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1.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly ; 38(5):1243, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1918771

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical value of intravesical gemcitabine combined with immunotherapy in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma (NMIBC) after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Methods: Eighty patients with non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma treated in Baoding No.1 Hospital from November 2016 to November 2019 were randomly divided into two groups, with 40 patients in each group. Both groups underwent TURBT. After surgery, the research group was treated with intravesical chemotherapy using gemcitabine combined with ubenimex, while the control group was given 40 mg pirarubicin by intravesical instillation. Postoperative condition was evaluated by cystoscopy every three months in both groups. The recurrence six months, one year and two years after treatment, the incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms such as dysuria, hematuria and frequent urination, general adverse drug reactions such as rashes, liver function damage and gastrointestinal reaction, as well as the changes in CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets before and after treatment were comparatively analyzed between the two groups. Results: The recurrence rate showed no statistical significance between the two groups 6 months after treatment (p=0.17), but significant differences one year (p=0.04) and two years (p=0.03) after treatment, which were significantly lower in the research group than the control group. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was 22.5% in the research group and 7.5% in the control group, without significant difference (p=0.36). The incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms was 32.5% and 55%, respectively, in the research group and the control group. The incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms in the research group was significantly lower compared with the control group, with a statistically significant difference (p=0.04). After treatment, CD3+, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ levels in the research group increased significantly than those in the control group, with statistically significant differences (CD3+, p=0.01;CD4+, p=0.00;CD4+/CD8+, p=0.00). Conclusions: For NMIBC patients receiving bladder-preserving surgery, intravesical gemcitabine combined with immunotherapy can reduce the recurrence rate, relieve lower urinary tract symptoms, increase the tolerance of patients to intravesical chemotherapy and significantly improve the function of T lymphocytes, without obvious increase in adverse drug reactions. Therefore, it is safe and effective, and has certain clinical value.

2.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 651, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915295

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as a primary receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we investigated the expression regulation of ACE2 in enterocytes under amino acid deprivation conditions. In this study, we found that ACE2 expression was upregulated upon all or single essential amino acid deprivation in human colonic epithelial CCD841 cells. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) reduced intestinal ACE2 mRNA and protein levels in vitro and in vivo. Consistently, we revealed two GCN2 inhibitors, GCN2iB and GCN2-IN-1, downregulated ACE2 protein expression in CCD841 cells. Moreover, we found that increased ACE2 expression in response to leucine deprivation was GCN2 dependent. Through RNA-sequencing analysis, we identified two transcription factors, MAFB and MAFF, positively regulated ACE2 expression under leucine deprivation in CCD841 cells. These findings demonstrate that amino acid deficiency increases ACE2 expression and thereby likely aggravates intestinal SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Enterocytes , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Amino Acids/deficiency , Amino Acids/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Enterocytes/enzymology , Enterocytes/metabolism , Humans , Leucine/pharmacology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338469

ABSTRACT

Background: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a common interstitial pneumonia disease, also occurred in post-COVID-19 survivors. The mechanism underlying the anti-PF effect of Qing Fei Hua Xian Decotion (QFHXD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula applied for treating PF in COVID-19 survivors, is unclear. This study aimed to uncover the mechanisms related to the anti-PF effect of QFHXD through analysis of network pharmacology and experimental verification. Methods The candidate chemical compounds of QFHXD and its putative targets for treating PF were achieved from public databases, thereby we established the corresponding “herb- compound -target” network of QFHXD. Moreover, The protein–protein interaction (PPI) network of potential targets was also constructed to screen the core targets. Furthermore, Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were used to predict targets, and pathways, then validated by in vivo experiments. Results A total of 188 active compounds in QFHXD and 50 target genes were identified from databases. The key therapeutic targets of QFHXD, such as PI3K/Akt, IL-6, TNF, IL-1β, STAT3, MMP-9, and TGF-β1 were identified by KEGG and GO analysis. Anti-PF effects of QFHXD (in a dose-dependent manner) and prednisone were confirmed by HE, Masson staining, and Sirius red staining as well as in vivo Micro-CT and immunohistochemical analysis in a rat model of bleomycin-induced PF. Besides, QFXHD remarkably inhibits the activity of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB and TGF‑β1/Smad2/3. Conclusion QFXHD significantly attenuated bleomycin-induced PF via inhibiting inflammation and EMT. PI3K/Akt/NF-κB and TGF‑β1/Smad2/3 pathways might be the potential therapeutic effects of QFHXD for treating PF.

