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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 13(1): 186, 2023 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233704

ABSTRACT

To assess the inter-relationships between residual depressive symptoms (RDS) and Internet addiction (IA) using network analysis among clinically stable adolescents with major psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. RDS and IA were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), respectively. Central symptoms and bridge symptoms in the network model were examined. A total of 1,454 adolescents met the study criteria and were included in the analyses. The prevalence of IA was 31.2% (95% CI: 28.8%-33.6%). In the network analysis, the nodes IAT15 ("Preoccupation with the Internet"), PHQ2 ("Sad mood"), and PHQ1 ("Anhedonia") were the most central symptoms in the IA-RDS network model. Bridge symptoms included IAT10 ("Sooth disturbing about your Internet use"), PHQ9 ("Suicide ideation"), and IAT3 ("Prefer the excitement online to the time with others"). Additionally, PHQ2 ("Sad mood") was the main node linking "Anhedonia" to other IA clusters. Internet addiction was common among clinically stable adolescents with major psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. Core and bridge symptoms identified in this study could be prioritized as targets for the prevention and treatment of IA in this population.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Humans , Adolescent , Depression/epidemiology , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Anhedonia , Internet
2.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 1139742, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245350

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected treatment-seeking behaviors of psychiatric patients and their guardians. Barriers to access of mental health services may contribute to adverse mental health consequences, not only for psychiatric patients, but also for their guardians. This study explored the prevalence of depression and its association with quality of life among guardians of hospitalized psychiatric patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted in China. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, fatigue level and quality of life (QOL) of guardians were measured with validated Chinese versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale - 7 (GAD-7), fatigue numeric rating scale (FNRS), and the first two items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire - brief version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. Independent correlates of depression were evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare global QOL of depressed versus non-depressed guardians. The network structure of depressive symptoms among guardians was constructed using an extended Bayesian Information Criterion (EBIC) model. Results: The prevalence of depression among guardians of hospitalized psychiatric patients was 32.4% (95% CI: 29.7-35.2%). GAD-7 total scores (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.8-2.1) and fatigue (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.4) were positively correlated with depression among guardians. After controlling for significant correlates of depression, depressed guardians had lower QOL than non-depressed peers did [F(1, 1,101) = 29.24, p < 0.001]. "Loss of energy" (item 4 of the PHQ-9), "concentration difficulties" (item 7 of the PHQ-9) and "sad mood" (item 2 of the PHQ-9) were the most central symptoms in the network model of depression for guardians. Conclusion: About one third of guardians of hospitalized psychiatric patients reported depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Poorer QOL was related to having depression in this sample. In light of their emergence as key central symptoms, "loss of energy," "concentration problems," and "sad mood" are potentially useful targets for mental health services designed to support caregivers of psychiatric patients.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 336: 106-111, 2023 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depression is common among myocardial infarction (MI) survivors and is strongly associated with poor quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence, correlates and the network structure of depression, and its association with QOL in MI survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated depression and QOL in MI survivors with the Chinese version of the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. Univariable analyses, multivariable analyses, and network analyses were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 total score ≥ 5) among 565 MI survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic was 38.1 % (95 % CI: 34.1-42.1 %), which was significantly associated with poor QOL. Patients with depression were less likely to consult a doctor regularly after discharge, and more likely to experience more severe anxiety symptoms and fatigue. Item PHQ4 "Fatigue" was the most central symptom in the network, followed by PHQ6 "Guilt" and PHQ2 "Sad mood". The flow network showed that PHQ4 "Fatigue" had the highest negative association with QOL. CONCLUSION: Depression was prevalent among MI survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic and was significantly associated with poor QOL. Those who failed to consult a doctor regularly after discharge or reported severe anxiety symptoms and fatigue should be screened for depression. Effective interventions for MI survivors targeting central symptoms, especially fatigue, are needed to reduce the negative impact of depression and improve QOL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Quality of Life , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Survivors
4.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 1159542, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319640

