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1.
Journal of Medical Virology ; 06:06, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173234

ABSTRACT

Global COVID-19 pandemics highlight the need of developing vaccines with universal and durable protection against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here we developed an extended-release vaccine delivery system (GP-diABZI-RBD), consisting the original SARS-CoV-2 WA1 strain receptor-binding domain (RBD) as the antigen and diABZI STING agonist in conjunction with yeast beta-glucan particles (GP-diABZI) as the platform. GP-diABZI-RBD could activate STING pathway and inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication. Compared to diABZI-RBD, intraperitoneal injection of GP-diABZI-RBD elicited robust cellular and humoral immune responses in mice. Using SARS-CoV-2 GFP/DELTAN transcription and replication-competent virus-like particle system (trVLP), we demonstrated that GP-diABZI-RBD-prototype vaccine exhibited the strongest and durable humoral immune responses and antiviral protection;whereas GP-diABZI-RBD-Omicron displayed minimum neutralization responses against trVLP. By using pseudotype virus (PsVs) neutralization assay, we found that GP-diABZI-RBD-Prototype, GP-diABZI-RBD-Delta, and GP-diABZI-RBD-Gamma immunized mice sera could efficiently neutralize Delta and Gamma PsVs, but had weak protection against Omicron PsVs. In contrast, GP-diABZI-RBD-Omicron immunized mice sera displayed the strongest neutralization response to Omicron PsVs. Taken Together, the results suggest that GP-diABZI can serve as a promising vaccine delivery system for enhancing durable humoral and cellular immunity against broad SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our study provides important scientific basis for developing SARS-COV-2 VOC-specific vaccines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Clin Transl Med ; 13(1):e1171, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2172838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is still devastating economies and communities globally. The increasing infections of variants of concern (VOCs) in vaccinated population have raised concerns about the effectiveness of current vaccines. Patients with autoimmune diseases (PAD) under immunosuppressant treatments are facing higher risk of infection and potentially lower immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from PAD or healthy controls (HC) who finished two or three doses of inactivated vaccines. Spike peptides derived from wild-type strain, delta, omicron BA.1 were utilised to evaluate T cell responses and their cross-recognition of delta and omicron in HC and PAD by flow cytometry and ex vivo IFNγ-ELISpot. RESULTS: We found that inactivated vaccine-induced spike-specific memory T cells were long-lasting in both PAD and HC. These spike-specific T cells were highly conserved and cross-recognized delta and omicron. Moreover, a third inactivated vaccine expanded spike-specific T cells that responded to delta and omicron spike peptides substantially in both PAD and HC. Importantly, the polyfunctionality of spike-specific memory T cells was preserved in terms of cytokine and cytotoxic responses. Although the extent of T cell responses was lower in PAD after two-dose, T cell responses were boosted to a greater magnitude in PAD by the third dose, bringing comparable spike-specific T cell immunity after the third dose. CONCLUSION: Inactivated vaccine-induced spike-specific T cells remain largely intact against delta and omicron variants. This study expands our understanding of inactivated vaccine-induced T cell responses in PAD and HC, which could have important indications for vaccination strategy.

3.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10:1023022, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199496