4.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(3): e1010009, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793656

ABSTRACT

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by defective bone mineralization and is highly variable in its clinical phenotype. The disease occurs due to various loss-of-function mutations in ALPL, the gene encoding tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). In this work, a data-driven and biophysics-based approach is proposed for the large-scale analysis of ALPL mutations-from nonpathogenic to severe HPPs. By using a pipeline of synergistic approaches including sequence-structure analysis, network modeling, elastic network models and atomistic simulations, we characterized allosteric signatures and effects of the ALPL mutations on protein dynamics and function. Statistical analysis of molecular features computed for the ALPL mutations showed a significant difference between the control, mild and severe HPP phenotypes. Molecular dynamics simulations coupled with protein structure network analysis were employed to analyze the effect of single-residue variation on conformational dynamics of TNSALP dimers, and the developed machine learning model suggested that the topological network parameters could serve as a robust indicator of severe mutations. The results indicated that the severity of disease-associated mutations is often linked with mutation-induced modulation of allosteric communications in the protein. This study suggested that ALPL mutations associated with mild and more severe HPPs can exert markedly distinct effects on the protein stability and long-range network communications. By linking the disease phenotypes with dynamic and allosteric molecular signatures, the proposed integrative computational approach enabled to characterize and quantify the allosteric effects of ALPL mutations and role of allostery in the pathogenesis of HPPs.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase , Hypophosphatasia , Alkaline Phosphatase/genetics , Calcification, Physiologic , Humans , Hypophosphatasia/genetics , Hypophosphatasia/pathology , Mutation , Phenotype
5.
European Journal of Psychotraumatology ; 13(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782284

ABSTRACT

Background Pre-hospitalisation, hospitalisation and post-hospitalisation factors may significantly affect depression, anxiety and post-traumatic growth (PTG) among COVID-19 survivors. Objective Our study investigated depression, anxiety and PTG and their correlates among COVID-19 survivors. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey recruited 199 COVID-19 patients (Mean age = 42.7;53.3% females) at six-month follow-up after hospital discharge in five Chinese cities (i.e. Wuhan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan and Nanning). Their demographic information, clinical records and experiences during (e.g. severity of covid-19 symptoms, treatment and exposure to other patients’ suffering) and after hospitalisation (e.g. perceived impact of covid-19, somatic symptoms after hospitalisation), and psychosocial factors (e.g. perceived discrimination, self-stigma, affiliate stigma, resilience and social support) were investigated. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scale, respectively. PTG was examined by the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) instrument. Results The proportion of depressive symptoms <5, ≥5 and <10, ≥10 were 76.9%, 12.0% and 11.1%, respectively. The proportion of anxiety symptoms <5, ≥5 and <10, ≥10 were 77.4%, 15.1% and 7.5%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that receiving mental health care services during hospitalisation, somatic symptoms after discharge, perceived affiliate stigma and perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 were significantly and positively associated with probable depression. Significant correlates of probable anxiety also included permanent residents of the city, somatic symptoms after discharge, perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 and self-stigma. Social support, self-stigma and receiving mental health care services during hospitalisation were positively associated with PTG. Conclusions: The results suggest that post-hospitalisation and psychosocial factors had relatively stronger associations with depression, anxiety and PTG than pre-hospitalisation and hospitalisation factors. Promoting social support and social inclusion may be useful strategies to improve the mental health of COVID-19 survivors. HIGHLIGHTS • Post-hospitalisation and psychosocial factors had relatively stronger associations with depression, anxiety and PTG than pre-hospitalisation and hospitalisation factors, promoting social support and social inclusion may be useful strategies to improve mental health of COVID-19 survivors.

