m3) and the food street ((1296.82±113.84) CFU/m3), respectively. (3) Take the air microbial concentration in typical places as the evaluation standard: the central basketball court, green pavilion and central square were clean, the fresh food market and underground parking lot were slightly polluted, and the food court was lightly pollution. (4) The median diameter of microbial aerosols was less than 4.7 μm, which can easily cause lower respiratory tract infections in residents. (5) The Hazard Quotient (HQ) of the typical places from October to December 2020 was less than 1, indicating that the health risk of microbial aerosol exposure in Changqing Garden residential area was relatively small. This research shows that the air quality of the Changqing Garden residential area is good under the epidemic prevention and control normalized measures, which meets the requirements for sanitary conditions in the post-COVID-19 era. © 2021, Editorial Board, Research of Environmental Sciences. All right reserved.

9.
2020 International Conference on Robots and Intelligent Systems, ICRIS 2020 ; : 370-373, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1447856

ABSTRACT

This novel novel coronavirus pneumonia novel coronavirus pneumonia background has been limited in the context of the spread of media information. For example, the government's credibility has been reduced due to the flooding of false information, this paper proposes a novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic model under the background of media information dissemination. The model combines a variety of advanced science and technology, such as big data technology, cloud computing technology, artificial intelligence technology, etc., these technologies are based on the Internet platform, and can provide help for the dissemination and development of media information. Based on novel coronavirus pneumonia, the model can also disseminate scientific and authoritative information, avoid panic as much as possible and reduce the speed of negative public opinion. The experimental results show that the model can reduce the speed of negative public opinion, improve the credibility of the government, and improve the efficiency of public governance. © 2020 IEEE.

10.
Chinese Journal of Radiological Medicine and Protection ; 41(7):514-518, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1367943

ABSTRACT

CT is an important imaging tool for the diagnosis of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), therefore, it's necessary to strictly control the disinfection of CT workplace and equipment and biosafety to avoid the place from becoming a potential infection source and to reduce the risk of infection of patients and radiological staff. It is also necessary to reduce the CT scan dose to minimize the radiation hazards on patients under the premise of ensuring the CT image quality and diagnostic efficiency. Based on the survey that novel coronavirus residues after disinfection at some CT workplace in domestic and overseas and the application of low-dose CT scan in diagnosis of COVID-19, as well as the current situation of radiological protection management in emergency hospital, this paper summarizes and proposes suggestions on infection control and radiological protection for CT workplace to strengthen the defense line of COVID-19 prevention and control. Copyright © 2021 by the Chinese Medical Association.

11.
Proceedings of the 18th Usenix Symposium on Networked System Design and Implementation ; : 217-232, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1329598

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic reshapes our social landscape, its lessons have far-reaching implications on how online service providers manage their infrastructure to mitigate risks. This paper presents Facebook's risk-driven backbone management strategy to ensure high service performance throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. We describe Risk Simulation System (RSS), a production system that identifies possible failures and quantifies their potential severity with a set of metrics for network risk. With a year-long risk measurement from RSS we show that our backbone resiliently withstood the COVID-19 stress test, achieving high service availability and low route dilation while efficiently handling traffic surges. We also share our operational practices to mitigate risk throughout the pandemic. Our findings give insights to further improve risk-driven network management. We argue for incorporating short-term failure statistics in modeling failures. Common failure prediction models based on long-term modeling achieve stable output at the cost of assigning low significance to unique short-term events of extreme importance such as COVID-19. Furthermore, we advocate augmenting network management techniques with non-networking signals. We support this by identifying and analyzing the correlation between network traffic and human mobility.

12.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine ; 14(5):1852-1863, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1283187

ABSTRACT

Background: To evaluate the potential pharmacological activity of polygonum cuspidatum, a popular Chinese herb medicine (CHM), against COVID-19. Methods: The TCMSP database was utilized to screen the active ingredients and potential drug-targets of polygonum cuspidatum. Then GO/KEGG enrichment analysis of these common targets was performed, followed with the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction and core target extraction by Cytoscape and MCODE plugin, respectively. The molecular docking analysis was conducted by using CB-Dock. Furthermore, a newly developed TCMATCOV platform was employed to predict therapeutic effects of polygonum cuspidatum for COVID-19. Results: Fifteen key ingredients and 62 common targets were obtained from the above screening. The GO/KEGG enrichment analyses of these common targets and the core targets extracted from the PPI network suggested that polygonum cuspidatum had antiviral and immunoregulatory activities. Further molecular docking analysis showed that two key ingredients, physciondiglucoside and chrysophanol, had good binding affinities with the core targets, suggesting an important role for them in mediating the pharmacological activity of polygonum cuspidatum. The therapeutic effect of polygonum cuspidatum for COVID-19 was further validated by using the TCMATCOV platform. Conclusion: These results based on network pharmacology and bioinformatics analysis suggest polygonum cuspidatum is a promising CHM candidate against COVID-19.

