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2.
Med Phys ; 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929957

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently declared worldwide pandemic. Triaging of patients into severe and non-severe could further help in targeted management. "Potential severe patients" is a category of patients who did not have severe symptoms at their initial diagnosis, but eventually progressed to be severe patients and are easily overlooked in the early stage. This work aimed to develop and evaluate a CT-based radiomics signature for the prediction of these potential severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: One hundred fifty COVID-19 patients were enrolled and randomly divided into cross-validation and independent test sets. First, their clinical characteristics were screened using the univariate and multivariate logistic regression step by step. Then, radiomics features were extracted from the lesions on their chest CT images. Subsequently, the inter- and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) analysis, minimum-redundancy maximum-relevance (mRMR) selection, and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithm were used step by step for feature selection and construction of a radiomics signature. Finally, the screened clinical risk factors and constructed radiomics signature were combined for the combined model and Radiomics+Clinics nomogram construction. The predictive performance of the Radiomics and Combined models were evaluated and compared using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, Hosmer-Lemeshow test and Delong test. RESULTS: Clinical characteristics analysis resulted in the screening of five clinical risk factors. The combination of ICC, mRMR, and LASSO methods resulted in the selection of ten radiomics features, which made up of the radiomics signature. The differences in the radiomics signature between the potential severe and non-severe groups in cross-validation set and test sets were both p < 0.001. All Radiomics and Combined models showed a very good predictive performance with the accuracy and AUC of nearly or above 0.9. Additionally, we found no significant difference in the predictive performance between these two models. CONCLUSIONS: A CT-based radiomics signature for the prediction of potential severe COVID-19 patients was constructed and evaluated. Constructed Radiomics and Combined model showed good feasibility and accuracy. The Radiomics+Clinical nomogram, acted as a useful tool, may assist clinicians to better identify potential severe cases to target their management in the COVID-19 pandemic prevention and control.

3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2094142, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927246

ABSTRACT

ARCoV is a candidate mRNA vaccine encoding receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2. Its safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity profile have been confirmed in the phase 1 clinical trial in China. A multi-regional phase 3 clinical trial is currently underway to test the efficacy of ARCoV (NCT04847102). Here, we tested the cross-neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) of a panel of serum samples from participants in the phase 1 clinical trial of ARCoV by pesudo- and authentic SARS-CoV-2. Our data suggest the immunity induced by the ARCoV vaccine reduced but still has significant neutralization against the Alpha and Delta variants. Moreover, ARCoV maintained activity against the Beta variant, despite of its obvious reduction in neutralizing titers. Our findings further support the solid protective neutralization activity against VOCs induced by ARCoV vaccine.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 836232, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775668

ABSTRACT

The continuous emergence of SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, especially the variants of concern (VOC), exacerbated the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As the key of viral entry into host cells, the spike (S) protein is the major target of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and polyclonal antibodies elicited by infection or vaccination. However, the mutations of S protein in variants may change the infectivity and antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2, leading to the immune escape from those neutralizing antibodies. To characterize the mutations of S protein in newly emerging variants, the proteolytic property and binding affinity with receptor were assessed, and the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudovirus system was used to assess the infectivity and immune escape. We found that some SARS-CoV-2 variants have changed significantly in viral infectivity; especially, B.1.617.2 is more likely to infect less susceptible cells than D614G, and the virus infection process can be completed in a shorter time. In addition, neutralizing mAbs and vaccinated sera partially or completely failed to inhibit host cell entry mediated by the S protein of certain SARS-CoV-2 variants. However, SARS-CoV-2 variant S protein-mediated viral infection can still be blocked by protease inhibitors and endocytosis inhibitors. This work provides a deeper understanding of the rise and evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants and their immune evasion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3223-3232, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756617