ABSTRACT

"Re-visits and drug renewal" is difficult for chronic disease patients during COVID-19 and will continue in the post-pandemic era. To overcome this dilemma, the scenario of chronic disease diagnosis and treatment systems was set, and an evolutionary game model participated by four stakeholder groups including physical medical institutions, medical service platforms, intelligent medical device providers, and chronic disease patients, was established. Ten possible evolutionary stabilization strategies (ESSs) with their mandatory conditions were found based on Lyapunov's first method. Taking cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, the top 1 prevalent chronic disease, as a specific case context, and resorting to the MATLAB simulation, it is confirmed that several dual ESSs and four unique ESS circumstances exist, respectively, and the evolution direction is determined by initial conditions, while the evolution speed is determined by the values of the conditions based on the quantitative relations of benefits, costs, etc. Accordingly, four governance mechanisms were proposed. By their adjustment, the conditions along with their values can be interfered, and then the chronic disease diagnosis and treatment systems can be guided toward the desired direction, that is, toward the direction of countermeasure against the pandemic, government guidance, global trends of medical industry development, social welfare, and lifestyle innovation. The dilemma of "Re-visits and drug renewal" actually reflects the uneven distribution problem of qualified medical resources and the poor impact resistance capability of social medical service systems under mass public emergency. Human lifestyle even the way of working all over the world will get a spiral upgrade after experiencing COVID-19, such as consumption, and meeting, while medical habits react not so rapidly, especially for mid or aged chronic disease patients. We believe that telemedicine empowered by intelligent medical devices can benefit them and will be a global trend, governments and the four key stakeholders should act according to the governance mechanisms suggested here simultaneously toward novel social medical ecosystems for the post-pandemic era.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 161609, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2183118

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 has resulted in a great increase in the use of H(2)O(2) disinfectant, which is listed as one of the commonly used disinfectants for COVID-19 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, excessive use of H(2)O(2) disinfectant can threaten human health and damage the water environment. Therefore, it's of great importance to detect H(2)O(2) in aquatic environments and biological systems. Herein, we proposed a novel ESIPT ratio fluorescent probe (named probe 1) for detecting H(2)O(2) in water environment and biosystems. Probe 1 emits blue fluorescence as the introduction of the phenylboronic acid disrupts the ESIPT process. After reacting with H(2)O(2), the phenylboronic acid is oxidatively removed, and the ESIPT process is restored, which makes the fluorescence emission wavelength red-shifted. Probe 1 exhibited a short response time, high sensitivity, and a large Stokes shift to H(2)O(2). Importantly, it has been successfully used to detect H(2)O(2) not only in actual water samples, but also endogenous and exogenous H(2)O(2) in living cells. The characteristics of probe 1 have a wide range of applications in environmental and biological systems.

5.
Computers & Industrial Engineering ; 175, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2177519

ABSTRACT

Currently, the global spread of COVID-19 is taking a heavy toll on the lives of the global population. There is an urgent need to improve and strengthen the coordination of vaccine supply chains in response to this severe pandemic. In this study, we consider a vaccine supply chain based on a combination of artificial intelligence and blockchain technologies and model the supply chain as a two-player dynamic game with inventory level as the dynamic equation of the system. The study focuses on the applicability and effectiveness of the two technologies in the vaccine supply chain and provides management insights. The impact of the application of the technologies on environmental performance is also considered in the model. We also examine factors such as the number of people vaccinated, positive and side effects of vaccines, vaccine decay rate, revenue-sharing/cost-sharing ratio, and commission ratio. The results are as follows: the correlation between the difficulty in obtaining certified vaccines and the profit of a vaccine manufacturer is not monotonous;the vaccine manufacturer is more sensitive to changes in the vaccine attenuation rate. The study's major conclusions are as follows: First, the vaccine supply chain should estimate the level of consumers' difficulty in obtaining a certified vaccine source and the magnitude of the production planning and demand forecasting error terms before adopting the two technologies. Second, the application of artificial intelligence (AI) technology is meaningful in the vaccine supply chain when the error terms satisfy a particular interval condition.

6.
Front Psychol ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2163101

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the impact of "Internet Plus Health Education” on coping with care burden and pressure in urinary stoma caregivers in the era of COVID-19. Materials and methods: Eighty caregivers of patients with urinary ostomy were equally randomized to experimental and control groups. Caregivers in the experimental group received digital nursing education intervention, which involved nursing intervention of Internet Plus Health Education (IPHE), and those in the control group received conventional care instructions. Six months later, care burden and emotional pressure were assessed in all caregivers using the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZBI) and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). Results: Before the intervention, the ZBI and SCSQ scores were comparable between both groups (p > 0.05). After the intervention, the ZBI scores in the experimental group were significantly higher than in the control group and vice versa for SCSQ scores (p < 0.01). Furthermore, after the intervention, the family care satisfaction scale (FCSS) of the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: Providing "Internet Plus Health Education” to urinary stoma caregivers can reduce their care burden and enhance their pressure-coping ability in the COVID-19 era.