6.
EMBO Mol Med ; 14(5): e14844, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776709

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that often correlate with the severity of COVID-19. Here, we explored the pathogenesis underlying the intestinal inflammation in COVID-19. Plasma VEGF level was particularly elevated in patients with GI symptoms and significantly correlated with intestinal edema and disease progression. Through an animal model mimicking intestinal inflammation upon stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, we further revealed that VEGF was over-produced in the duodenum prior to its ascent in the circulation. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 spike promoted VEGF production through activating the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling in enterocytes, but not in endothelium, and inducing permeability and inflammation. Blockage of the ERK/VEGF axis was able to rescue vascular permeability and alleviate intestinal inflammation in vivo. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation and therapeutic targets for the GI symptoms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Enterocytes/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
7.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2055294, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774261

ABSTRACT

Background: Pre-hospitalisation, hospitalisation and post-hospitalisation factors may significantly affect depression, anxiety and post-traumatic growth (PTG) among COVID-19 survivors. Objective: Our study investigated depression, anxiety and PTG and their correlates among COVID-19 survivors. Method: A cross-sectional telephone survey recruited 199 COVID-19 patients (Mean age = 42.7; 53.3% females) at six-month follow-up after hospital discharge in five Chinese cities (i.e. Wuhan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan and Nanning). Their demographic information, clinical records and experiences during (e.g. severity of covid-19 symptoms, treatment and exposure to other patients' suffering) and after hospitalisation (e.g. perceived impact of covid-19, somatic symptoms after hospitalisation), and psychosocial factors (e.g. perceived discrimination, self-stigma, affiliate stigma, resilience and social support) were investigated. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scale, respectively. PTG was examined by the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) instrument. Results: The proportion of depressive symptoms <5, ≥5 and <10, ≥10 were 76.9%, 12.0% and 11.1%, respectively. The proportion of anxiety symptoms <5, ≥5 and <10, ≥10 were 77.4%, 15.1% and 7.5%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that receiving mental health care services during hospitalisation, somatic symptoms after discharge, perceived affiliate stigma and perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 were significantly and positively associated with probable depression. Significant correlates of probable anxiety also included permanent residents of the city, somatic symptoms after discharge, perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 and self-stigma. Social support, self-stigma and receiving mental health care services during hospitalisation were positively associated with PTG.Conclusions: The results suggest that post-hospitalisation and psychosocial factors had relatively stronger associations with depression, anxiety and PTG than pre-hospitalisation and hospitalisation factors. Promoting social support and social inclusion may be useful strategies to improve the mental health of COVID-19 survivors. HIGHLIGHTS: • Post-hospitalisation and psychosocial factors had relatively stronger associations with depression, anxiety and PTG than pre-hospitalisation and hospitalisation factors, promoting social support and social inclusion may be useful strategies to improve mental health of COVID-19 survivors.


Antecedentes: Los factores pre-hospitalización, durante la hospitalización y post-hospitalización pueden afectar significativamente la depresión, la ansiedad y el crecimiento postraumático (CPT) en los sobrevivientes de COVID-19.Objetivo: Nuestro estudio investigó la depresión, la ansiedad y el CPT y sus correlatos en sobrevivientes de COVID-19.Método: Una encuesta telefónica transversal reclutó a 199 pacientes con COVID-19 (edad promedio = 42,7; 53,3% mujeres) a los seis meses de seguimiento después del alta hospitalaria en cinco ciudades chinas (Wuhan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan y Nanning). Su información demográfica, registros clínicos y experiencias durante la hospitalización (e.g. gravedad de los síntomas de COVID-19, tratamiento, exposición al sufrimiento de otros pacientes) y después de la hospitalización (e.g. impacto percibido de COVID-19, síntomas somáticos después de la hospitalización) y factores psicosociales (e.g. discriminación percibida, autoestigma, estigma de afiliación, resiliencia, apoyo social) fueron investigados. Los síntomas depresivos y de ansiedad se midieron mediante el Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente (PHQ-9 en su sigla en inglés) y la escala de trastorno de ansiedad generalizada (GAD-7 en su sigla en inglés) respectivamente, el CPT se examinó mediante el instrumento Inventario de Crecimiento Postraumático (PTGI en su sigla en inglés).Resultados: La proporción de síntomas depresivos <5, ≥5 y <10, y ≥10 fue 76,9%, 12,0% y 11,1% respectivamente. La proporción de síntomas de ansiedad <5, ≥5 y <10, y ≥10 fue del 77,4%, 15,1% y 7,5% respectivamente. La regresión logística multivariante mostró que recibir servicios de atención de salud mental durante la hospitalización, los síntomas somáticos después del alta, el estigma de afiliación percibido y el impacto percibido de estar infectado con COVID-19 se asociaron significativa y positivamente con una probable depresión. Los correlatos significativos de ansiedad probable también incluyeron ser residente permanente de la ciudad, síntomas somáticos después del alta, impacto percibido de estar infectado con COVID-19 y autoestigma. El apoyo social, el autoestigma y recibir servicios de salud mental durante la hospitalización se asociaron positivamente con el CPT.Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que los factores psicosociales y posteriores a la hospitalización tuvieron asociaciones relativamente más fuertes con la depresión, la ansiedad y el CPT que los factores previos a la hospitalización y hospitalización. Promover el apoyo social y la inclusión social pueden ser estrategias útiles para mejorar la salud mental de los sobrevivientes de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Discharge , Survivors
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325388

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, a phenomenon emerged in which some patients with severe disease were critically ill and could not be discharged from the ICU even though they exhibited negative viral tests. In general, continuous negative viral tests are thought to indicate that the virus has been cleared from the body and that the patients can be considered "recovered". However, because these patients were still critically ill, they obviously had not truly recovered from the disease. We sought to investigate why these patients were still critically ill even though they exhibited negative viral tests by analyzing the gene expression profiles of their peripheral immune cells using transcriptome sequencing. Methods: Fourteen severe COVID-19 patients with at least 3 negative virus tests but were still in critical ill and could not be discharged from the ICU were enrolled. Blood samples from 14 patients and 5 healthy donors were collected. Total RNA was extracted from nucleated cells for RNA-Sequencing. FeatureCounts v1.5.0-p3 was used to count the reads numbers mapped to each gene. Results: All enrolled patients, regardless of changes in genes related to different symptoms and inflammatory responses, showed universally and severely decreased expression of adaptive immunity-related genes, especially those related to T/B cell arms and HLA molecules, and that these patients exhibited long-term secondary infections. This adaptive immune suppression is unlikely due to classic immune checkpoint molecules such as PD-1 or long-term use of glucocorticoids but may be caused by an unknown mechanism that has not yet been discovered. Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest that an initial recovery of these severe COVID-19 patients, as indicated by negative viral tests, may not indicate actual recovery. They still suffer from secondary infections for a long period of time because of severe adaptive immunosuppression and need to receive a variety of antibiotics, antifungal drugs, or combination therapies. Appropriate methods should be used to detect their adaptive immune function, and appropriate immunotherapy that can activate the adaptive immune response should be developed. Trial registration: Not applicable (this study does not involve intervention on human participants).

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324431

ABSTRACT

Background: Gut ecosystem has profound effects on host physiology and health. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Compared with other organs, gut antiviral response can result in more complicated immune responses because of the interactions between the gut microbiota and host immunity. However, there are still large knowledge gaps in the impact of COVID-19 on gut molecular profiles and commensal microbiome, hindering our comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the treatment of COVID-19. Results: : We performed longitudinal stool multi-omics profiling to systemically investigate the molecular phenomics alterations of gut ecosystem in COVID-19. Gut proteomes of COVID-19 were characterized by disturbed immune, proteolysis and redox homeostasis. The expression and glycosylation of proteins involved in neutrophil degranulation and migration were suppressed, while those of proteases were upregulated. The variable domains of Ig heavy chains were downregulated and the overall glycosylation of IgA heavy chain constant regions, IgGFc-binding protein, and J chain were suppressed with glycan-specific variations. There was a reduction of beneficial gut bacteria and an enrichment of bacteria derived deleterious metabolites potentially associated with multiple types of diseases (such as ethyl glucuronide). The reduction of Ig heave chain variable domains may contribute to the increase of some Bacteroidetes species. Many bacteria ceramide lipids with a C17-sphingoid based were downregulated in COVID-19. In many cases, the gut phenome did not restore two months after symptom onset. Conclusions: : Our study indicates widely disturbed gut molecular profiles which may play a role in the development of symptoms in COVID-19. Our findings also emphasis the need for ongoing investigation of the long-term gut molecular and microbial alterations during COVID-19 recovery process. Considering the gut ecosystem as a potential target could offer a valuable approach in managing the disease.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308207