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has evolved into a panel of variants of concern (VOCs) and constituted a sustained threat to global health. The wildtype (WT) SARS-CoV-2 isolates fail to infect mice, while the Beta variant, one of the VOCs, has acquired the capability to infect standard laboratory mice, raising a spreading risk of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to mice. However, the infectivity and pathogenicity of other VOCs in mice remain not fully understood. In this study, we systematically investigated the infectivity and pathogenicity of three VOCs, Alpha, Beta, and Delta, in mice in comparison with two well-understood SARS-CoV-2 mouse-adapted strains, MASCp6 and MASCp36, sharing key mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) with Alpha or Beta, respectively. Our results showed that the Beta variant had the strongest infectivity and pathogenicity among the three VOCs, while the Delta variant only caused limited replication and mild pathogenic changes in the mouse lung, which is much weaker than what the Alpha variant did. Meanwhile, Alpha showed comparable infectivity in lungs in comparison with MASCp6, and Beta only showed slightly lower infectivity in lungs when compared with MASCp36. These results indicated that all three VOCs have acquired the capability to infect mice, highlighting the ongoing spillover risk of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to mice during the continued evolution of SARS-CoV-2, and that the key amino acid mutations in the RBD of mouse-adapted strains may be referenced as an early-warning indicator for predicting the spillover risk of newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
6.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(3): e193-e202, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective vaccines are urgently needed to end the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to assess the preliminary safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD). METHODS: This single centre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, phase 1 trial of ARCoV was conducted at Shulan (Hangzhou) hospital in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Healthy adults aged 18-59 years negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled and randomly assigned using block randomisation to receive an intramuscular injection of vaccine or placebo. Vaccine doses were 5 µg, 10 µg, 15 µg, 20 µg, and 25 µg. The first six participants in each block were sentinels and along with the remaining 18 participants, were randomly assigned to groups (5:1). In block 1 sentinels were given the lowest vaccine dose and after a 4-day observation with confirmed safety analyses, the remaining 18 participants in the same dose group proceeded and sentinels in block 2 were given their first administration on a two-dose schedule, 28 days apart. All participants, investigators, and staff doing laboratory analyses were masked to treatment allocation. Humoral responses were assessed by measuring anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG using a standardised ELISA and neutralising antibodies using pseudovirus-based and live SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation assays. SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific T-cell responses, including IFN-γ and IL-2 production, were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay. The primary outcome for safety was incidence of adverse events or adverse reactions within 60 min, and at days 7, 14, and 28 after each vaccine dose. The secondary safety outcome was abnormal changes detected by laboratory tests at days 1, 4, 7, and 28 after each vaccine dose. For immunogenicity, the secondary outcome was humoral immune responses: titres of neutralising antibodies to live SARS-CoV-2, neutralising antibodies to pseudovirus, and RBD-specific IgG at baseline and 28 days after first vaccination and at days 7, 15, and 28 after second vaccination. The exploratory outcome was SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses at 7 days after the first vaccination and at days 7 and 15 after the second vaccination. This trial is registered with www.chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR2000039212). FINDINGS: Between Oct 30 and Dec 2, 2020, 230 individuals were screened and 120 eligible participants were randomly assigned to receive five-dose levels of ARCoV or a placebo (20 per group). All participants received the first vaccination and 118 received the second dose. No serious adverse events were reported within 56 days after vaccination and the majority of adverse events were mild or moderate. Fever was the most common systemic adverse reaction (one [5%] of 20 in the 5 µg group, 13 [65%] of 20 in the 10 µg group, 17 [85%] of 20 in the 15 µg group, 19 [95%] of 20 in the 20 µg group, 16 [100%] of 16 in the 25 µg group; p<0·0001). The incidence of grade 3 systemic adverse events were none (0%) of 20 in the 5 µg group, three (15%) of 20 in the 10 µg group, six (30%) of 20 in the 15 µg group, seven (35%) of 20 in the 20 µg group, five (31%) of 16 in the 25 µg group, and none (0%) of 20 in the placebo group (p=0·0013). As expected, the majority of fever resolved in the first 2 days after vaccination for all groups. The incidence of solicited systemic adverse events was similar after administration of ARCoV as a first or second vaccination. Humoral immune responses including anti-RBD IgG and neutralising antibodies increased significantly 7 days after the second dose and peaked between 14 and 28 days thereafter. Specific T-cell response peaked between 7 and 14 days after full vaccination. 15 µg induced the highest titre of neutralising antibodies, which was about twofold more than the antibody titre of convalescent patients with COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: ARCoV was safe and well tolerated at all five doses. The acceptable safety profile, together with the induction of strong humoral and cellular immune responses, support further clinical testing of ARCoV at a large scale. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Project of China, Academy of Medical Sciences China, National Natural Science Foundation China, and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , China , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
7.
Innovation (Camb) ; 3(2): 100221, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713028