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak affected people's lifestyles and increased their risk for depressive and anxiety symptoms (depression and anxiety, respectively hereafter). We assessed depression and anxiety in residents of Macau during "the 6.18 COVID-19 outbreak" period and explored inter-connections of different symptoms from the perspective of network analysis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1,008 Macau residents completed an online survey comprising the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) to measure depression and anxiety, respectively. Central and bridge symptoms of the depression-anxiety network model were evaluated based on Expected Influence (EI) statistics, while a bootstrap procedure was used to test the stability and accuracy of the network model. Results: Descriptive analyses indicated the prevalence of depression was 62.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 59.47-65.44%], the prevalence of anxiety was 50.2% [95%CI = 47.12-53.28%], and 45.1% [95%CI = 42.09-48.22%] of participants experienced comorbid depression and anxiety. "Nervousness-Uncontrollable worry" (GADC) (EI = 1.15), "Irritability" (GAD6) (EI = 1.03), and "Excessive worry" (GAD3) (EI = 1.02) were the most central symptoms, while "Irritability" (GAD6) (bridge EI = 0.43), "restlessness" (GAD5) (bridge EI = 0.35), and "Sad Mood" (PHQ2) (bridge EI = 0.30) were key bridge symptoms that emerged in the network model. Conclusion: Nearly half of residents in Macau experienced comorbid depression and anxiety during the 6.18 COVID-19 outbreak. Central and bridge symptoms identified in this network analysis are plausible, specific targets for treatment and prevention of comorbid depression and anxiety related to this outbreak.

5.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1164232, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319300

ABSTRACT

Background: In the summer of 2022, Macau experienced a surge of COVID-19 infections (the 618 COVID-19 wave), which had serious effects on mental health and quality of life (QoL). However, there is scant research on mental health problems and QoL among Macau residents during the 618 COVID-19 wave. This study examined the network structure of depressive symptoms (hereafter depression), and the interconnection between different depressive symptoms and QoL among Macau residents during this period. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 26th July and 9th September 2022. Depressive symptoms were measured with the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), while the global QoL was measured with the two items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-brief version (WHOQOL-BREF). Correlates of depression were explored using univariate and multivariate analyses. The association between depression and QoL was investigated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Network analysis was used to evaluate the structure of depression. The centrality index "Expected Influence" (EI) was used to identify the most central symptoms and the flow function was used to identify depressive symptoms that had a direct bearing on QoL. Results: A total 1,008 participants were included in this study. The overall prevalence of depression was 62.5% (n = 630; 95% CI = 60.00-65.00%). Having depression was significantly associated with younger age (OR = 0.970; p < 0.001), anxiety (OR = 1.515; p < 0.001), fatigue (OR = 1.338; p < 0.001), and economic loss (OR = 1.933; p = 0.026). Participants with depression had lower QoL F (1, 1,008) =5.538, p = 0.019). The most central symptoms included PHQ2 ("Sad Mood") (EI: 1.044), PHQ4 ("Fatigue") (EI: 1.016), and PHQ6 ("Guilt") (EI: 0.975) in the depression network model, while PHQ4 ("Fatigue"), PHQ9 ("Suicide"), and PHQ6 ("Guilt") had strong negative associations with QoL. Conclusion: Depression was common among Macao residents during the 618 COVID-19 wave. Given the negative impact of depression on QoL, interventions targeting central symptoms identified in the network model (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy) should be developed and implemented for Macau residents with depression.

9.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 14, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2288984

ABSTRACT

Introduction The amygdala plays an important role in stress responses and stress-related psychiatric disorders. It is possible that amygdala connectivity may be a neurobiological vulnerability marker for stress responses or stress-related psychiatric disorders and will be useful to precisely identify the vulnerable individuals before stress happens. However, little is known about the relationship between amygdala connectivity and subsequent stress responses. The current study investigated whether amygdala connectivity measured before experiencing stress is a predisposing neural feature of subsequent stress responses while individuals face an emergent and unexpected event like the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods Data collected before the COVID-19 pandemic from an established fMRI cohort who lived in the pandemic center in China (Hubei) during the COVID-19 outbreak were used to investigate the relationship between amygdala connectivity and stress responses during and after the pandemic in 2020. The amygdala connectivity was measured with resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and effective connectivity. Results We found the rsFC of the right amygdala with the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) was negatively correlated with the stress responses at the first survey during the COVID-19 outbreak, and the rsFC between the right amygdala and bilateral superior frontal gyri (partially overlapped with the dmPFC) was correlated with SBSC at the second survey. Dynamic causal modeling suggested that the self-connection of the right amygdala was negatively correlated with stress responses during the pandemic. Discussion Our findings expand our understanding about the role of amygdala in stress responses and stress-related psychiatric disorders and suggest that amygdala connectivity is a predisposing neural feature of subsequent stress responses.

