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1.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 58: 103482, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586958

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify changes in psychological wellbeing and physical function as reported by people with neurological inflammatory disease (PwNID) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: 1134 PwNID and 868 control participants were recruited through five major academic medical centers in the Northeast/Mid-Atlantic U.S. beginning in April 2020. Participants completed serial surveys throughout the COVID-19 pandemic that aimed to quantify mood symptoms and physical function, analyzed cross-sectionally with a smaller cohort analyzed longitudinally. RESULTS: Throughout the pandemic, depression scores were not significantly different between PwNID and controls, although a higher proportion of PwNID reported clinically significant depression at study entry. Depression scores did not worsen over time for either group. Loneliness was the strongest predictor of worse depression, along with older age, male gender in both PwNID and controls, as well as lack of disease modifying therapy use, and disease duration in PwNID only. In contrast, physical disability worsened significantly over time for both PwNID and controls. Age, DMT status and comorbid health conditions emerged as significant predictors of physical function. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms remained consistent for both PwNID and controls throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, but physical function worsened significantly over time for both groups. This is particularly impactful for PwNID, who have higher baseline levels of physical disability, and underscores the importance of reinstituting services and interventions that facilitate exercise and reconditioning for this population.

2.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 57: 103433, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with autoimmune disease and on immunotherapy were largely excluded from seminal anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trials. This has led to significant vaccine hesitancy in patients with neuroinflammatory diseases (NID); including, but not limited to: multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), neurosarcoidosis and myelin oligodendrocyte antibody-mediated disease (MOG-AD). Data is urgently needed to help guide clinical care in the NID population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational study evaluating adults with a neurologist-confirmed diagnosis of a neuroinflammatory disease (NID) and a neurologically asymptomatic control population. Participants were recruited from multiple academic centers participating in the MS Resilience to COVID-19 Collaborative study. We analyzed participant responses from a vaccine-specific questionnaire collected between February and May 2021. RESULTS: 1164 participants with NID and 595 controls completed the vaccine survey. Hesitancy rates were similar between NID and control groups (n = 134, 32.7% NID vs. n = 56, 30.6% control; p = 0.82). The most common reasons for hesitancy in NID participants were lack of testing in the autoimmune population and fear of demyelinating/neurologic events. Unvaccinated patients who had discussed vaccination with their doctor were less likely to be hesitant (n=184, 73.6% vs. n=83, 59.7%; p = 0.007). 634 NID patients and 332 controls had received at least one dose of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 at the time of survey completion. After adjusting for age, BMI, and comorbidities, there was no difference in self-reported side effects (SE) between groups with the first dose (n = 256, 42.2% NID vs. 141, 45.3% control; p = 0.20) or second dose (n = 246, 67.0% NID vs. n = 114, 64.8% control, p = 0.85) of the mRNA vaccines nor with the viral-vector vaccines (n = 6, 46% NID vs. n = 8, 66% control; p = 0.39). All reported SEs fell into the expected SE profile. There was no difference in report of new/recurrent neurologic symptoms (n = 110, 16.2% vaccinated vs. 71, 18.2% unvaccinated; p = 0.44) nor radiologic disease activity (n = 40, 5.9% vaccinated vs. n = 30, 7.6% unvaccinated) between vaccinated and unvaccinated NID participants. CONCLUSIONS: We found no difference in patient-reported vaccine side effects and no evidence of NID worsening after vaccination. Large-scale real-world evidence is needed for further validation.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20238, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467130

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications worsen outcomes in COVID-19. To define the prevalence of neurological conditions among hospitalized patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test in geographically diverse multinational populations during early pandemic, we used electronic health records (EHR) from 338 participating hospitals across 6 countries and 3 continents (January-September 2020) for a cross-sectional analysis. We assessed the frequency of International Classification of Disease code of neurological conditions by countries, healthcare systems, time before and after admission for COVID-19 and COVID-19 severity. Among 35,177 hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, there was an increase in the proportion with disorders of consciousness (5.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7-7.8%, pFDR < 0.001) and unspecified disorders of the brain (8.1%, 5.7-10.5%, pFDR < 0.001) when compared to the pre-admission proportion. During hospitalization, the relative risk of disorders of consciousness (22%, 19-25%), cerebrovascular diseases (24%, 13-35%), nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage (34%, 20-50%), encephalitis and/or myelitis (37%, 17-60%) and myopathy (72%, 67-77%) were higher for patients with severe COVID-19 when compared to those who never experienced severe COVID-19. Leveraging a multinational network to capture standardized EHR data, we highlighted the increased prevalence of central and peripheral neurological phenotypes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, particularly among those with severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
4.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(4): 918-928, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092494

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report initial results of a planned multicenter year-long prospective study examining the risk and impact of COVID-19 among persons with neuroinflammatory disorders (NID), particularly multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In April 2020, we deployed online questionnaires to individuals in their home environment to assess the prevalence and potential risk factors of suspected COVID-19 in persons with NID (PwNID) and change in their neurological care. RESULTS: Our cohort included 1115 participants (630 NID, 98% MS; 485 reference) as of 30 April 2020. 202 (18%) participants, residing in areas with high COVID-19 case prevalence, met the April 2020 CDC symptom criteria for suspected COVID-19, but only 4% of all participants received testing given testing shortages. Among all participants, those with suspected COVID-19 were younger, more racially diverse, and reported more depression and liver disease. PwNID had the same rate of suspected COVID-19 as the reference group. Early changes in disease management included telemedicine visits in 21% and treatment changes in 9% of PwNID. After adjusting for potential confounders, increasing neurological disability was associated with a greater likelihood of suspected COVID-19 (ORadj  = 1.45, 1.17-1.84). INTERPRETATIONS: Our study of real-time, patient-reported experience during the COVID-19 pandemic complements physician-reported MS case registries which capture an excess of severe cases. Overall, PwNID seem to have a risk of suspected COVID-19 similar to the reference population.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Self Report , Adult , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/psychology , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
5.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(7): 1411-1420, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075534

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Consortium for Clinical Characterization of COVID-19 by EHR (4CE) is an international collaboration addressing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with federated analyses of electronic health record (EHR) data. We sought to develop and validate a computable phenotype for COVID-19 severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve 4CE sites participated. First, we developed an EHR-based severity phenotype consisting of 6 code classes, and we validated it on patient hospitalization data from the 12 4CE clinical sites against the outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and/or death. We also piloted an alternative machine learning approach and compared selected predictors of severity with the 4CE phenotype at 1 site. RESULTS: The full 4CE severity phenotype had pooled sensitivity of 0.73 and specificity 0.83 for the combined outcome of ICU admission and/or death. The sensitivity of individual code categories for acuity had high variability-up to 0.65 across sites. At one pilot site, the expert-derived phenotype had mean area under the curve of 0.903 (95% confidence interval, 0.886-0.921), compared with an area under the curve of 0.956 (95% confidence interval, 0.952-0.959) for the machine learning approach. Billing codes were poor proxies of ICU admission, with as low as 49% precision and recall compared with chart review. DISCUSSION: We developed a severity phenotype using 6 code classes that proved resilient to coding variability across international institutions. In contrast, machine learning approaches may overfit hospital-specific orders. Manual chart review revealed discrepancies even in the gold-standard outcomes, possibly owing to heterogeneous pandemic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: We developed an EHR-based severity phenotype for COVID-19 in hospitalized patients and validated it at 12 international sites.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Health Records , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19/classification , Hospitalization , Humans , Machine Learning , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
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