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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 833310, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902989

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoints (ICPs) consist of paired receptor-ligand molecules that exert inhibitory or stimulatory effects on immune defense, surveillance, regulation, and self-tolerance. ICPs exist in both membrane and soluble forms in vivo and in vitro. Imbalances between inhibitory and stimulatory membrane-bound ICPs (mICPs) in malignant cells and immune cells in the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) have been well documented. Blockades of inhibitory mICPs have emerged as an immense breakthrough in cancer therapeutics. However, the origin, structure, production regulation, and biological significance of soluble ICPs (sICPs) in health and disease largely remains elusive. Soluble ICPs can be generated through either alternative mRNA splicing and secretion or protease-mediated shedding from mICPs. Since sICPs are found in the bloodstream, they likely form a circulating immune regulatory system. In fact, there is increasing evidence that sICPs exhibit biological functions including (1) regulation of antibacterial immunity, (2) interaction with their mICP compartments to positively or negatively regulate immune responses, and (3) competition with their mICP compartments for binding to the ICP blocking antibodies, thereby reducing the efficacy of ICP blockade therapies. Here, we summarize current data of sICPs in cancer and infectious diseases. We particularly focus on sICPs in COVID-19 and HIV infection as they are the two ongoing global pandemics and have created the world's most serious public health challenges. A "storm" of sICPs occurs in the peripheral circulation of COVID-19 patients and is associated with the severity of COVID-19. Similarly, sICPs are highly dysregulated in people living with HIV (PLHIV) and some sICPs remain dysregulated in PLHIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART), indicating these sICPs may serve as biomarkers of incomplete immune reconstitution in PLHIV on ART. We reveal that HIV infection in the setting of alcohol misuse exacerbates sICP dysregulation as PLHIV with heavy alcohol consumption have significantly elevated plasma levels of many sICPs. Thus, both stimulatory and inhibitory sICPs are present in the bloodstream of healthy people and their balance can be disrupted under pathophysiological conditions such as cancer, COVID-19, HIV infection, and alcohol misuse. There is an urgent need to study the role of sICPs in immune regulation in health and disease.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/physiology , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Proteins/blood , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Cancer Med ; 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been a delay in the detection and treatment of lymphedema in breast cancer patients during the lockdown owing to quarantine and limited social activity. Moreover, this scenario has caused psychosocial issues in these patients. Given that there is scarce information on the prevalence and influence of lymphedema during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of lymphedema recurrence and its influencing factors among discharged breast cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional, hospital-based survey of discharged breast cancer patients was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic in eight first-class hospitals in Wuhan, China. The Norman Questionnaire was used to assess lymphedema. Univariable and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors influencing moderate or severe lymphedema. Differences in living characteristics, anxiety, and depression were compared between the no/mild lymphedema group and the moderate/severe lymphedema groups. Preferences for lymphedema management during the pandemic were determined. RESULTS: Overall, 202 patients were included in this study, and 191 of them reported recurrent lymphedema (prevalence: 94.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 90.5% to 97.3%). Among them, 134 and 57 had mild and moderate/severe lymphedema, respectively. In 191 patients, the main symptoms were swelling (140; 69.3%) and pain (56, 27.7%). Multivariable regression showed that older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02-1.10), radical surgery (OR = 4.35, 95% CI: 1.54-12.50), and fully complete radiotherapy (OR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.17-5.87, p = 0.019) were associated with an elevated risk of moderate/severe lymphedema. The moderate/severe lymphedema group experienced a higher rate of anxiety and depression than the no/mild lymphedema group did. Patients equally preferred treatment in the hospital and self-care at home. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, high prevalence of lymphedema was observed in patients Age, radical surgery and fully completed radiotherapy were associated with increased risk of severer lymphedema. Meanwhile, the patients with severe lymphedema experienced psychological distress. While the Covid-19 pandemic was still raging, continuous efforts should be made to identify patient at risk of lymphedema and distribute feasible guidance and education for self-management in lymphedema.

3.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3540-3547, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767364

ABSTRACT

Low temperature and certain humidity are conducive to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for long-time survival and long-distance spread during logistics and trades. Contaminated cold-chain or frozen products and outer packaging act as the carrier of SARS-CoV-2, that infects the high-risk population who works in the ports, cold storage or seafood market. Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide, multiple localized outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV-2 contaminated imported cold-chain products have been reported in China, which brought challenges to COVID-19 prevention and control. Here, we review the evidences of SARS-CoV-2 cold-chain transmission from six confirmed cold-chain related COVID-19 outbreaks in China, especially in terms of SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequencing and virus isolation. In addition, we summarize the characteristics and mode of SARS-CoV-2 cold-chain transmission from both six COVID-19 outbreaks in China and the outbreaks suspected cold-chain transmission in other countries. Finally, we analyze the underlying risks of SARS-CoV-2 cold-chain transmission and propose the preventive countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors
4.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(11):1109-1111, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1726090

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in November 2021.