ABSTRACT

The highly pathogenic and readily transmissible SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global coronavirus pandemic, urgently requiring effective countermeasures against its rapid expansion. All available vaccine platforms are being used to generate safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we generated a live-attenuated candidate vaccine strain by serial passaging of a SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolate in Vero cells. Deep sequencing revealed the dynamic adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells, resulting in a stable clone with a deletion of seven amino acids (N679SPRRAR685) at the S1/S2 junction of the S protein (named VAS5). VAS5 showed significant attenuation of replication in multiple human cell lines, human airway epithelium organoids, and hACE2 mice. Viral fitness competition assays demonstrated that VAS5 showed specific tropism to Vero cells but decreased fitness in human cells compared with the parental virus. More importantly, a single intranasal injection of VAS5 elicited a high level of neutralizing antibodies and prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice as well as close-contact transmission in golden Syrian hamsters. Structural and biochemical analysis revealed a stable and locked prefusion conformation of the S trimer of VAS5, which most resembles SARS-CoV-2-3Q-2P, an advanced vaccine immunogen (NVAX-CoV2373). Further systematic antigenic profiling and immunogenicity validation confirmed that the VAS5 S trimer presents an enhanced antigenic mimic of the wild-type S trimer. Our results not only provide a potent live-attenuated vaccine candidate against COVID-19 but also clarify the molecular and structural basis for the highly attenuated and super immunogenic phenotype of VAS5.

8.
Bull Math Biol ; 84(4): 47, 2022 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712322

ABSTRACT

In order to understand how Wuhan curbed the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, we build a network transmission model of 123 dimensions incorporating the impact of quarantine and medical resources as well as household transmission. Using our new model, the final infection size of Wuhan is predicted to be 50,662 (95%CI: 46,234, 55,493), and the epidemic would last until April 25 (95%CI: April 23, April 29), which are consistent with the actual situation. It is shown that quarantining close contacts greatly reduces the final size and shorten the epidemic duration. The opening of Fangcang shelter hospitals reduces the final size by about 17,000. Had the number of hospital beds been sufficient when the lockdown started, the number of deaths would have been reduced by at least 54.26%. We also investigate the distribution of infectious individuals in unquarantined households of different sizes. The high-risk households are those with size from two to four before the peak time, while the households with only one member have the highest risk after the peak time. Our findings provide a reference for the prevention, mitigation and control of COVID-19 in other cities of the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemiological Models , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Environ Pollut ; 301: 119027, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700515