7.
JAMA Internal Medicine ; 05:05, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2148210

ABSTRACT

Importance: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been calls for COVID-19 clinical trials to be fully representative of all demographic groups. However, limited evidence is available about the sex, racial, and ethnic representation among COVID-19 prevention and treatment trials.

8.
14th International Conference on Digital Image Processing, ICDIP 2022 ; 12342, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2137324

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 and its variants have been posing a large risk to people around the world since the outbreak of the disease. Many techniques like AI are explored to help combat epidemics. People are required or forced to wear a mask to fight against COVID-19 epidemics worldwide. It brings new challenges to the task of masked facial region recognition. When facial regions are occluded by masks, it will result in some failures of face detection algorithms. In this paper, we propose a method to recognize masked faces. It mainly includes three parts. Firstly, the human pose is estimated to produce a series of key points. It is implemented by OpenPose. Secondly, a key-points location strategy is designed to capture the masked facial regions. It can locate the positions of faces accurately. Thirdly, the broad learning system, which is also an incremental learning algorithm, is employed to recognize the classes of candidate regions. Experiments conducted on some datasets shed light on the effectiveness of the proposed method. © 2022 SPIE.

9.
Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research ; 27(9):954-966, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2134278

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic created a strong urgency for the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in the tourism and hospitality industry. This paper was set to develop a scale of AI needs in health tourism. A total of 556 valid data were collected, and both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were employed to analyze the data. Six constructs containing 18 items were identified, and the reliability and validity were examined to reach satisfactory levels. The measurement scale developed may serve as a foundation for future research, and shed light on tourism managers, marketers, AI designers and policymakers.

10.
Scientia Sinica Chimica ; 52(9):1685-1698, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2140343

ABSTRACT

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR-Cas) systems have advanced rapidly for the detection of nucleic acids and molecular diagnoses. The sensitivity of techniques directly using CRISPR-Cas systems for target recognition and signal generation is limited by the kinetics of trans-cleavage. Thus, CRISPR-Cas systems have been coupled with isothermal amplification techniques. One strategy for integrating CRISPR-Cas and amplification reactions into a single-tube is to place reagents in separate locations within the tube, maintaining optimum conditions for each reaction. A more challenging strategy is to mix all reagents and allow nucleic acid amplification and CRISPR-based detection to proceed in a homogeneous solution. This desirable approach requires substantial understanding of the compatibility of enzymatic reactions, systematic optimization, and appropriate adjustments of the integrated reactions to ensure high sensitivity. Ultrasensitive techniques have been developed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in single-tubes. In this review, we highlight the principle, research needs, and challenges of ultrasensitive single-tube RNA detection using CRISPR technology. We stress the importance of understanding the kinetics of trans-cleavage activity of CRISPR-Cas systems. © 2022 Scientia Sinica Chimica. All rights reserved.

11.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 14(18), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055362

ABSTRACT

In 2020, COVID-19 swept across the globe. To reduce the social harms caused by this public health event, nonprofit organizations (NPOs) cooperated with medical enterprises to produce reserves of emergency medical supplies. In practice, this cooperation was challenged by the different goals of NPOs and medical enterprises and the asymmetry of information between these parties. Enterprises are prone to irregularities or speculative behaviors that can result in insufficient production capacity during public health events, which increase disaster risks. Based on the principal–agent relationship of NPOs and enterprises, this study analyzed a game model between NPOs and enterprises under information asymmetry;constructed an incentive model for reserve emergency medical supply production capacity;and solved the optimal reward and punishment coefficients of NPOs, optimal effort level of enterprises, and benefits of disaster reduction. The study also verified the validity of the model using numerical examples and a sensitivity analysis. In taking up the findings of the study, this paper discusses the effects of several important exogenous variables on the optimal decision strategies of NPOs and enterprises and offers management-related insights for NPOs. © 2022 by the authors.

