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2.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 824179, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818031

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) are frequently identified in chickens with respiratory disease. However, the role and mechanism of IBV and H9N2 AIV co-infection remain largely unknown. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were inoculated with IBV 2 days before H9N2 virus inoculation (IBV/H9N2); with IBV and H9N2 virus simultaneously (IBV+H9N2); with H9N2 virus 2 days before IBV inoculation (H9N2/IBV); or with either IBV or H9N2 virus alone. Severe respiratory signs, pathological damage, and higher morbidity and mortality were observed in the co-infection groups compared with the IBV and H9N2 groups. In general, a higher virus load and a more intense inflammatory response were observed in the three co-infection groups, especially in the IBV/H9N2 group. The same results were observed in the transcriptome analysis of the trachea of the SPF chickens. Therefore, IBV might play a major role in the development of respiratory disease in chickens, and secondary infection with H9N2 virus further enhances the pathogenicity by inducing a severe inflammatory response. These findings may provide a reference for the prevention and control of IBV and H9N2 AIV in the poultry industry and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of IBV and H9N2 AIV co-infection in chickens.

6.
Small ; 16(32): e2002169, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612774

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global novel coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19 outbreak has engendered numerous cases of infection and death. COVID-19 diagnosis relies upon nucleic acid detection; however, currently recommended methods exhibit high false-negative rates and are unable to identify other respiratory virus infections, thereby resulting in patient misdiagnosis and impeding epidemic containment. Combining the advantages of targeted amplification and long-read, real-time nanopore sequencing, herein, nanopore targeted sequencing (NTS) is developed to detect SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses simultaneously within 6-10 h, with a limit of detection of ten standard plasmid copies per reaction. Compared with its specificity for five common respiratory viruses, the specificity of NTS for SARS-CoV-2 reaches 100%. Parallel testing with approved real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction kits for SARS-CoV-2 and NTS using 61 nucleic acid samples from suspected COVID-19 cases show that NTS identifies more infected patients (22/61) as positive, while also effectively monitoring for mutated nucleic acid sequences, categorizing types of SARS-CoV-2, and detecting other respiratory viruses in the test sample. NTS is thus suitable for COVID-19 diagnosis; moreover, this platform can be further extended for diagnosing other viruses and pathogens.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Nanopores , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/classification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/genetics , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Genes, Viral , Humans , Limit of Detection , Mutation , Nanotechnology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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