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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 847407, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911056

ABSTRACT

Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold standard for diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, RT-PCR may yield false-positive results, leading to unnecessary countermeasures. Here, we report a "positive" nucleic acid test on a 10-pooled sample during the routine screening that caused many adverse societal effects, and financial and resource losses. However, they were subsequently determined to be a case of vaccine contamination. This case study increases awareness of false-positive RT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2, especially when participants are vaccinators. Moreover, it could provide relevant suggestions to prevent the recurrence of such incidents.

2.
Microbiol Res ; 258: 126993, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693103

ABSTRACT

Pseudoviruses are viral particles coated with a heterologous envelope protein, which mediates the entry of pseudoviruses as efficiently as that of the live viruses possessing high pathogenicity and infectivity. Due to the deletion of the envelope protein gene and the absence of pathogenic genes, pseudoviruses have no autonomous replication ability and can infect host cells for only a single cycle. In addition, pseudoviruses have the desired characteristics of high safety, strong operability, and can be easily used to perform rapid throughput detection. Therefore, pseudoviruses are widely employed in the mechanistic investigation of viral infection, the screening and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies and antiviral drugs, and the detection of neutralizing antibody titers in serum after vaccination. In this review, we will discuss the construction of pseudoviruses based on different packaging systems, their current applications especially in the research of SARS-CoV-2, limitations, and further directions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1899642, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574515

ABSTRACT

Background: During the current COVID-19 pandemic, offline clinical education was mandated to suspend at the neurology department of many teaching hospitals globally, yet there is insufficient evidence regarding the preferred practice and methods for online neurology intern training course.Objective: The investigation aimed to examine whether the online neurology training course based on Small Private Online Course (SPOC) and blending learning mode can achieve a good effect and cater for interns from different medical programs and whether the learning group size affects the teaching effect.Design: The subjects were 92 students enrolled in the neurology internship at the Second Xiangya Hospital of China from 9 March to 9 August 2020. After completing the online course, the final scores and evaluation results were compared among different groups of interns, and their preference to distinct contents of the course was analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS program (version 22.0).Results: Our online course received consistent positive recognition from the interns. Ninety-nine percent of the interns recommended incorporating the online course into the conventional offline training program after the pandemic. There was no significant difference between interns from different programs concerning the final scores and course evaluation. A smaller learning group size (<15 students) could achieve a better teaching effect than a larger group size (p < 0.05). The interns preferred interactive discussions, and course contents that they can get practice and feedback from, rather than video watching and didactic lectures.Conclusions: The online neurology intern training course based on SPOC and blending learning mode is worthy of popularization in a large student base. The teaching effect of an online intern training program may be improved by limiting the group size to less than 15 students and encouraging more interactive discussion, more practice and feedback.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Neurology/education , China/epidemiology , Clinical Competence , Group Processes , Humans , Inservice Training , Learning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 689065, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502324

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The US FDA has approved several therapeutics and vaccines worldwide through the emergency use authorization in response to the rapid spread of COVID-19. Nevertheless, the efficacies of these treatments are being challenged by viral escape mutations. There is an urgent need to develop effective treatments protecting against SARS-CoV-2 infection and to establish a stable effect-screening model to test potential drugs. Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) have an intrinsic advantage in such developments because they can target rapidly mutating viral strains as a result of the complexity of their binding epitopes. In this study, we generated anti-receptor-binding domain (anti-RBD) pAbs from rabbit serum and tested their safety and efficacy in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection both in vivo and ex vivo. Primary human bronchial epithelial two-dimensional (2-D) organoids were cultured and differentiated to a mature morphology and subsequently employed for SARS-CoV-2 infection and drug screening. The pAbs protected the airway organoids from viral infection and tissue damage. Potential side effects were tested in mouse models for both inhalation and vein injection. The pAbs displayed effective viral neutralization effects without significant side effects. Thus, the use of animal immune serum-derived pAbs might be a potential therapy for protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection, with the strategy developed to produce these pAbs providing new insight into the treatment of respiratory tract infections, especially for infections with viruses undergoing rapid mutation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Binding Sites , Bronchi/cytology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Epithelial Cells , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mice , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Organoids , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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