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 lockdown, atmospheric PM2.5 in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) showed the highest reduction in China, but the reasons, being a critical question for future air quality policy design, are not yet clear. In this study, we analyzed the relationships among gaseous precursors, secondary aerosols and atmospheric oxidation capacity in Shenzhen, a megacity in the PRD, during the lockdown period in 2020 and the same period in 2021. The comprehensive observational datasets showed large lockdown declines in all primary and secondary pollutants (including O3). We found that, however, the daytime concentrations of secondary aerosols during the lockdown period and normal period were rather similar when the corresponding odd oxygen (Ox≡O3+NO2, an indicator of photochemical processing avoiding the titration effect of O3 by freshly emitted NO) were at similar levels. Therefore, reduced Ox, rather than the large reduction in precursors, was a direct driver to achieve the decline in secondary aerosols. Moreover, Ox was also found to determine the spatial distribution of intercity PM2.5 levels in winter PRD. Thus, an effective strategy for winter PM2.5 mitigation should emphasize on control of winter O3 formation in the PRD and other regions with similar conditions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Ozone , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE : To study the clinical characteristics of patients infected with the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) responsible for coronavirus disease (COVID-2019). METHODS : Data were collected from 20 patients admitted to the Pidu District People ’ s Hospital in Chengdu from January 26, 2020 to March 1, 2020 with laboratory-confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infection. Clinical data were collected using the World Health Organization (WHO) nCoV CASE RECORDFORM Version 1.2 28JAN2020, which includes parameters such as: temperature, epidemiological characteristics, social network, history of exposure, and incubation period. If information was unclear, the team reviewed the original data and contacted patients directly if necessary. RESULTS : The median age of the 20 COVID-19 infected patients studied was 42.5 years. In this cohort, four patients became severely ill and one deteriorated rapidly during treatment. This patient was transferred to another medical center with an intensive care unit (ICU) for treatment. This patient died after admission to the ICU. Two of the twenty patients remained positive SARS-Cov-2 more than three weeks, and they were quarantined in a medical facility without medication. According to our analysis, all of the studied cases were infected by human-to-human transmission due to the lack of protective measures;transmission through contact within families requires confirmation. The most common symptoms at onset of illness were fever in 13 (65%) patients, cough in 9 (45%), headache in 3 (15%), fatigue in 6 (30%), diarrhea in 3 (15%), and abdominal pain in 2 (10%). Six patients (30%) developed shortness of breath upon admission. The median time from exposure to onset of illness was 6.5 days (interquartile range 3.25–9 days), and from the onset of symptoms to first hospital admission was 3.5 (1.25–7) days. CONCLUSION : Compared with patients infected with SARS-Cov-2 in Wuhan (up to the end of February 2020), the symptoms of patients in one hospital in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, were relatively mild and patients were discharged from the hospital after only a short stay. However, the fasting blood glucose of the infected individuals was found to be slightly elevated because of the state of emergency. The dynamic changes in lymphocyte levels can predict disease status of COVID-19. They are also suggestive of changes in mean platelet volume during disease progression. This suggests that the patients had mild cases of COVID-19. However, because there is no effective drug treatment for COVID-19, it is important to detect and identify severe cases from mild cases early.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318614

ABSTRACT

Excessive inflammatory responses induced upon SARS-CoV-2 infection interlocks with severe symptoms and acute lung injury in patients with Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Revealing the mechanism underlying the control of SARS-CoV-2-triggered immune-inflammatory responses would help us to understand the pathological process and guide clinical treatment. However, the effect of the NLRP3 inflammasome on regulating SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammatory responses has not been reported. Here, we revealed a distinct mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein promotes the NLRP3 inflammasome activation to induce hyperinflammation. We demonstrated that N protein facilitates the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 and induces proinflammatory responses in cultured cells and mice tissues. In team of molecular mechanism, N protein interacts directly with NLRP3 protein, promotes the binding of NLRP3 with ASC, and facilitates the assemble of the inflammasome complex. More importantly, N protein aggravates lung injury, accelerated death in sepsis and acute inflammation mouse models, and promotes IL-1β and IL-6 activation in mice. Notably, N-induced lung injury and cytokine production were blocked by Ac-YVAD-cmk, an inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Therefore, this study revealed a distinct mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 N protein promotes the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and induces excessive inflammatory responses.

13.
Results Phys ; 34: 105224, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655111

ABSTRACT

In New York City, the situation of COVID-19 is so serious that it has caused hundreds of thousands of people to be infected due to its strong infectivity. The desired effect of wearing masks by the public is not ideal, though increasingly recommended by the WHO. In order to reveal the potential effect of mask use, we posed a dynamical model with the effective coverage of wearing face masks to assess the impact of mask use on the COVID-19 transmission. We obtained the basic reproduction number R 0 which determined the global dynamics. According to the implement of policies in New York City, we divided the transmission of COVID-19 in three stages. Based on mathematical model and data, we obtain the mean value R 0 = 1 . 822 in the first stage of New York City, while R 0 = 0 . 6483 in the second stage due to that the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended the public wear masks on April 3, 2020, R 0 = 1 . 024 in the third stage after reopening. It was found that if the effective coverage rate of mask use α exceed a certain value α c = 0 . 182 , COVID-19 can be well controlled in the second stage of New York City. Additionally, when the effective coverage of masks reaches a certain level α = 0 . 5 , the benefits are not obvious with the increased coverage rate compared to the cost of medical resources. Moreover, if the effective coverage of mask use in public reaches 20% in the first stage, then the cumulative confirmed cases will be reduced about 50% by 03 April, 2020. Our results demonstrated a new insight on the effect of mask use in controlling the transmission of COVID-19.