12.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055007

ABSTRACT

Household consumption induces aggregated economic activities by pushing market demand, capital accumulation and financial growth in the economy;on the other hand, instability in household consumption adversely affects the overall economic progress. Thus, exploring the key determinants responsible for household consumption instability is essential. The motivation of the study is to gauge the role of pandemic uncertainties and remittance inflow on household consumption in lower, Lower-middle, and Upper-Middle-income Countries for the period 1996 to 2020. The study employed several econometrical tools, including a panel cointegration test with the error correction term, dynamic SUR. The panel unit root test following CADF and CIPS documented variables are stationary after the first difference, and long-run associations are confirmed with the panel cointegration test. The coefficient of Dynamic Seemingly Unrelated Regression exposed pandemic uncertainties and has a negative impact on household consumption in all three-panel estimations;however, the coefficient of PUI is more prominent with COVID-19 effects. Remittances’ role in household consumption was positive and statistically significant, suggesting migrant remittances encourage additional consumption among households. On the policy aspect, the study proposed that the government should undertake macro policies to manage policy uncertainties so that the normal course of consumption level should not be interrupted because household consumption volatility creates discomfort in aggregated development. Moreover, efficient reallocation and remittance channels should be ensured in the economy;therefore, efficient institutional development has to be confirmed. Copyright © 2022 Yin, Qamruzzaman, Xiao, Mehta, Naqvi and Baig.

13.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018961

ABSTRACT

At present, COVID-19 is still spreading and affecting millions of people worldwide. Minimizing the need for travel can significantly reduce the probability of infection and improve patients’quality of life. The wireless body area network (WBAN) transmits the patients’physiological data to the doctor remotely through the sensors in a way that minimizes physical contact with others. However, existing WBAN security authentication schemes have core limitation that includes weak authentication performance and over-consumption of resources that precludes their widespread adoption in practical applications. Therefore, in this paper, an enhanced dual-factor authentication system that address the mentioned drawbacks is proposed for securing WBAN resources. By combining iris and electrocardiogram (ECG) features, users would be required to pass the first-level iris authentication before performing the second-level ECG authentication, thus enhancing the overall security scheme of a WBAN system. Furthermore, we examined the existing Inter-Pulse-Intervals (IPI) encoding methods and propose a more efficient ECG IPI encoding algorithm which can effectively shorten the encoding time without affecting the overall encoding performance. Finally, extensive experiments were performed to verify the performance of the proposed dual-factor iris and ECG based WBAN authentication system using public iris and ECG databases. The experimental results show that the false acceptance rate (FAR) is close to 0.0% and the false rejection rate (FRR) is close to 3.2%. Findings from this study suggest that the proposed dual-factor authentication scheme could aid adequate deployment of security schemes to protect WBAN resources in practical applications. IEEE

14.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 44(8):1637-1643, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1912084

ABSTRACT

The emerging master protocol clinical research model has the advantages of accelerating drug development and shortening the development time, but it is also difficult. To solve the difficulties of sponsors of master protocols of drugs for the treatment or prevention of COVID-19, American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued COVID-19: Master Protocols Evaluating Drugs and Biological Products for Treatment or Prevention Guidance in May 2021. It has put forward many suggestions on the design, conduct, and statistics of the master rotocols of COVID-19 drugs. This paper introduces the FDA's guidance in detail. It is hoped that it will be helpful for China to carry out the research and supervision in this field, and also enlighten us to formulate similar guidance according to the national conditions. © 2021 Drug Evaluation Research. All Rights Reserved.

