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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 426, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological status of the general population in mainland China during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and to explore the factors influencing psychological distress, in order to provide the basis for further psychological intervention programs. METHODS: We administered three questionnaires on-line to a convenience sample of the general population from different regions of mainland China from February 1 to February 4, 2020. We used the Mandarin versions of the six-item Kessler psychological distress scale (K6), the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ), and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS). We also collected demographic data and other information related to the COVID-19 outbreak. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing psychological distress. RESULTS: Of 1607 respondents, 1588 returned valid questionnaires and were included in the analysis. Nearly one quarter (22.8%) had high levels of psychological distress (K6 score ≥ 13). Individuals with higher psychological distress were more likely to be unmarried, spend more than 6 h per day searching for information about COVID-19, more frequently adopt a passive coping style, and report less social support than those with lower psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak in China has a great impact on the mental health status of the general population. Active coping strategies and increased social support are significantly correlated with decreased psychological distress, and may serve as the basis for psychological interventions.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychological Distress , Social Support , Adult , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Public Health/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Compr Psychiatry ; 102: 152202, 2020 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720480

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the mental state of medical staff and medical students in the early stages of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, as well as analyze the risk factors of serious mental illness (SMI), so as to provide a scientific basis for further psychological intervention and management. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from February 2-7, 2020. The Kessler 6 Psychological Distress Scale and a general information questionnaire were administered on-line to a convenience sample of 548 medical staff and medical students in China. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to screen the risk factors of SMI in medical staff and medical students. RESULTS: Of the 505 respondents in the final analysis, 188 (37.23%) were at high risk of SMI. Respondents were at significantly higher risk of SMI if they had been suspected of being infected with the SARS-CoV-2 (OR = 7.00, 95% CI: 1.19-41.14), had relatives suspected of being infected with the SARS-CoV-2 (OR = 23.60, 95% CI: 1.11-501.30), felt concerned towards media coverage of outbreak-related information (OR = 11.95, 95% CI: 3.07-46.57), recently dreamed related to SARS-CoV-2 (OR = 4.21, 95% CI: 2.22-8.01), experienced difficulty in controlling emotions during SARS-CoV-2 epidemic (OR = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.66-6.37), or spent hours watching outbreaks per day (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.13-1.46). CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight that medical staff and medical students were vulnerable to SMI during the early stages of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and identify the factors associated with SMI which can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health. The independent risk factors for SMI among them are suspicion that they or relatives were infected with the SARS-CoV-2, greater interest in media reports about the epidemic, frequency of recent dreams related to SARS-CoV-2, difficulty in controlling emotions during the epidemic, and hours spent watching outbreaks per day.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233410, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260128

ABSTRACT

As the epidemic outbreak of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), general population may experience psychological distress. Evidence has suggested that negative coping styles may be related to subsequent mental illness. Therefore, we investigate the general population's psychological distress and coping styles in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak. A cross-sectional battery of surveys was conducted from February 1-4, 2020. The Kessler 6 psychological distress scale, the simplified coping style questionnaire and a general information questionnaire were administered on-line to a convenience sample of 1599 in China. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify the influence factors of psychological distress. General population's psychological distress were significant differences based on age, marriage, epidemic contact characteristics, concern with media reports, and perceived impacts of the epidemic outbreak (all p <0.001) except gender (p = 0.316). The population with younger age (F = 102.04), unmarried (t = 15.28), with history of visiting Wuhan in the past month (t = -40.86), with history of epidemics occurring in the community (t = -10.25), more concern with media reports (F = 21.84), perceived more impacts of the epidemic outbreak (changes over living situations, F = 331.71; emotional control, F = 1863.07; epidemic-related dreams, F = 1642.78) and negative coping style (t = 37.41) had higher level of psychological distress. Multivariate analysis found that marriage, epidemic contact characteristics, perceived impacts of the epidemic and coping style were the influence factors of psychological distress (all p <0.001). Epidemic of COVID-19 caused high level of psychological distress. The general mainland Chinese population with unmarried, history of visiting Wuhan in the past month, perceived more impacts of the epidemic and negative coping style had higher level of psychological distress in the early stages of COVID-19 epidemic. Psychological interventions should be implemented early, especially for those general population with such characteristics.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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