13.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-9017

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI) methods for the automatic detection and quantification of COVID-19 lesions in chest computed tomography (CT) might play an important role in the monitoring and management of the disease. We organized an international challenge and competition for the development and comparison of AI algorithms for this task, which we supported with public data and state-of-the-art benchmark methods. Board Certified Radiologists annotated 295 public images from two sources (A and B) for algorithms training (n=199, source A), validation (n=50, source A) and testing (n=23, source A;n=23, source B). There were 1,096 registered teams of which 225 and 98 completed the validation and testing phases, respectively. The challenge showed that AI models could be rapidly designed by diverse teams with the potential to measure disease or facilitate timely and patient-specific interventions. This paper provides an overview and the major outcomes of the COVID-19 Lung CT Lesion Segmentation Challenge - 2020.

14.
Commun. Comput. Info. Sci. ; 1402 CCIS:106-115, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1212825

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we describe our system for the AAAI 2021 shared task of COVID-19 Fake News Detection in English, where we achieved the 3rd position with the weighted F1 score of 0.9859 on the test set. Specifically, we proposed an ensemble method of different pre-trained language models such as BERT, Roberta, Ernie, etc. with various training strategies including warm-up, learning rate schedule and k-fold cross-validation. We also conduct an extensive analysis of the samples that are not correctly classified. The code is available at: https://github.com/archersama/3rd-solution-COVID19-Fake-News-Detection-in-English. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

15.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 13(4):257-263, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1143649

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the risk factors of fatal outcome in patients with severe COVID-19. Methods: The clinical characteristics of 107 patients with severe COVID-19 admitted in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from February 12 to March 12, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. During the hospitalization 49 patients died (fatal group) and 58 patients survived (survival group). The clinical characteristics, baseline laboratory findings were analyzed using R and Python statistical software. The risk factors of fatal outcome in patients with severe COVID-19 were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression. Results: Univariate analysis showed that the two groups had statistically significant differences in age, clinical classification, dry cough, dyspnea and laboratory test indicators (P<0.05 or <0.01). The random forest model was used to rank the significance of the statistically significant variables in the univariate analysis, and the selected variables were included in the binary logistic regression model. After stepwise regression analysis, the patient's clinical type, age, neutrophil count, and the proportion of CD3 cells are independent risk factors for death in severe COVID-19 patients. Dry cough is an independent protective factor for the death of severe COVID-19 patients. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients with fatal outcome are more likely to have suppressed immune function, secondary infection and inflammatory factor storm. These factors may work together in severe patients, leading to intractable hypoxemia and multiple organ dysfunction and resulting in fatal outcome of patients. The study indicates that timely intervention and treatment measures against above factors may be effective to save the lives of patients with severe COVID-19. Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese Medical Association.

16.
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer ; 8:A292-A293, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1105516
19.
Adv. Intell. Sys. Comput. ; 1303:1213-1220, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1002049

ABSTRACT

Based on Baidu Index, 223 pharmaceutical stocks selected from the CSI 300 index from November 1, 2019 to June 8, 2020 were selected as research samples. Fama-French three-factor model and panel regression analysis were adopted to study the impact of investors’ attention to COVID-19 on the pharmaceutical stock market. Based on the three-factor model, this study explained the impact of investors’ increasing concern about the epidemic on the medical stock market from three dependent variables of return rate, trading volume and amplitude. The results show that investors’ attention to COVID-19 has a significant positive impact on the return, volume and amplitude of the pharmaceutical stock market during the same period. © 2021, The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

20.
Zhong Hua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(3):210-214, 2020.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-984652

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by 2019 novel coronavirus has become a global public health challenge. In addition to the typical respiratory symptoms, COVID-19 can induce damage to testicular spermatogenesis. This study focuses on the possible causes and follow-up monitoring of testicular injury induced by COVID-19.

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