15.
Visual Computer ; : 14, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1694592

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has spread worldwide and the healthcare system is in crisis. Accurate, automated and rapid segmentation of COVID-19 lesion in computed tomography (CT) images can help doctors diagnose and provide prognostic information. However, the variety of lesions and small regions of early lesion complicate their segmentation. To solve these problems, we propose a new SAUNet++ model with squeeze excitation residual (SER) module and atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP) module. The SER module can assign more weights to more important channels and mitigate the problem of gradient disappearance;the ASPP module can obtain context information by atrous convolution using various sampling rates. In addition, the generalized dice loss (GDL) can reduce the correlation between lesion size and dice loss, and is introduced to solve the problem of small regions segmentation of COVID-19 lesion. We collected multinational CT scan data from China, Italy and Russia and conducted extensive comparative and ablation studies. The experimental results demonstrated that our method outperforms state-of-the-art models and can effectively improve the accuracy of COVID-19 lesion segmentation on the dice similarity coefficient (our: 87.38% vs. U-Net++: 84.25%), sensitivity (our: 93.28% vs. U-Net++: 89.85%) and Hausdorff distance (our: 19.99 mm vs. U-Net++: 26.79 mm), respectively.

16.
Ieee Internet of Things Journal ; 8(21):15829-15838, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1570228

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of the COVID-19 pandemic has threatened the lives of people around the world. Many people were caught in anxiety and panic, which also prevents people from fully concentrating on their normal lives. However, the current common neurofeedback therapies used to solve the problem of lack of attention cannot fully deal with the differences in each individual. In addition, direct contact between the patient and the doctor also increases the risk of virus transmission during treatment. This article combines neurofeedback and IoT to establish an adaptive attention adjustment method. IoT connects patients and doctors remotely, reducing the direct contact between them. In order to adapt to individual differences, the feedback indicators of each individual are individually calibrated. In addition, the proportional, integral, and derivative controller was used to adjust the difficulty of the feedback task to adapt to each individual's self-regulation ability and provide the individual with a higher level of regulation. We also designed adaptive attention adjustment experiments for different individuals. The results show that through adaptive feedback training, the individual's feedback indicator has dropped by 77.90%, and the individual can adjust his attention state to the individual's optimal baseline threshold, and the oscillation error gradually reduces to the expected threshold range. This method can cope with the differences between different individuals and provide each individual with the same level of feedback regulation. In the future, this study may provide a general adjuvant treatment for other mental illnesses.

17.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(8): 1016-1021, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377014

ABSTRACT

The continuously spreading of SARS-CoV-2 poses a threat not only to public health but also to all aspects of socio-economics. Current public health measures are costly and have potential health risks, thus, it is imminent that developing efficient and economical early warning surreillance tools from a public health perspective. In this review, we summarized the current COVID-19 epidemiological surveillance measures and the efficiency, economic, and cutting edge of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE). The WBE-based surveillance is organized and reviewed from three aspects: early warning system for the timing of epidemic, routine epidemic surveillance, and parameters determination of predicting epidemiological models of COVID-19. It reveals the application value of WBE as an early warning and surveillance system of public health, and then, discussing its current weakness and strength, adding literature for a WBE-based surveillance system for COVID-19 epidemic in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
18.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 39(15 SUPPL), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1339174