ABSTRACT

Renal injury is common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to determine the relationship of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and acute kidney injury (AKI) with the characteristics, progression, and prognosis of COVID-19 in-patients. We retrospectively reviewed 1851 COVID-19 patients admitted to 3 hospitals in Wuhan, China. Clinical, laboratory, radiological, treatment, complication, and outcome data were analyzed. Patients were stratified according to tertiles of eGFR (≥ 90 vs. 60–89 vs. <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ). The risk of reaching the composite endpoint—intensive care unit admission, invasive ventilation, or death—was compared. On admission, 25.5% patients had renal impairment (eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ), but only 2.6% patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD). The overall in-hospital AKI incidence was 6.7%. Severe illness and comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, CKD, and cardiovascular/cerebrovascular diseases) were more common among patients with low eGFR (< 90 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ). Despite the more frequent use of intensive oxygen therapy, continuous blood purification, and glucocorticoid treatment, the prognosis of these patients was unsatisfactory, with the incidence of the composite endpoint (15.4% vs. 19.6% vs. 54.5%;P = 0.000) and complications (AKI, respiratory failure, cardiac injury, coagulation disorders, sepsis, etc.) increasing with decreasing eGFR. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that patients with eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m 2 or AKI had significantly escalated risks of reaching the composite endpoint. Multivariate regression analysis showed that renal insufficiency (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) on admission and in-hospital AKI independently predicted poor prognosis among COVID-19 in-patients. Early and continuous renal-function monitoring and early AKI diagnosis are necessary to predict and prevent the progression of COVID-19.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313733

ABSTRACT

Although human antibodies elicited by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid (N) protein are profoundly boosted upon infection, little is known about the function of N-reactive antibodies. Herein, we isolated and profiled a panel of 32 N protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from a quick recovery coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) convalescent patient who had dominant antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 N protein rather than to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. The complex structure of the N protein RNA binding domain with the mAb with the highest binding affinity (nCoV396) revealed changes in the epitopes and antigen’s allosteric regulation. Functionally, a virus-free complement hyper-activation analysis demonstrated that nCoV396 specifically compromises the N protein-induced complement hyper-activation, which is a risk factor for the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 patients, thus laying the foundation for the identification of functional anti-N protein mAbs.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312501

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread throughout the world and caused hundreds of thousands of infected people to death. However, the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS COV-2) is poorly understood. The objective of this study is to retrospectively explore the pathogenesis of COVID-19 from clinical laboratory findings, taking disease progression into account. Methods: A single-centered, retrospective study was carried out, which included moderate (n=76) and severe COVID-19 cases (n=22). The difference of laboratory findings from blood routine examination and hepatorenal function test were retrospectively evaluated between the state of moderate and severe. The disease progression was indicated by oxygenation index. Results: Age is a risk factor for disease progression from moderate to severe. Lymphocytopenia, neutrophilia, liver and kidney function decreasement occurred in severe patients on admission, compared with moderate patients. Lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia deteriorated at the lowest oxygenation index timepoint in the severe patients. And the oxygenation index was associated with ratio of lymphocyte and neutrophil in COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: Lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia, which deteriorate in the progression of severe patients, are the main pathogenesis of COVID-19. More measures need to be taken to control lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia in severe COVID-19. Oxygenation index presented potentiality as predictor on the progression of COVID-19.