14.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 845-848, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641979

ABSTRACT

We report acute antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 285 patients with COVID-19. Within 19 days after symptom onset, 100% of patients tested positive for antiviral immunoglobulin-G (IgG). Seroconversion for IgG and IgM occurred simultaneously or sequentially. Both IgG and IgM titers plateaued within 6 days after seroconversion. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Infect Dis Model ; 7(1): 212-230, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593254

ABSTRACT

Classical epidemiological models assume mass action. However, this assumption is violated when interactions are not random. With the recent COVID-19 pandemic, and resulting shelter in place social distancing directives, mass action models must be modified to account for limited social interactions. In this paper we apply a pairwise network model with moment closure to study the early transmission of COVID-19 in New York and San Francisco and to investigate the factors determining the severity and duration of outbreak in these two cities. In particular, we consider the role of population density, transmission rates and social distancing on the disease dynamics and outcomes. Sensitivity analysis shows that there is a strongly negative correlation between the clustering coefficient in the pairwise model and the basic reproduction number and the effective reproduction number. The shelter in place policy makes the clustering coefficient increase thereby reducing the basic reproduction number and the effective reproduction number. By switching population densities in New York and San Francisco we demonstrate how the outbreak would progress if New York had the same density as San Francisco and vice-versa. The results underscore the crucial role that population density has in the epidemic outcomes. We also show that under the assumption of no further changes in policy or transmission dynamics not lifting the shelter in place policy would have little effect on final outbreak size in New York, but would reduce the final size in San Francisco by 97%.

16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 438, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585880

ABSTRACT

Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine technology has shown its power in preventing the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Two mRNA vaccines targeting the full-length S protein of SARS-CoV-2 have been authorized for emergency use. Recently, we have developed a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated mRNA (mRNA-LNP) encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 (termed ARCoV), which confers complete protection in mouse model. Herein, we further characterized the protection efficacy of ARCoV in nonhuman primates and the long-term stability under normal refrigerator temperature. Intramuscular immunization of two doses of ARCoV elicited robust neutralizing antibodies as well as cellular response against SARS-CoV-2 in cynomolgus macaques. More importantly, ARCoV vaccination in macaques significantly protected animals from acute lung lesions caused by SARS-CoV-2, and viral replication in lungs and secretion in nasal swabs were completely cleared in all animals immunized with low or high doses of ARCoV. No evidence of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection was observed throughout the study. Finally, extensive stability assays showed that ARCoV can be stored at 2-8 °C for at least 6 months without decrease of immunogenicity. All these promising results strongly support the ongoing clinical trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , /pharmacology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Macaca fascicularis , Vero Cells , /immunology
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 813645, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581376

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.720357.].

18.
World J Psychiatry ; 11(11): 1106-1115, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that childhood exposure to domestic violence is a common factor in posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is unclear whether PTG and PTSD share a common/different underlying mechanism. AIM: To explore the common/different underlying mechanism of PTG and PTSD. METHODS: Between February 12 and 17, 2020, a nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China among 2038 university students, and a self-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. The data included demographic characteristics, such as age, gender, and subjective social economic status, and childhood exposure to domestic violence scale that was selected from the Chinese version of revised Adverse Childhood Experiences Question, Self-compassion Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and the Abbreviated PTSD Checklist-Civilian version. A structural equation model was used to test the hypotheses. RESULTS: Exposure to domestic violence was significantly associated with PTG and PTSD via a 1-step indirect path of self-compassion (PTG: ß = -0.023, 95%CI: -0.44 to -0.007; PTSD: ß = 0.008, 95%CI: 0.002, 0.014) and via a 2-step indirect path from self-compassion to resilience (PTG: ß = -0.008, 95%CI: -0.018 to -0.002; PTSD: ß = 0.013, 95%CI: 0.004-0.024). However, resilience did not mediate the relationship between exposure to domestic violence and PTG and PTSD. CONCLUSION: PTG and PTSD are common results of childhood exposure to domestic violence, which may be influenced by self-compassion and resilience.

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