10.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 14, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2288808

ABSTRACT

Background Post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are commonly reported by psychiatric healthcare personnel during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and negatively affect quality of life (QOL). However, associations between PTSS and QOL at symptom level are not clear. This study examined the network structure of PTSS and its connection with QOL in psychiatric healthcare personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out between March 15 and March 20, 2020 based on convenience sampling. Self-report measures including the 17-item Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian version (PCL-C) and World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire - Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) were used to measure PTSS and global QOL, respectively. Network analysis was used to investigate the central symptoms of PTSS and pattern of connections between PTSS and QOL. An undirected network was constructed using an extended Bayesian Information Criterion (EBIC) model, while a directed network was established based on the Triangulated Maximally Filtered Graph (TMFG) method. Results Altogether, 10,516 psychiatric healthcare personnel completed the assessment. "Avoidance of thoughts” (PTSS-6), "Avoidance of reminders” (PTSS-7), and "emotionally numb” (PTSS-11) were the most central symptoms in the PTSS community, all of which were in the Avoidance and Numbing domain. Key bridge symptoms connecting PTSS and QOL were "Sleep disturbances” (PTSS-13), "Irritability” (PTSS-14) and "Difficulty concentrating” (PTSS-15), all of which were within the Hyperarousal domain. Conclusion In this sample, the most prominent PTSS symptoms reflected avoidance while symptoms of hyper-arousal had the strongest links with QOL. As such, these symptom clusters are potentially useful targets for interventions to improve PTSS and QOL among healthcare personnel at work under pandemic conditions.

11.
International journal of environmental research and public health ; 20(5), 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2254802

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety is increasing, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. A home use transdermal neurostimulation device might help to minimize the severity of anxiety disorder. To the best of our knowledge, there is no clinical trial using transdermal neurostimulation to treat individuals with symptoms of anxiety in Asia. This gives us the impetus to execute the first study which aims at evaluating the efficacy of Electrical Vestibular Stimulation (VeNS) on anxiety in Hong Kong. This study proposes a two-armed, double-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled trial including the active VeNS and sham VeNS group. Both groups will be measured at baseline (T1), immediately after the intervention (T2), and at the 1-month (T3) and 3-month follow-up (T4). A total of 66 community-dwelling adults aged 18 to 60 with anxiety symptoms will be recruited in this study. All subjects will be computer randomised into either the active VeNS group or the sham VeNS group in a 1:1 ratio. All subjects in each group will receive twenty 30 min VeNS sessions during weekdays, which will be completed in a 4-week period. Baseline measurements and post-VeNS evaluation of the psychological outcomes (i.e., anxiety, insomnia, and quality of life) will also be conducted on all participants. The 1-month and 3-month follow-up period will be used to assess the long-term sustainability of the VeNS intervention. For statistical analysis, ANOVA with repeated measures will be used to analyze data. Missing data were managed with multiple mutations. The level of significance will be set to p < 0.05. Results of this study will be used to determine whether this VeNS device can be considered as a self-help technological device to reduce perceived anxiety in the general population in the community setting. This clinical Trial was registered with the Clinical Trial government, identifier: NCT04999709.

12.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 14, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2254597

ABSTRACT

Background The latest wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Macau began on 18 June 2022 and was more serious than previous waves. Ensuing disruption from the wave is likely to have had a variety of negative mental health consequences for Macau residents including increased risk for insomnia. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of insomnia among Macau residents during this wave as well as its association with quality of life (QoL) from a network analysis perspective. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between 26 July and 9 September 2022. Univariate and multivariate analyses explored correlates of insomnia. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) examined the relationship between insomnia and QoL. Network analysis assessed the structure of insomnia including "Expected influence” to identify central symptoms in the network, and the flow function to identify specific symptoms that were directly associated with QoL. Network stability was examined using a case-dropping bootstrap procedure. Results A total of 1,008 Macau residents were included in this study. The overall prevalence of insomnia was 49.0% (n = 494;95% CI = 45.9–52.1%). A binary logistic regression analysis indicated people with insomnia were more likely to report depression (OR = 1.237;P < 0.001) and anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.119;P < 0.001), as well as being quarantined during the COVID-19 pandemic (OR = 1.172;P = 0.034). An ANCOVA found people with insomnia had lower QoL (F(1,1,008) = 17.45, P < 0.001). "Sleep maintenance” (ISI2), "Distress caused by the sleep difficulties” (ISI7) and "Interference with daytime functioning” (ISI5) were the most central symptoms in the insomnia network model, while "Sleep dissatisfaction” (ISI4), "Interference with daytime functioning” (ISI5), and "Distress caused by the sleep difficulties” (ISI7) had the strongest negative associations with QoL. Conclusion The high prevalence of insomnia among Macau residents during the COVID-19 pandemic warrants attention. Being quarantined during the pandemic and having psychiatric problems were correlates of insomnia. Future research should target central symptoms and symptoms linked to QoL observed in our network models to improve insomnia and QoL.

13.
J Affect Disord ; 307: 108-114, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288871

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically examine the efficacy and safety of antidepressants for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A systematic search was performed independently by two researchers based on Chinese Journal Net, WanFang, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMBASE. RESULTS: Seven studies (n = 92,947) including three retrospective studies (n = 91,083), two randomized clinical trials (RCTs, n = 1649), two prospective cohort study (n = 215) involving (n = 92,947) patients with COVID-19 were examined. For RCTs, fluvoxamine outperformed placebo in reducing clinical deterioration and hospitalisation for COVID-19 patients. For retrospective studies, antidepressants (2 studies) and fluoxetine (1 study) possibly reduced the risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19. Results from two remaining studies supported the superiority of fluvoxamine in reducing risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients. The two RCTs that examined the safety of fluvoxamine for COVID-19 patients found inconsistent results but no significant group differences in the dropout rate. CONCLUSION: This systematic review found emerging evidence for fluvoxamine in reducing the risk of mortality and hospitalisation in COVID-19 patients, but inconsistent evidence for the safety of fluvoxamine in COVID-19 patients. More studies are needed to determine the efficacy and safety of antidepressants for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Fluvoxamine/adverse effects , Humans , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
16.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 999934, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288985

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The amygdala plays an important role in stress responses and stress-related psychiatric disorders. It is possible that amygdala connectivity may be a neurobiological vulnerability marker for stress responses or stress-related psychiatric disorders and will be useful to precisely identify the vulnerable individuals before stress happens. However, little is known about the relationship between amygdala connectivity and subsequent stress responses. The current study investigated whether amygdala connectivity measured before experiencing stress is a predisposing neural feature of subsequent stress responses while individuals face an emergent and unexpected event like the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: Data collected before the COVID-19 pandemic from an established fMRI cohort who lived in the pandemic center in China (Hubei) during the COVID-19 outbreak were used to investigate the relationship between amygdala connectivity and stress responses during and after the pandemic in 2020. The amygdala connectivity was measured with resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and effective connectivity. Results: We found the rsFC of the right amygdala with the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) was negatively correlated with the stress responses at the first survey during the COVID-19 outbreak, and the rsFC between the right amygdala and bilateral superior frontal gyri (partially overlapped with the dmPFC) was correlated with SBSC at the second survey. Dynamic causal modeling suggested that the self-connection of the right amygdala was negatively correlated with stress responses during the pandemic. Discussion: Our findings expand our understanding about the role of amygdala in stress responses and stress-related psychiatric disorders and suggest that amygdala connectivity is a predisposing neural feature of subsequent stress responses.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 975443, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288815

ABSTRACT

Background: Post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are commonly reported by psychiatric healthcare personnel during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and negatively affect quality of life (QOL). However, associations between PTSS and QOL at symptom level are not clear. This study examined the network structure of PTSS and its connection with QOL in psychiatric healthcare personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out between March 15 and March 20, 2020 based on convenience sampling. Self-report measures including the 17-item Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian version (PCL-C) and World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire - Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) were used to measure PTSS and global QOL, respectively. Network analysis was used to investigate the central symptoms of PTSS and pattern of connections between PTSS and QOL. An undirected network was constructed using an extended Bayesian Information Criterion (EBIC) model, while a directed network was established based on the Triangulated Maximally Filtered Graph (TMFG) method. Results: Altogether, 10,516 psychiatric healthcare personnel completed the assessment. "Avoidance of thoughts" (PTSS-6), "Avoidance of reminders" (PTSS-7), and "emotionally numb" (PTSS-11) were the most central symptoms in the PTSS community, all of which were in the Avoidance and Numbing domain. Key bridge symptoms connecting PTSS and QOL were "Sleep disturbances" (PTSS-13), "Irritability" (PTSS-14) and "Difficulty concentrating" (PTSS-15), all of which were within the Hyperarousal domain. Conclusion: In this sample, the most prominent PTSS symptoms reflected avoidance while symptoms of hyper-arousal had the strongest links with QOL. As such, these symptom clusters are potentially useful targets for interventions to improve PTSS and QOL among healthcare personnel at work under pandemic conditions.

18.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 19(7): 1271-1279, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288782

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Insomnia and depression are common mental health problems reported by mental health professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Network analysis is a fine-grained approach used to examine associations between psychiatric syndromes at a symptom level. This study was designed to elucidate central symptoms and bridge symptoms of a depression-insomnia network among psychiatric practitioners in China. The identification of particularly important symptoms via network analysis provides an empirical foundation for targeting specific symptoms when developing treatments for comorbid insomnia and depression within this population. METHODS: A total of 10,516 psychiatric practitioners were included in this study. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were used to estimate prevalence rates of insomnia and depressive symptoms, respectively. Analyses also generated a network model of insomnia and depression symptoms in the sample. RESULTS: Prevalence rates of insomnia (ISI total score ≥8), depression (PHQ-9 total score ≥5) and comorbid insomnia and depression were 22.2% (95% confidence interval: 21.4-22.9%), 28.5% (95% confidence interval: 27.6-29.4%), and 16.0% (95% confidence interval: 15.3-16.7%), respectively. Network analysis revealed that "Distress caused by sleep difficulties" (ISI7) and "Sleep maintenance" (ISI2) had the highest strength centrality, followed by "Motor dysfunction" (PHQ8) and "Sad mood" (PHQ2). Furthermore, the nodes "Sleep dissatisfaction" (ISI4), "Fatigue" (PHQ4), and "Motor dysfunction" (PHQ8) had the highest bridge strengths in linking depression and insomnia communities. CONCLUSIONS: Both central and bridge symptoms (ie, Distress caused by sleep difficulties, Sleep maintenance, Motor dysfunction, Sad mood, Sleep dissatisfaction, and Fatigue) should be prioritized when testing preventive measures and specific treatments to address comorbid insomnia and depression among psychiatric practitioners during the COVID-19 pandemic. CITATION: Zhao N, Zhao Y-J, An F, et al. Network analysis of comorbid insomnia and depressive symptoms among psychiatric practitioners during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Clin Sleep Med. 2023;19(7):1271-1279.

19.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1080192, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287204

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study examined the prevalence of cyberbullying and its relationship with residual depressive symptoms in this patient population during the COVID-19 outbreak using network analysis. Methods: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Adolescent patients attending maintenance treatment at outpatient departments of three major psychiatric hospitals were included. Experience of cyberbullying was measured with a standard question, while the severity of Internet addiction and depressive symptoms were measured using the Internet Addiction Test and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively. The network structure of depression and cyberbully were characterized and indices of "Expected Influence" was used to identify symptoms central to the network. To identify particular symptoms that were directly associated with cyberbully, the flow function was used. Results: Altogether 1,265 patients completed the assessments. The overall prevalence of cyberbullying was 92.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 90.8-93.7%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender (p = 0.04, OR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.04-2.85) was significantly associated with higher risk of cyberbullying, while a relapse of illness during the COVID-19 pandemic was significantly associated with a lower risk of cyberbullying (p = 0.03, OR = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.27-0.93). In the network of depression and cyberbully, "Sad mood," "Anhedonia" and "Energy" were the most central (influential) symptoms. Furthermore, "Suicidal ideation" had the strongest negative association with cyberbully followed by "Guilt". Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the experience of cyberbullying was highly prevalent among clinically stable adolescent psychiatric patients, particularly male patients. This finding should raise awareness of this issue emphasizing the need for regular screening and interventions for adolescent patients. Central symptoms (e.g., "Sad mood," "Anhedonia" and "Energy") identified in this study should be targeted in interventions and preventive measures.

20.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 81: 103404, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286145
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