13.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2019980, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665830

ABSTRACT

Background: As a highly infectious disease with human-to-human transmission characteristics, COVID-19 has caused panic in the general public. Those who have recovered from COVID-19 may experience discrimination and internalized stigma. They may be more likely to worry about social interaction and develop social anxiety. Objectives: This study investigated the associations among hospitalization factors, social/interpersonal factors, personal factors, and social anxiety to reveal the mechanism of social anxiety in COVID-19 survivors. Methods: A cross-sectional, multicenter telephone survey was conducted from July to September 2020 in five Chinese cities (i.e. Wuhan, Nanning, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and Dongguan); adult COVID-19 survivors were recruited 6 months after they were discharged from the hospital. Linear regressions and path analysis based on the minority stress model were conducted to test the relationships among hospitalization, social/interpersonal factors, personal factors, and social anxiety. Results: The response rate was 74.5% (N = 199, 55.3% females). Linear regression analyses showed that various hospitalization, social/interpersonal, and personal factors were statistically significantly associated with social anxiety. Path analysis showed that the proposed model fit the data well (χ2(df) = 3.196(3), p = .362, CFI = .999, NNFI = .996, RMSEA = .018). Internalized stigma fully mediated the association between perceived discrimination/social support and social anxiety, while it partially mediated the association between perceived affiliate stigma and social anxiety. Conclusions: The results suggest that social/interpersonal and personal factors have a stronger association with social anxiety than hospitalization factors and highlight the importance of internalized stigma in understanding the mechanisms of these relationships. Clinical psychologists can refer to these modifiable psychosocial factors to develop efficient interventions for mental health promotion.


Antecedentes: Como una enfermedad altamente infecciosa con características de transmisión de persona a persona, el COVID-19 ha causado pánico en el público en general. Aquellos que se han recuperado del COVID-19 pueden experimentar discriminación y estigma internalizado. Es más probable que se preocupen por la interacción social y desarrollen ansiedad social.Objetivos: Este estudio investigó las asociaciones entre factores de hospitalización, factores sociales /interpersonales, factores personales y ansiedad social para revelar el mecanismo de ansiedad social en sobrevivientes de COVID-19.Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta telefónica transversal multicentro de julio a septiembre de 2020 en cinco ciudades chinas (es decir, Wuhan, Nanning, Shenzhen, Zhuhai y Dongguan). Se reclutaron sobrevivientes adultos de COVID-19 seis meses después de ser dados de alta del hospital. Se realizaron regresiones lineales y análisis de ruta basados en el modelo de estrés de minoría para probar las relaciones entre la hospitalización, los factores sociales/interpersonales, los factores personales y la ansiedad social.Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue del 74,5% (N = 199, 55,3% mujeres). Los análisis de regresión lineal mostraron que varios factores de hospitalización, sociales/interpersonales y personales se asociaron de manera estadísticamente significativa con la ansiedad social. El análisis de ruta mostró que el modelo propuesto se ajustaba bien a los datos (χ 2 (df) = 3.196 (3), p = .362, CFI = .999, NNFI = .996, RMSEA = .018). El estigma internalizado medió completamente la asociación entre discriminación/apoyo social percibido y ansiedad social, mientras que medió parcialmente la asociación entre el estigma percibido de afiliados y ansiedad social.Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que los factores sociales/interpersonales y personales tienen una asociación más fuerte con la ansiedad social que los factores de hospitalización y resaltan la importancia del estigma internalizado en la comprensión de los mecanismos de estas relaciones. Los psicólogos clínicos pueden referirse a estos factores psicosociales modificables para desarrollar intervenciones eficientes para la promoción de la salud mental.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Stigma , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Survivors , Young Adult
14.
European Journal of Psychotraumatology ; 13(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1661180

