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Front Immunol ; 13: 868386, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987491


Skin diseases are mainly divided into infectious diseases, non-infectious inflammatory diseases, cancers, and wounds. The pathogenesis might include microbial infections, autoimmune responses, aberrant cellular proliferation or differentiation, and the overproduction of inflammatory factors. The traditional therapies for skin diseases, such as oral or topical drugs, have still been unsatisfactory, partly due to systematic side effects and reappearance. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), as an innovative and non-invasive therapeutic approach, has demonstrated its safe and effective functions in dermatology. With its generation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, CAP exhibits significant efficacies in inhibiting bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, facilitating wound healing, restraining the proliferation of cancers, and ameliorating psoriatic or vitiligous lesions. This review summarizes recent advances in CAP therapies for various skin diseases and implicates future strategies for increasing effectiveness or broadening clinical indications.

Plasma Gases , Skin Diseases , Humans , Nitrogen , Oxygen , Plasma Gases/pharmacology , Plasma Gases/therapeutic use , Reactive Nitrogen Species , Reactive Oxygen Species , Skin Diseases/drug therapy
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 321, 2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727282


BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), through its surface spike glycoprotein (S-protein) recognition on the receptor Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in humans. However, it remains unclear how genetic variations in ACE2 may affect its function and structure, and consequently alter the recognition by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We have systemically characterized missense variants in the gene ACE2 using data from the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD; N = 141,456). To investigate the putative deleterious role of missense variants, six existing functional prediction tools were applied to evaluate their impact. We further analyzed the structural flexibility of ACE2 and its protein-protein interface with the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 using our developed Legion Interfaces Analysis (LiAn) program. RESULTS: Here, we characterized a total of 12 ACE2 putative deleterious missense variants. Of those 12 variants, we further showed that p.His378Arg could directly weaken the binding of catalytic metal atom to decrease ACE2 activity and p.Ser19Pro could distort the most important helix to the S-protein. Another seven missense variants may affect secondary structures (i.e. p.Gly211Arg; p.Asp206Gly; p.Arg219Cys; p.Arg219His, p.Lys341Arg, p.Ile468Val, and p.Ser547Cys), whereas p.Ile468Val with AF = 0.01 is only present in Asian. CONCLUSIONS: We provide strong evidence of putative deleterious missense variants in ACE2 that are present in specific populations, which could disrupt the function and structure of ACE2. These findings provide novel insight into the genetic variation in ACE2 which may affect the SARS-CoV-2 recognition and infection, and COVID-19 susceptibility and treatment.

Betacoronavirus/physiology , Mutation, Missense , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , DNA Mutational Analysis/methods , Databases, Genetic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/ethnology , Genetic Variation , Geography , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Secondary/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization