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Front Vet Sci ; 8: 824179, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818031


Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) are frequently identified in chickens with respiratory disease. However, the role and mechanism of IBV and H9N2 AIV co-infection remain largely unknown. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were inoculated with IBV 2 days before H9N2 virus inoculation (IBV/H9N2); with IBV and H9N2 virus simultaneously (IBV+H9N2); with H9N2 virus 2 days before IBV inoculation (H9N2/IBV); or with either IBV or H9N2 virus alone. Severe respiratory signs, pathological damage, and higher morbidity and mortality were observed in the co-infection groups compared with the IBV and H9N2 groups. In general, a higher virus load and a more intense inflammatory response were observed in the three co-infection groups, especially in the IBV/H9N2 group. The same results were observed in the transcriptome analysis of the trachea of the SPF chickens. Therefore, IBV might play a major role in the development of respiratory disease in chickens, and secondary infection with H9N2 virus further enhances the pathogenicity by inducing a severe inflammatory response. These findings may provide a reference for the prevention and control of IBV and H9N2 AIV in the poultry industry and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of IBV and H9N2 AIV co-infection in chickens.

Small ; 16(32): e2002169, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612774


The ongoing global novel coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19 outbreak has engendered numerous cases of infection and death. COVID-19 diagnosis relies upon nucleic acid detection; however, currently recommended methods exhibit high false-negative rates and are unable to identify other respiratory virus infections, thereby resulting in patient misdiagnosis and impeding epidemic containment. Combining the advantages of targeted amplification and long-read, real-time nanopore sequencing, herein, nanopore targeted sequencing (NTS) is developed to detect SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses simultaneously within 6-10 h, with a limit of detection of ten standard plasmid copies per reaction. Compared with its specificity for five common respiratory viruses, the specificity of NTS for SARS-CoV-2 reaches 100%. Parallel testing with approved real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction kits for SARS-CoV-2 and NTS using 61 nucleic acid samples from suspected COVID-19 cases show that NTS identifies more infected patients (22/61) as positive, while also effectively monitoring for mutated nucleic acid sequences, categorizing types of SARS-CoV-2, and detecting other respiratory viruses in the test sample. NTS is thus suitable for COVID-19 diagnosis; moreover, this platform can be further extended for diagnosing other viruses and pathogens.

Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Nanopores , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/classification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/genetics , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Genes, Viral , Humans , Limit of Detection , Mutation , Nanotechnology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity