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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1115-1125, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799501

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common underlying diseases that may aggravates COVID-19. In the present study, we explored islet function, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and pathological changes in the pancreas of patients with COVID-19. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and the C-peptide release test demonstrated a decrease in glucose-stimulated C-peptide secretory capacity and an increase in HbA1c levels in patients with COVID-19. The prediabetic conditions appeared to be more significant in the severe group than in the moderate group. SARS-CoV-2 receptors (ACE2, CD147, TMPRSS2 and neuropilin-1) were expressed in pancreatic tissue. In addition to SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein and virus RNA, coronavirus-like particles were present in the autophagolysosomes of pancreatic acinar cells of a patient with COVID-19. Furthermore, the expression and distribution of various proteins in pancreatic islets of patients with COVID-19 were altered. These data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 in the pancreas may directly or indirectly impair islet function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , C-Peptide/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Humans , Pancreas , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315291

ABSTRACT

Background: Although recurring cases of COVID-19 have been sporadically reported, the long-persistence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still arguable. We aimed to provide the evidences of recovered COVID-19 patients with long-lasting positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA tests in a Chinese hospital. Case presentations : We reported 4 discharged patients with COVID-19 patients relapsed during the period of self-quarantine, leading to an extended disease course. All of four patients were historically healthy without known underlying diseases (diabetes, hypertension, cancer, i.e.) which may influence the disease course. Conclusion: The persistent course of SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid test positive in these 4 cases was prolonged, which provided some ideas for the long-term existence of SARS-COV-2 RNA in convalescent patients.

3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 564938, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468327

ABSTRACT

T-cell reduction is an important characteristic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and its immunopathology is a subject of debate. It may be due to the direct effect of the virus on T-cell exhaustion or indirectly due to T cells redistributing to the lungs. HIV/AIDS naturally served as a T-cell exhaustion disease model for recognizing how the immune system works in the course of COVID-19. In this study, we collected the clinical charts, T-lymphocyte analysis, and chest CT of HIV patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection who were admitted to Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China). The median age of the 21 patients was 47 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 40-50 years] and the median CD4 T-cell count was 183 cells/µl (IQR = 96-289 cells/µl). Eleven HIV patients were in the non-AIDS stage and 10 were in the AIDS stage. Nine patients received antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 12 patients did not receive any treatment. Compared to the reported mortality rate (nearly 4%-10%) and severity rate (up to 20%-40%) among COVID-19 patients in hospital, a benign duration with 0% severity and mortality rates was shown by 21 HIV/AIDS patients. The severity rates of COVID-19 were comparable between non-AIDS (median CD4 = 287 cells/µl) and AIDS (median CD4 = 97 cells/µl) patients, despite some of the AIDS patients having baseline lung injury stimulated by HIV: 7 patients (33%) were mild (five in the non-AIDS group and two in the AIDS group) and 14 patients (67%) were moderate (six in the non-AIDS group and eight in the AIDS group). More importantly, we found that a reduction in T-cell number positively correlates with the serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), which is contrary to the reported findings on the immune response of COVID-19 patients (lower CD4 T-cell counts with higher levels of IL-6 and CRP). In HIV/AIDS, a compromised immune system with lower CD4 T-cell counts might waive the clinical symptoms and inflammatory responses, which suggests lymphocyte redistribution as an immunopathology leading to lymphopenia in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
N Engl J Med ; 382(18): 1708-1720, 2020 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. METHODS: We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 161(1): e12-e19, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351432

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This retrospective study aimed to quantify the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the orthodontic appointment and make an analysis of orthodontic emergencies (OEs) that occurred during the pandemic. METHODS: A total of 628 patients were randomly sampled from 3489 subjects who were undergoing active orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, and the medical records were reviewed. OE occurrence was analyzed from 617 patients who had explicit return-visit records after the COVID-19 outbreak. Wilcoxon signed rank tests, chi-square tests, and a binary logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: The return-visit of 98.6% of the patients was delayed significantly with an increase over 8.98 ± 4.76 weeks (P <0.001). In general, 32.3% of the patients suffered from various OEs while waiting for their first return-visit, and bracket or band debonding was the most frequently reported category. Most OEs did not receive timely treatments because of the lockdown. The incidence was nearly 2 times higher than that of the normal appointment times. No correlation was found between OE occurrence and different demographic and clinical characteristics of patients. The therapeutic progress of patients, especially those in stage 3, was postponed because of the occurrence of OEs. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the limitations, our study suggested that it is highly possible that the COVID-19 pandemic has delayed appointments of fixed orthodontic patients. OEs did bother a minority of patients and could not be settled in time during the lockdown, which had a negative impact on the near-term treatment progress and should have been prevented. Further studies are required to investigate the long-dated influence of COVID-19 on orthodontic practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324376

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate women's psychological health, family function, and social support during the third trimester within the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. METHOD: From January 30, 2020, to February 26, 2020, a total of 177 pregnant women during their third trimester (mean gestation time was 37.05 ± 4.06 wk) in a maternal and children's hospital were investigated using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Family APGAR Index, and the Perceived Social Support Scale. Nonparametric tests were conducted in the study. The statistical significance was set as P < 0.05. RESULT: The incidence rate of the participants' anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 epidemic was 19.21% and 24.29%, respectively. The participants' greatest concerns in the previous week were the risk of virus transmission (79.66%), and the prenatal examination and fetal growth (70.62%). The SAS ranks were higher in the participants who were concerned about the prenatal examination and fetal growth and work-related affairs. CONCLUSION: The participants' psychological health was indirectly affected by the epidemic through the supply of medical resources and work-related factors. The medical staff should employ family support and social resources to guarantee the accessibility of medical services and living materials to decrease the pregnant women's stress and further improve their psychological health.

8.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct ; 58: 102188, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147094

ABSTRACT

The evolving COVID-19 pandemic is placing unprecedented pressures on health systems. Accumulative studies suggest that nurses were more likely to develop negative psychiatric outcomes following a public health disaster than other medical staffs, due to their more frequent and closer contact with patients. We examined the psychological status of nurses working in the tertiary women's and children's hospitals in Sichuan, China, in order to explore the possible effect of the COVID-19. The cross-sectional survey was conducted at the peak period of COVID-19 among 1971 nurses. Their anxiety, depression and self-efficacy were assessed by the seven-item anxiety scale (GAD-7), the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES), respectively. 1934 valid questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 98.1%. We found that 29.3% and 22.7% of the nurses were identified with anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. The median score of GSES was 30, which was at the upper middle level among all populations. Nurses having longer working years and cold-like symptoms, those who were at work during breakout period and working in pediatric ward were significantly associated with the presence of anxiety and depression. Findings suggest that the epidemic of COVID-19 does not necessarily affect the psychological health of nurses working in women's and children's hospitals in Sichuan. The results of this study could serve as valuable suggestions to direct the promotion of psychological well-being among targeted nurses.

9.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 13(3): 197-209, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145182

ABSTRACT

Although millions of patients have clinically recovered from COVID-19, little is known about the immune status of lymphocytes in these individuals. In this study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a clinically recovered (CR) cohort were comparatively analyzed with those of an age- and sex-matched healthy donor cohort. We found that CD8+ T cells in the CR cohort had higher numbers of effector T cells and effector memory T cells but lower Tc1 (IFN-γ+), Tc2 (IL-4+), and Tc17 (IL-17A+) cell frequencies. The CD4+ T cells of the CR cohort were decreased in frequency, especially the central memory T cell subset. Moreover, CD4+ T cells in the CR cohort showed lower programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression and had lower frequencies of Th1 (IFN-γ+), Th2 (IL-4+), Th17 (IL-17A+), and circulating follicular helper T (CXCR5+PD-1+) cells. Accordingly, the proportion of isotype-switched memory B cells (IgM-CD20hi) among B cells in the CR cohort showed a significantly lower proportion, although the level of the activation marker CD71 was elevated. For CD3-HLA-DR- lymphocytes in the CR cohort, in addition to lower levels of IFN-γ, granzyme B and T-bet, the correlation between T-bet and IFN-γ was not observed. Additionally, by taking into account the number of days after discharge, all the phenotypes associated with reduced function did not show a tendency toward recovery within 4‒11 weeks. The remarkable phenotypic alterations in lymphocytes in the CR cohort suggest that  severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection profoundly affects lymphocytes and potentially results in dysfunction even after clinical recovery.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Lineage/genetics , Cell Lineage/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Granzymes/genetics , Humans , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , T-Box Domain Proteins/genetics , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/virology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/virology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/virology
10.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(3): e1259, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120286

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 has caused a worldwide pandemic of COVID-19. The existence of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 positivity (PP) has further increased the burden on the health system. Since T cells are vital for viral control, we aimed to evaluate the characteristics of T-cell responses associated with PP. METHODS: We established a PP cohort and two age- and sex-matched control cohorts: a regular clinical recovery (CR) cohort and a healthy donor (HD) cohort. The mean time for RNA negativity conversion in the PP cohort was markedly longer than that in the CR cohort (66.2 vs 25.3 days), while the time from illness onset to sampling was not significantly different. T-cell responses in the PP cohort were assayed, analysed and compared with those in the CR and HD cohorts by flow cytometry and ELISpot analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: Compared with the CR cohort, the proliferation, activation and functional potential of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in the PP cohort were not significantly different. However, the frequencies and counts of Teff and Tem in CD8+ but not in CD4+ T cells of the PP cohort were prominently lower. Moreover, a weaker SARS-CoV-2 N protein-specific IFN-γ+ T-cell response and a higher frequency of Tregs were detected in the PP cohort. CONCLUSION: Suppressed CD8+ T-cell differentiation is associated with PP and may be an indicator for the prediction of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 positivity in COVID-19 patients. The association between suppressed CD8+ T-cell differentiation and elevated Tregs warrants studies in the future.

11.
Clin Lab ; 66(11)2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing symptomatic illness (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, China. Travel-associated cases were reported in many other countries leading to epidemic transmission. The number of cases has increased rapidly but laboratory diagnosis is limited. METHODS: We collected samples from two groups of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 for experiments. In one group, 63 serum samples were analyzed IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and 35 healthy serum samples were served as controls. In the other group, 91 plasma samples were analyzed by colloidal gold-immunochromatographic assay (GICA) for IgG and IgM antibodies and 35 healthy plasma samples were served as controls. Throat swab samples for nucleic acids retest were collected from 81/91 of these participant. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the combined ELISA IgM and IgG detection was 55/63 (87.3%). Sensitivity of the com-bined GICA IgM and IgG detection was 75/91 (82.4%). Both methods were negative for healthy controls and had a specificity of 100%. In 81 cases, the follow up throat swab samples were retested by RT-PCR, showing that 42 cases were positive. The sensitivity was 51.9% (42/81). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for IgG (AUC(IgG)) was 0.934. The area under the ROC curve for IgM (AUC(IgM)) was 0.812. The area under the ROC curve for IgG + IgM (AUC(IgG+IgM)) was 0.983. CONCLUSIONS: The serological test of SARS-CoV-2 can be used as an important supplement to the existing RT-PCR test for the specific and rapid diagnosis of COVID-19. AUC(IgG) > AUC(IgM) indicates that IgG has better classification performance than IgM. AUC(IgG + IgM) > AUC(IgG) indicates that the combination of IgG and IgM has better classification performance than IgG alone.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 89(Pt A): 107065, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop acute respiratory distress and multi-system organ failure and are associated with poor prognosis and high mortality. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify early diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to determine the risk of developing serious illness. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 114 patients with COVID-19 at the Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan based on their clinical and laboratory data. Patients were categorized into severe and mild to moderate disease groups. We analyzed the potential of serological inflammation indicators in predicting the severity of COVID-19 in patients using univariate and multivariate logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic curves, and nomogram analysis. The Spearman method was used to understand the correlation between the serological biomarkers and duration of hospital stay. RESULTS: Patients with severe disease had reduced neutrophils and lymphocytes; severe coagulation dysfunction; altered content of biochemical factors (such as urea, lactate dehydrogenase); elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, neutrophil-lymphocyte, platelet-lymphocyte, and derived neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios, high sensitivity C-reactive protein-prealbumin ratio (HsCPAR), systemic immune-inflammation index, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein-albumin ratio (HsCAR); and low lymphocyte-monocyte ratio, prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio. PNI, HsCAR, and HsCPAR correlated with the risk of severe disease. The nomogram combining the three parameters showed good discrimination with a C-index of 0.873 and reliable calibration. Moreover, HsCAR and HsCPAR correlated with duration of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Taken together, PNI, HsCAR, and HsCPAR may serve as accurate biomarkers for the prediction of disease severity in patients with COVID-19 upon admission/hospitalization.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Inflammation/blood , Length of Stay , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin/analysis , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
13.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(4): 1516-1527, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Radiological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) featured ground-glass opacities (GGOs), especially in the early stage, which might create confusion in differential diagnosis with early lung cancer. We aimed to specify the radiological characteristics of COVID-19 and early lung cancer and to unveil the discrepancy between them. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-seven COVID-19 patients and 374 early lung cancer patients from four hospitals in China were retrospectively enrolled. Epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics were compared between the two groups using propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients had more distinct symptoms, tended to be younger (P<0.0001), male (P<0.0001), and had a higher body mass index (P=0.014). After 1:1 PSM, 121 matched pairs were identified. Regarding radiological characteristics, patients with a single lesion accounted for 17% in COVID-19 and 89% in lung cancer (P<0.0001). Most lesions were peripherally found in both groups. Lesions in COVID-19 involved more lobes (median 3.5 vs. 1; P<0.0001) and segments (median 6 vs. 1; P<0.0001) and tended to have multiple types (67%) with patchy form (54%). Early lung cancer was more likely to have a single type (92%) with oval form (66%). Also, COVID-19 and early lung cancer either had some distinctive features on computed tomography (CT) images. CONCLUSIONS: Both COVID-19 and early lung cancers showed GGOs, with similar but independent features. The imaging characteristics should be fully understood and combined with epidemiological history, pathogen detection, laboratory tests, short-term CT reexamination, and pathological results to aid differential diagnosis.

15.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(5): 1811-1823, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global pandemic disease, with more than 4 million cases and nearly 300,000 deaths. Little is known about COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to evaluate the influence of preexisting COPD on the progress and outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective, observational study. We enrolled 1,048 patients aged 40 years and above, including 50 patients with COPD and 998 patients without COPD, and with COVID-19 confirmed via high-throughput sequencing or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, between December 11, 2019 and February 20, 2020. We collected data of demographics, pathologic test results, radiologic imaging, and treatments. The primary outcomes were composite endpoints determined by admission to an intensive care unit, the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: Compared with patients who had COVID-19 but not COPD, those with COPD had higher rates of fatigue (56.0% vs. 40.2%), dyspnea (66.0% vs. 26.3%), diarrhea (16.0% vs. 3.6%), and unconsciousness (8.0% vs. 1.7%) and a significantly higher proportion of increased activated partial thromboplastin time (23.5% vs. 5.2%) and D-dimer (65.9% vs. 29.3%), as well as ground-glass opacities (77.6% vs. 60.3%), local patchy shadowing (61.2% vs. 41.4%), and interstitial abnormalities (51.0% vs. 19.8%) on chest computed tomography. Patients with COPD were more likely to develop bacterial or fungal coinfection (20.0% vs. 5.9%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (20.0% vs. 7.3%), septic shock (14.0% vs. 2.3%), or acute renal failure (12.0% vs. 1.3%). Patients with COPD and COVID-19 had a higher risk of reaching the composite endpoints [hazard ratio (HR): 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-3.38; P=0.001] or death (HR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.15-4.51; P=0.019), after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, patients with COPD who developed COVID-19 showed a higher risk of admission to the intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, or death.

16.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(7): 1089-1094, 2020 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72355

ABSTRACT

Objectives In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-infected pneumonia (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, China. Laboratory-based diagnostic tests utilized real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on throat samples. This study evaluated the diagnostic value to analyzing throat and sputum samples in order to improve accuracy and detection efficiency. Methods Paired specimens of throat swabs and sputum were obtained from 54 cases, and RNA was extracted and tested for 2019-nCoV (equated with SARS-CoV-2) by the RT-PCR assay. Results The positive rates of 2019-nCoV from sputum specimens and throat swabs were 76.9% and 44.2%, respectively. Sputum specimens showed a significantly higher positive rate than throat swabs in detecting viral nucleic acid using the RT-PCR assay (p = 0.001). Conclusions The detection rates of 2019-nCoV from sputum specimens were significantly higher than those from throat swabs. We suggest that sputum would benefit for the detection of 2019-nCoV in patients who produce sputum. The results can facilitate the selection of specimens and increase the accuracy of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Specimen Handling/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sputum
17.
Eur Respir J ; 55(5)2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-18269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is evolving rapidly worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of serious adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19 by stratifying the comorbidity status. METHODS: We analysed data from 1590 laboratory confirmed hospitalised patients from 575 hospitals in 31 provinces/autonomous regions/provincial municipalities across mainland China between 11 December 2019 and 31 January 2020. We analysed the composite end-points, which consisted of admission to an intensive care unit, invasive ventilation or death. The risk of reaching the composite end-points was compared according to the presence and number of comorbidities. RESULTS: The mean age was 48.9 years and 686 (42.7%) patients were female. Severe cases accounted for 16.0% of the study population. 131 (8.2%) patients reached the composite end-points. 399 (25.1%) reported having at least one comorbidity. The most prevalent comorbidity was hypertension (16.9%), followed by diabetes (8.2%). 130 (8.2%) patients reported having two or more comorbidities. After adjusting for age and smoking status, COPD (HR (95% CI) 2.681 (1.424-5.048)), diabetes (1.59 (1.03-2.45)), hypertension (1.58 (1.07-2.32)) and malignancy (3.50 (1.60-7.64)) were risk factors of reaching the composite end-points. The hazard ratio (95% CI) was 1.79 (1.16-2.77) among patients with at least one comorbidity and 2.59 (1.61-4.17) among patients with two or more comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Among laboratory confirmed cases of COVID-19, patients with any comorbidity yielded poorer clinical outcomes than those without. A greater number of comorbidities also correlated with poorer clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
N Engl J Med ; 382(19): 1787-1799, 2020 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-9371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No therapeutics have yet been proven effective for the treatment of severe illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial involving hospitalized adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes the respiratory illness Covid-19, and an oxygen saturation (Sao2) of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) of less than 300 mm Hg. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, respectively) twice a day for 14 days, in addition to standard care, or standard care alone. The primary end point was the time to clinical improvement, defined as the time from randomization to either an improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale or discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. RESULTS: A total of 199 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent randomization; 99 were assigned to the lopinavir-ritonavir group, and 100 to the standard-care group. Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir was not associated with a difference from standard care in the time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio for clinical improvement, 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.80). Mortality at 28 days was similar in the lopinavir-ritonavir group and the standard-care group (19.2% vs. 25.0%; difference, -5.8 percentage points; 95% CI, -17.3 to 5.7). The percentages of patients with detectable viral RNA at various time points were similar. In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, lopinavir-ritonavir led to a median time to clinical improvement that was shorter by 1 day than that observed with standard care (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.91). Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common in the lopinavir-ritonavir group, but serious adverse events were more common in the standard-care group. Lopinavir-ritonavir treatment was stopped early in 13 patients (13.8%) because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized adult patients with severe Covid-19, no benefit was observed with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment beyond standard care. Future trials in patients with severe illness may help to confirm or exclude the possibility of a treatment benefit. (Funded by Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development and others; Chinese Clinical Trial Register number, ChiCTR2000029308.).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Proportional Hazards Models , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Failure , Viral Load
19.
Lancet ; 395(10229): 1054-1062, 2020 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-6685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. METHODS: In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. FINDINGS: 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03-1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61-12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 µg/mL (18·42, 2·64-128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0-24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days. INTERPRETATION: The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 µg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Patient Care Planning , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Assessment , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Pandemics , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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