ABSTRACT

Background: Documenting GOC is integral to patient care and quality performance but has been underutilized by oncologists due to many barriers. As oncologists play a key role in initiating GOC discussions, we implemented a clinical initiative to improve their GOC documentation and evaluated the impact of such documentation on patient care during the EOL (last 30 days of life). Methods: We launched the initiative among 270 medical oncologists in an academic cancer center in 4/2020. A newly formulated GOC note to ease documentation was embedded in oncology outpatient and inpatient notes. Oncologists completed components in the GOC note that applied to their communication about GOC with the patient: 1) cancer natural history, 2) patient goals, and 3) EOL discussion: patient resuscitation preferences and, when pertinent, receptivity to hospice referral. GOC notes were pulled to a centralized location in the electronic health record (EHR) that displays documents relevant to patients' values, goals and preferences. A dashboard allowed continual monitoring of documentation performance. We evaluated the association between GOC notes and outcomes of patient care at EOL. We further analyzed the impact of EOL discussion on EOL care. Results: The GOC note completion rate steadily rose after implementation. GOC notes were present in EHR for 46% of 10,006 patients who were either seen in outpatient clinic or discharged from hospital during the 1 week of January 2021. Among 1790 patients who died between 7/1/20 and 12/31/20 and had either at least an outpatient visit or hospitalization during EOL, the median days from first GOC note and first EOL discussion to the patient's death were 71 days and 24 days, respectively. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that patients who had GOC note 60 days before death spent less time as inpatient during EOL (0.4 day less/patient, from 8.1 to 7.7, P = 0.01). When EOL discussion was documented 30 days before death, patients also spent less time in the hospital (1.2 days less/patient, from 9.7 to 8.5, P < 0.001) and in the ICU (0.3 days less/patient, from 1.7 to 1.4 ICU days, P = 0.04), and were 4% less likely to receive chemotherapy (from 38% to 34%, P = 0.004) at EOL. During the same period, among 1,009 patients with hospital admission in the last 30 days of life, those with a prior documented EOL discussion had shorter inpatient stay (7.7 vs 13.1 days, P < 0.001) and were more likely to be discharged to hospice (34% vs 22%, P = 0.003). Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, we successfully implemented GOC documentation by medical oncologists that is easily visible by the full care team. Documentation of GOC including EOL discussion was associated with fewer days in the hospital and ICU, increased hospice referral, and lower likelihood of receiving chemotherapy during patients' last 30 days of life.

19.
International Journal of Hospitality Management ; 97, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1275357

ABSTRACT

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) contributions are essential for hospitality companies during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known about how CSR contribution timing during the pandemic might affect consumers’ prepayment purchase intentions. This paper takes a hospitality company as an example, using two experiments to explore (a) the effect of CSR contribution timing on consumers’ prepayment purchase intentions and (b) the potential roles of psychological contracts and distance to the COVID-19 risk center. Study 1 demonstrated that CSR contributions during the COVID-19 outbreak (vs. after its peak) led consumers to have higher prepayment purchase intentions, revealing the impact of CSR contribution timing. This effect was also driven by psychological contracts between consumers and the hospitality company. Study 2 showed that, when participants were in the peripheral area of a COVID-19 outbreak, CSR contributions during the outbreak (vs. after its peak) increased prepayment purchase intentions whereas the opposite effect occurred when consumers were in the risk center. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

20.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(4):14, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208951

ABSTRACT

Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious new worldwide public health crisis with significant morbidity and mortality, effective therapeutic treatments are urgently needed. Drug repurposing is an efficient and cost-effective strategy with minimum risk for identifying novel potential treatment options by repositioning therapies that were previously approved for other clinical outcomes. Here, we used an integrated network-based pharmacologic and transcriptomic approach to screen drug candidates novel for COVID-19 treatment. Network-based proximity scores were calculated to identify the drug-disease pharmacological effect between drug-target relationship modules and COVID-19 related genes. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was then performed to determine whether drug candidates influence the expression of COVID-19 related genes and examine the sensitivity of the repurposing drug treatment to peripheral immune cell types. Moreover, we used the complementary exposure model to recommend potential synergistic drug combinations. We identified 18 individual drug candidates including nicardipine, orantinib, tipifarnib and promethazine which have not previously been proposed as possible treatments for COVID-19. Additionally, 30 synergistic drug pairs were ultimately recommended including fostamatinib plus tretinoin and orantinib plus valproic acid. Differential expression genes of most repurposing drugs were enriched significantly in B cells. The findings may potentially accelerate the discovery and establishment of an effective therapeutic treatment plan for COVID-19 patients.

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