ABSTRACT

Background As a highly infectious disease with human-to-human transmission characteristics, COVID-19 has caused panic in the general public. Those who have recovered from COVID-19 may experience discrimination and internalized stigma. They may be more likely to worry about social interaction and develop social anxiety. Objectives This study investigated the associations among hospitalization factors, social/interpersonal factors, personal factors, and social anxiety to reveal the mechanism of social anxiety in COVID-19 survivors. Methods A cross-sectional, multicenter telephone survey was conducted from July to September 2020 in five Chinese cities (i.e. Wuhan, Nanning, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and Dongguan);adult COVID-19 survivors were recruited 6 months after they were discharged from the hospital. Linear regressions and path analysis based on the minority stress model were conducted to test the relationships among hospitalization, social/interpersonal factors, personal factors, and social anxiety. Results The response rate was 74.5% (N = 199, 55.3% females). Linear regression analyses showed that various hospitalization, social/interpersonal, and personal factors were statistically significantly associated with social anxiety. Path analysis showed that the proposed model fit the data well (χ2(df) = 3.196(3), p = .362, CFI = .999, NNFI = .996, RMSEA = .018). Internalized stigma fully mediated the association between perceived discrimination/social support and social anxiety, while it partially mediated the association between perceived affiliate stigma and social anxiety. Conclusions The results suggest that social/interpersonal and personal factors have a stronger association with social anxiety than hospitalization factors and highlight the importance of internalized stigma in understanding the mechanisms of these relationships. Clinical psychologists can refer to these modifiable psychosocial factors to develop efficient interventions for mental health promotion. HIGHLIGHTS Internalized stigma fully mediated the effects of perceived discrimination and social support on social anxiety and partially mediated the effect of perceived affiliate stigma on social anxiety.

15.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 773106, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643547

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 survivors who had acute respiratory symptoms might experience prolonged post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to further rehabilitation, somatic symptoms and related distress. The conservation of resource (COR) theory is a well-developed theory to understand how people develop PTSD symptoms in traumatic events. The current study aimed to examine the potential factors of PTSD symptoms and interrelationships among this factors among COVID-19 survivors based on the COR theory. This cross-sectional telephone survey enrolled 199 COVID-19 patients (Mean age = 42.7; 53.3% females) 6 months after their hospital discharge in five Chinese cities (i.e., Wuhan, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan, and Nanning). The results showed that 7% of participants were classified as having probable PTSD. The significant potential factors relating to PTSD symptoms included socio-demographic status, hospitalization experiences, post-hospitalization experiences, and psychological status. Besides, the proposed statistical mediation model based on the COR framework showed good model fit, χ2(df) = 17.286 (5), p = 0.004, CFI = 0.962, NNFI = 0.951, RMSEA = 0.077. Perceived resource loss/gain fully mediated the association between exposure to other patients' suffering during hospitalization and PTSD symptoms, and partially mediated the relationships from somatic symptoms/perceived impact of being infected with COVID-19 after discharge to PTSD symptoms. On the other hand, resilience was a full mediator in the relationship from ICU experience to PTSD symptoms and a partial mediator in the relationship from perceived impact to PTSD symptoms. The results provide preliminary support on applying the COR theory to understand the factors of PTSD symptoms among COVID-19 survivors. Interventions to reduce PTSD symptoms in this population can be developed based on the modifiable psychosocial mediators.

16.
Genome Res ; 32(2): 228-241, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642462

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still elusive, which impedes disease progression prediction, differential diagnosis, and targeted therapy. Plasma cell-free RNAs (cfRNAs) carry unique information from human tissue and thus could point to resourceful solutions for pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions. Here, we performed a comparative analysis of cfRNA profiles between COVID-19 patients and healthy donors using serial plasma. Analyses of the cfRNA landscape, potential gene regulatory mechanisms, dynamic changes in tRNA pools upon infection, and microbial communities were performed. A total of 380 cfRNA molecules were up-regulated in all COVID-19 patients, of which seven could serve as potential biomarkers (AUC > 0.85) with great sensitivity and specificity. Antiviral (NFKB1A, IFITM3, and IFI27) and neutrophil activation (S100A8, CD68, and CD63)-related genes exhibited decreased expression levels during treatment in COVID-19 patients, which is in accordance with the dynamically enhanced inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients. Noncoding RNAs, including some microRNAs (let 7 family) and long noncoding RNAs (GJA9-MYCBP) targeting interleukin (IL6/IL6R), were differentially expressed between COVID-19 patients and healthy donors, which accounts for the potential core mechanism of cytokine storm syndromes; the tRNA pools change significantly between the COVID-19 and healthy group, leading to the accumulation of SARS-CoV-2 biased codons, which facilitate SARS-CoV-2 replication. Finally, several pneumonia-related microorganisms were detected in the plasma of COVID-19 patients, raising the possibility of simultaneously monitoring immune response regulation and microbial communities using cfRNA analysis. This study fills the knowledge gap in the plasma cfRNA landscape of COVID-19 patients and offers insight into the potential mechanisms of cfRNAs to explain COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , RNA/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 753055, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581298

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the performance of a novel deep learning (DL)-based artificial intelligence (AI) system in classifying computed tomography (CT) scans of pneumonia patients into different groups, as well as to present an effective clinically relevant machine learning (ML) system based on medical image identification and clinical feature interpretation to assist radiologists in triage and diagnosis. Methods: The 3,463 CT images of pneumonia used in this multi-center retrospective study were divided into four categories: bacterial pneumonia (n = 507), fungal pneumonia (n = 126), common viral pneumonia (n = 777), and COVID-19 (n = 2,053). We used DL methods based on images to distinguish pulmonary infections. A machine learning (ML) model for risk interpretation was developed using key imaging (learned from the DL methods) and clinical features. The algorithms were evaluated using the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). Results: The median AUC of DL models for differentiating pulmonary infection was 99.5% (COVID-19), 98.6% (viral pneumonia), 98.4% (bacterial pneumonia), 99.1% (fungal pneumonia), respectively. By combining chest CT results and clinical symptoms, the ML model performed well, with an AUC of 99.7% for SARS-CoV-2, 99.4% for common virus, 98.9% for bacteria, and 99.6% for fungus. Regarding clinical features interpreting, the model revealed distinctive CT characteristics associated with specific pneumonia: in COVID-19, ground-glass opacity (GGO) [92.5%; odds ratio (OR), 1.76; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71-1.86]; larger lesions in the right upper lung (75.0%; OR, 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03-1.25) with viral pneumonia; older age (57.0 years ± 14.2, OR, 1.84; 95% CI: 1.73-1.99) with bacterial pneumonia; and consolidation (95.8%, OR, 1.29; 95% CI: 1.05-1.40) with fungal pneumonia. Conclusion: For classifying common types of pneumonia and assessing the influential factors for triage, our AI system has shown promising results. Our ultimate goal is to assist clinicians in making quick and accurate diagnoses, resulting in the potential for early therapeutic intervention.

19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 755579, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556334

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a phenomenon emerged in which some patients with severe disease were critically ill and could not be discharged from the ICU even though they exhibited negative viral tests. To explore the underlying mechanism, we collected blood samples from these patients and analyzed the gene expression profiles of peripheral immune cells. We found that all enrolled patients, regardless of changes in genes related to different symptoms and inflammatory responses, showed universally and severely decreased expression of adaptive immunity-related genes, especially those related to T/B cell arms and HLA molecules, and that these patients exhibited long-term secondary infections. In addition, no significant change was found in the expression of classic immunosuppression molecules including PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4, suggesting that the adaptive immune suppression may not be due to the change of these genes. According to the published literatures and our data, this adaptive immunosuppression is likely to be caused by the "dysregulated host response" to severe infection, similar to the immunosuppression that exists in other severely infected patients with sepsis.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/genetics , Coinfection/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immune Tolerance/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Smell/genetics , Taste/genetics
20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294963

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as a primary receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we investigated the expression regulation of ACE2 in enterocytes under amino acid deprivation conditions. In this study, we confirmed that ACE2 protein was highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells in mice and found that ACE2 expression was upregulated upon all or only an essential amino acid deprivation in human colonic epithelial CCD841 cells. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of general control nonderepressible 2 ( GCN2 ) reduced intestinal ACE2 mRNA and protein levels in vitro and in vivo . Consistently, we revealed two GCN2 inhibitors, GCN2iB and GCN2-IN-1, downregulated ACE2 protein expression in CCD841 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that increased ACE2 expression in response to leucine deprivation was GCN2 dependent. Through RNA-seq analysis, we identified that two novel transcription factors, MAFB and MAFF, positively regulated ACE2 expression under leucine deprivation in CCD841 cells. These findings demonstrate that amino acid deficiency increases ACE2 expression and thereby likely aggravates intestinal SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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