5.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(10):990-995, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1726084

ABSTRACT

Accordings to the Pango nomenclature, a total of 1 379 lineages of SARS-CoV-2 have been identified worldwide as of 20 September 2021. Some lineages have disappeared or are close to disappearing due to the replacement by the variants with higher transmissibility and/or immune escape ability. The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined 4 variants of concern (VOC), 5 variants of interest (VOI) and 11 variants belonging to variants under monitoring (VUM). At present, the Delta variant has replaced the Alpha variant as the predominant global pandemic strain, and it is also the main variant detected in imported cases and local epidemics recently in China. Meanwhile, the Gamma and Lambda variants reported in some countries of South America, the Mu variant reported in some countries of South America and North America, and the C.1.2 variant reported in South Africa have also attracted high attention worldwide. The paper summarizes the variation of SARS-CoV-2 genome and the research progress of key variants of SARS-CoV-2 and put forward the key points of further research based on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318919

ABSTRACT

Background: To evaluate recurrence of lymphedema and its influencing factors in discharged breast cancer patients with treated lymphedema during the COVID-19 pandemic and to propose feasible improvements. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional, hospital-based survey of discharged breast cancer patients was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic in eight first-class hospitals in Wuhan city, China. Norman Questionnaire was used for assessing lymphedema, and multivariable binary logistic regression was performed to risk factors of moderate or severe lymphedema. Difference in living characteristics, anxiety and depression between no or mild group and moderate or severe group were compared. Preference in management of lymphedema were collected. Results: 202 valid patients were included. 191 participants reported recurred lymphedema (prevalence: 94.6%, 95%CI 90.5% to 97.3%). 134 of them was mild and 57 were moderate/severe. In the 191 patients, the main symptom was swelling (140, 69.3%) and pain (56, 27.7%). Multivariable regression showed that age (odds ratio, 1.06, 95%CI: 1.02-1.10), radical surgery (OR=4.35, 95%CI: 1.54-12.50) and fully complete radiotherapy (OR=2.62, 95%CI: 1.17-5.87, P=0.019) was associated with the risk of moderate or severe lymphedema. No significant difference in lifestyles was observed but moderate or severe group experienced higher rate of anxiety and depression. patients preferred treatment in hospital and self-care at home equally. Conclusion: The high recurrence rate of lymphedema in breast cancer patients with during COVID-19 should draw our great attention, continuous efforts should be made to identify patient at risk of lymphedema and distribute feasible guidance and education for self-management for these patients.

7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580781

ABSTRACT

Medical wastewater originating from hospitals specializing in infectious diseases pose a major risk to human and environmental health during pandemics. However, there have been few systematic studies on the management of this type of wastewater management. The function of the Huoshenshan Hospital as a designated emergency field hospital for the treatment of COVID-19 has provided lessons for the management measures of medical wastewater, mainly including: (1) Modern information technology, management schemes, and related standard systems provided the legislative foundation for emergency management of medical wastewater. (2) The three-tier prevention and control medical wastewater management system ensured the discharged wastewater met water quality standards, especially for the leak-proof sealed collection system of the first tier, and the biological and chemical treatment technology of the second tier. (3) The establishment of an effective three-tier medical wastewater quality monitoring accountability system. This system was particularly relevant for ensuring continuous data monitoring and dynamic analysis of characteristic indicators. (4) Information disclosure by government and public supervision promoted successful implementation of medical wastewater management and control measures. Public questionnaires (n = 212) further confirmed the effectiveness of information disclosure. The results of this study can act as methodological reference for the emergency management of wastewater in designated infectious disease hospitals under similar situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , China , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
8.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(12)2021 Dec 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580576

ABSTRACT

A two-stage isothermal amplification method, which consists of a first-stage basic recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and a second-stage fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), as well as a microfluidic-chip-based portable system, were developed in this study; these enabled parallel detection of multiplex targets in real time in around one hour, with high sensitivity and specificity, without cross-contamination. The consumption of the sample and the reagent was 2.1 µL and 10.6 µL per reaction for RPA and LAMP, respectively. The lowest detection limit (LOD) was about 10 copies. The clinical amplification of about 40 nasopharyngeal swab samples, containing 17 SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) and 23 measles viruses (MV), were parallel tested by using the microfluidic chip. Both clinical specificity and sensitivity were 100% for MV, and the clinical specificity and sensitivity were 94.12% and 95.83% for SARS-CoV-2, respectively. This two-stage isothermal amplification method based on the microfluidic chip format offers a convenient, clinically parallel molecular diagnostic method, which can identify different nucleic acid samples simultaneously and in a timely manner, and with a low cost of the reaction reagent. It is especially suitable for resource-limited areas and point-of-care testing (POCT).

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 741204, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528830

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients are at a high risk of being infected with COVID-19 and have a poor prognosis after infection. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers. Since vaccination is an effective measure to prevent the spread of COVID-19, we studied the vaccination rate among breast cancer survivors and analyzed their characteristics to provide evidence for boosting the vaccination rate. The researchers conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study on 747 breast cancer survivors from six hospitals in Wuhan city between June 5, 2021, and June 12, 2021. The self-administrated questionnaires based on relevant studies were distributed. The researchers then compared differences in characteristics among vaccinated patients, hesitant patients, and non-vaccinated patients. Moreover, they performed univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify potential factors associated with vaccination hesitancy. The researchers assessed a total of 744 breast cancer survivors -94 cases in the vaccinated group, 103 in the planning group, 295 in the hesitancy group, and 252 in the refusal group. The vaccination rate was 12.63% (95% CI 10.25-15.02%) and 37.23% (95% CI 27.48-47.82%) patients reported adverse reactions. The vaccination hesitancy/refusal rate was 73.52% (95% CI 70.19-76.66%), which was independently associated with current endocrine or targeted therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52, 95% CI 1.03-2.24), no notification from communities or units (OR = 2.46, 95% CI 1.69-3.59) and self-perceived feel (general vs. good, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13; bad vs. good, OR = 4.75, 95% CI 1.85-12.16). In the hesitancy/refusal group, the primary reason was "I did not know who to ask whether I can get vaccinated" (46.07%), the person who would most influence decisions of patients was the doctor in charge of treatment (35.83%). Effective interaction between doctors and patients, simple and consistent practical guidelines on vaccination, and timely and positive information from authoritative media could combat misinformation and greatly reduce vaccine hesitancy among breast cancer survivors.

10.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1888

ABSTRACT

We study the market reactions following staggered implementations of lockdowns across U.S. states during Covid-19. We find that returns on firms located in lock

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